1                             SCSI FC Tansport
   2                 =============================================
   4Date:  4/12/2007
   5Kernel Revisions for features:
   6  rports : <<TBS>>
   7  vports : 2.6.22 (? TBD)
  12This file documents the features and components of the SCSI FC Transport.
  13It also provides documents the API between the transport and FC LLDDs.
  14The FC transport can be found at:
  15  drivers/scsi/scsi_transport_fc.c
  16  include/scsi/scsi_transport_fc.h
  17  include/scsi/scsi_netlink_fc.h
  19This file is found at Documentation/scsi/scsi_fc_transport.txt
  22FC Remote Ports (rports)
  24<< To Be Supplied >>
  27FC Virtual Ports (vports)
  33  New FC standards have defined mechanisms which allows for a single physical
  34  port to appear on as multiple communication ports. Using the N_Port Id
  35  Virtualization (NPIV) mechanism, a point-to-point connection to a Fabric
  36  can be assigned more than 1 N_Port_ID.  Each N_Port_ID appears as a
  37  separate port to other endpoints on the fabric, even though it shares one
  38  physical link to the switch for communication. Each N_Port_ID can have a
  39  unique view of the fabric based on fabric zoning and array lun-masking
  40  (just like a normal non-NPIV adapter).  Using the Virtual Fabric (VF)
  41  mechanism, adding a fabric header to each frame allows the port to
  42  interact with the Fabric Port to join multiple fabrics. The port will
  43  obtain an N_Port_ID on each fabric it joins. Each fabric will have its
  44  own unique view of endpoints and configuration parameters.  NPIV may be
  45  used together with VF so that the port can obtain multiple N_Port_IDs
  46  on each virtual fabric.
  48  The FC transport is now recognizing a new object - a vport.  A vport is
  49  an entity that has a world-wide unique World Wide Port Name (wwpn) and
  50  World Wide Node Name (wwnn). The transport also allows for the FC4's to
  51  be specified for the vport, with FCP_Initiator being the primary role
  52  expected. Once instantiated by one of the above methods, it will have a
  53  distinct N_Port_ID and view of fabric endpoints and storage entities.
  54  The fc_host associated with the physical adapter will export the ability
  55  to create vports. The transport will create the vport object within the
  56  Linux device tree, and instruct the fc_host's driver to instantiate the
  57  virtual port. Typically, the driver will create a new scsi_host instance
  58  on the vport, resulting in a unique <H,C,T,L> namespace for the vport.
  59  Thