2The intent of this file is to give a brief summary of hugetlbpage support in
   3the Linux kernel.  This support is built on top of multiple page size support
   4that is provided by most modern architectures.  For example, i386
   5architecture supports 4K and 4M (2M in PAE mode) page sizes, ia64
   6architecture supports multiple page sizes 4K, 8K, 64K, 256K, 1M, 4M, 16M,
   7256M and ppc64 supports 4K and 16M.  A TLB is a cache of virtual-to-physical
   8translations.  Typically this is a very scarce resource on processor.
   9Operating systems try to make best use of limited number of TLB resources.
  10This optimization is more critical now as bigger and bigger physical memories
  11(several GBs) are more readily available.
  13Users can use the huge page support in Linux kernel by either using the mmap
  14system call or standard SYSV shared memory system calls (shmget, shmat).
  16First the Linux kernel needs to be built with the CONFIG_HUGETLBFS
  17(present under "File systems") and CONFIG_HUGETLB_PAGE (selected
  18automatically when CONFIG_HUGETLBFS is selected) configuration
  21The /proc/meminfo file provides information about the total number of
  22persistent hugetlb pages in the kernel's huge page pool.  It also displays
  23information about the number of free, reserved and surplus huge pages and the
  24default huge page size.  The huge page size is needed for generating the
  25proper alignment and size of the arguments to system calls that map huge page
  28The output of "cat /proc/meminfo" will include lines like:
  31HugePages_Total: vvv
  32HugePages_Free:  www
  33HugePages_Rsvd:  xxx
  34HugePages_Surp:  yyy
  35Hugepagesize:    zzz kB
  38HugePages_Total is the size of the pool of huge pages.
  39HugePages_Free  is the number of huge pages in the pool that are not yet
  40                allocated.
  41HugePages_Rsvd  is short for "reserved," and is the number of huge pages for
  42                which a commitment to allocate from the pool has been made,
  43                but no allocation has yet been made.  Reserved huge pages
  44                guarantee that an application will be able to allocate a
  45                huge page from the pool of huge pages at fault time.
  46HugePages_Surp  is short for "surplus," and is the number of huge pages in
  47                the pool above the value in /proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages. The
  48                maximum number of surplus huge pages is controlled by
  49                /proc/sys/vm/nr_overcommit_hugepages.
  51/proc/filesystems should also show a filesystem of type "hugetlbfs" configured
  52in the kernel.
  54/proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages indicates the current number of "persistent" huge
  55pages in the kernel's huge page pool.  "Persistent" huge pages will be
  56returned to the huge page pool when freed by a task.  A user with root
  57privileges can dynamically allocate more or free some persistent huge pages
  58by increasing or decreasing the value of 'nr_hugepages'.
  60Pages that are used as huge pages are reserved inside the kernel and cannot
  61be used for other purposes.  Huge pages cannot be swapped out under
  62memory pressure.
  64Once a number of huge pages have been pre-allocated to the kernel huge page
  65pool, a user with appropriate privilege can use either the mmap system call
  66or shared memory system calls to use the huge pages.  See the discussion of
  67Using Huge Pages, below.
  69The administrator can allocate persistent huge pages on the kernel boot
  70command line by specifying the "hugepages=N" parameter, where 'N' = the
  71number of huge pages requested.  This is the most reliable method of
  72allocating huge pages as memory has not yet become fragmented.
  74Some platforms support multiple huge page sizes.  To allocate huge pages
  75of a specific size, one must precede the huge pages boot command parameters
  76with a huge page size selection parameter "hugepagesz=<size>".  <size> must
  77be specified in bytes with optional scale suffix [kKmMgG].  The default huge
  78page size may be selected with the "default_hugepagesz=<size>" boot parameter.
  80When multiple huge page sizes are supported, /proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages
  81indicates the current number of pre-allocated huge pages of the default size.
  82Thus, one can use the following command to dynamically allocate/deallocate
  83default sized persistent huge pages:
  85        echo 20 > /proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages
  87This command will try to adjust the number of default sized huge pages in the
  88huge page pool to 20, allocating or freeing huge pages, as required.
  90On a NUMA platform, the kernel will attempt to distribute the huge page pool
  91over all the set of allowed nodes specified by the NUMA memory policy of the
  92task that modifies nr_hugepages.  The default for the allowed nodes--when the
  93task has default memory policy--is all on-line nodes with memory.  Allowed
  94nodes with insufficient available, contiguous memory for a huge page will be
  95silently skipped when allocating persistent huge pages.  See the discussion
  96below of the interaction of task memory policy, cpusets and per node attributes
  97with the allocation and freeing of persistent huge pages.
  99The success or failure of huge page allocation depends on the amount of
 100physically contiguous memory that is present in system at the time of the
 101allocation attempt.  If the kernel is unable to allocate huge pages from
 102some nodes in a NUMA system, it will attempt to make up the difference by
 103allocating extra pages on other nodes with sufficient available contiguous
 104memory, if any.
 106System administrators may want to put this command in one of the local rc
 107init files.  This will enable the kernel to allocate huge pages early in
 108the boot process when the possibility of getting physical contiguous pages
 109is still very high.  Administrators can verify the number of huge pages
 110actually allocated by checking the sysctl or meminfo.  To check the per node
 111distribution of huge pages in a NUMA system, use:
 113        cat /sys/devices/system/node/node*/meminfo | fgrep Huge
 115/proc/sys/vm/nr_overcommit_hugepages specifies how large the pool of
 116huge pages can grow, if more huge pages than /proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages are
 117requested by applications.  Writing any non-zero value into this file
 118indicates that the hugetlb subsystem is allowed to try to obtain that
 119number of "surplus" huge pages from the kernel's normal page pool, when the
 120persistent huge page pool is exhausted. As these surplus huge pages become
 121unused, they are freed back to the kernel's normal page pool.
 123When increasing the huge page pool size via nr_hugepages, any existing surplus
 124pages will first be promoted to persistent huge pages.  Then, additional
 125huge pages will be allocated, if necessary and if possible, to fulfill
 126the new persistent huge page pool size.
 128The administrator may shrink the pool of persistent huge pages for
 129the default huge page size by setting the nr_hugepages sysctl to a
 130smaller value.  The kernel will attempt to balance the freeing of huge pages
 131across all nodes in the memory policy of the task modifying nr_hugepages.
 132Any free huge pages on the selected nodes will be freed back to the kernel's
 133normal page pool.
 135Caveat: Shrinking the persistent huge page pool via nr_hugepages such that
 136it becomes less than the number of huge pages in use will convert the balance
 137of the in-use huge pages to surplus huge pages.  This will occur even if
 138the number of surplus pages it would exceed the overcommit value.  As long as
 139this condition holds--that is, until nr_hugepages+nr_overcommit_hugepages is
 140increased sufficiently, or the surplus huge pages go out of use and are freed--
 141no more surplus huge pages will be allowed to be allocated.
 143With support for multiple huge page pools at run-time available, much of
 144the huge page userspace interface in /proc/sys/vm has been duplicated in sysfs.
 145The /proc interfaces discussed above have been retained for backwards
 146compatibility. The root huge page control directory in sysfs is:
 148        /sys/kernel/mm/hugepages
 150For each huge page size supported by the running kernel, a subdirectory
 151will exist, of the form:
 153        hugepages-${size}kB
 155Inside each of these directories, the same set of files will exist:
 157        nr_hugepages
 158        nr_hugepages_mempolicy
 159        nr_overcommit_hugepages
 160        free_hugepages
 161        resv_hugepages
 162        surplus_hugepages
 164which function as described above for the default huge page-sized case.
 167Interaction of Task Memory Policy with Huge Page Allocation/Freeing
 169Whether huge pages are allocated and freed via the /proc interface or
 170the /sysfs interface using the nr_hugepages_mempolicy attribute, the NUMA
 171nodes from which huge pages are allocated or freed are controlled by the
 172NUMA memory policy of the task that modifies the nr_hugepages_mempolicy
 173sysctl or attribute.  When the nr_hugepages attribute is used, mempolicy
 174is ignored.
 176The recommended method to allocate or free huge pages to/from the kernel
 177huge page pool, using the nr_hugepages example above, is:
 179    numactl --interleave <node-list> echo 20 \
 180                                >/proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages_mempolicy
 182or, more succinctly:
 184    numactl -m <node-list> echo 20 >/proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages_mempolicy
 186This will allocate or free abs(20 - nr_hugepages) to or from the nodes
 187specified in <node-list>, depending on whether number of persistent huge pages
 188is initially less than or greater than 20, respectively.  No huge pages will be
 189allocated nor freed on any node not included in the specified <node-list>.
 191When adjusting the persistent hugepage count via nr_hugepages_mempolicy, any
 192memory policy mode--bind, preferred, local or interleave--may be used.  The
 193resulting effect on persistent huge page allocation is as follows:
 1951) Regardless of mempolicy mode [see Documentation/vm/numa_memory_policy.txt],
 196   persistent huge pages will be distributed across the node or nodes
 197   specified in the mempolicy as if "interleave" had been specified.
 198   However, if a node in the policy does not contain sufficient contiguous
 199   memory for a huge page, the allocation will not "fallback" to the nearest
 200   neighbor node with sufficient contiguous memory.  To do this would cause
 201   undesirable imbalance in the distribution of the huge page pool, or
 202   possibly, allocation of persistent huge pages on nodes not allowed by
 203   the task's memory policy.
 2052) One or more nodes may be specified with the bind or interleave policy.
 206   If more than one node is specified with the preferred policy, only the
 207   lowest numeric id will be used.  Local policy will select the node where
 208   the task is running at the time the nodes_allowed mask is constructed.
 209   For local policy to be deterministic, the task must be bound to a cpu or
 210   cpus in a single node.  Otherwise, the task could be migrated to some
 211   other node at any time after launch and the resulting node will be
 212   indeterminate.  Thus, local policy is not very useful for this purpose.
 213   Any of the other mempolicy modes may be used to specify a single node.
 2153) The nodes allowed mask will be derived from any non-default task mempolicy,
 216   whether this policy was set explicitly by the task itself or one of its
 217   ancestors, such as numactl.  This means that if the task is invoked from a
 218   shell with non-default policy, that policy will be used.  One can specify a
 219   node list of "all" with numactl --interleave or --membind [-m] to achieve
 220   interleaving over all nodes in the system or cpuset.
 2224) Any task mempolicy specifed--e.g., using numactl--will be constrained by
 223   the resource limits of any cpuset in which the task runs.  Thus, there will
 224   be no way for a task with non-default policy running in a cpuset with a
 225   subset of the system nodes to allocate huge pages outside the cpuset
 226   without first moving to a cpuset that contains all of the desired nodes.
 2285) Boot-time huge page allocation attempts to distribute the requested number
 229   of huge pages over all on-lines nodes with memory.
 231Per Node Hugepages Attributes
 233A subset of the contents of the root huge page control directory in sysfs,
 234described above, will be replicated under each the system device of each
 235NUMA node with memory in:
 237        /sys/devices/system/node/node[0-9]*/hugepages/
 239Under this directory, the subdirectory for each supported huge page size
 240contains the following attribute files:
 242        nr_hugepages
 243        free_hugepages
 244        surplus_hugepages
 246The free_' and surplus_' attribute files are read-only.  They return the number
 247of free and surplus [overcommitted] huge pages, respectively, on the parent
 250The nr_hugepages attribute returns the total number of huge pages on the
 251specified node.  When this attribute is written, the number of persistent huge
 252pages on the parent node will be adjusted to the specified value, if sufficient
 253resources exist, regardless of the task's mempolicy or cpuset constraints.
 255Note that the number of overcommit and reserve pages remain global quantities,
 256as we don't know until fault time, when the faulting task's mempolicy is
 257applied, from which node the huge page allocation will be attempted.
 260Using Huge Pages
 262If the user applications are going to request huge pages using mmap system
 263call, then it is required that system administrator mount a file system of
 264type hugetlbfs:
 266  mount -t hugetlbfs \
 267        -o uid=<value>,gid=<value>,mode=<value>,size=<value>,nr_inodes=<value> \
 268        none /mnt/huge
 270This command mounts a (pseudo) filesystem of type hugetlbfs on the directory
 271/mnt/huge.  Any files created on /mnt/huge uses huge pages.  The uid and gid
 272options sets the owner and group of the root of the file system.  By default
 273the uid and gid of the current process are taken.  The mode option sets the
 274mode of root of file system to value & 0777.  This value is given in octal.
 275By default the value 0755 is picked. The size option sets the maximum value of
 276memory (huge pages) allowed for that filesystem (/mnt/huge). The size is
 277rounded down to HPAGE_SIZE.  The option nr_inodes sets the maximum number of
 278inodes that /mnt/huge can use.  If the size or nr_inodes option is not
 279provided on command line then no limits are set.  For size and nr_inodes
 280options, you can use [G|g]/[M|m]/[K|k] to represent giga/mega/kilo. For
 281example, size=2K has the same meaning as size=2048.
 283While read system calls are supported on files that reside on hugetlb
 284file systems, write system calls are not.
 286Regular chown, chgrp, and chmod commands (with right permissions) could be
 287used to change the file attributes on hugetlbfs.
 289Also, it is important to note that no such mount command is required if the
 290applications are going to use only shmat/shmget system calls or mmap with
 291MAP_HUGETLB.  Users who wish to use hugetlb page via shared memory segment
 292should be a member of a supplementary group and system admin needs to
 293configure that gid into /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group.  It is possible for
 294same or different applications to use any combination of mmaps and shm*
 295calls, though the mount of filesystem will be required for using mmap calls
 296without MAP_HUGETLB.  For an example of how to use mmap with MAP_HUGETLB see
 302 * map_hugetlb: see tools/testing/selftests/vm/map_hugetlb.c
 303 */
 308 * hugepage-shm:  see tools/testing/selftests/vm/hugepage-shm.c
 309 */
 314 * hugepage-mmap:  see tools/testing/selftests/vm/hugepage-mmap.c
 315 */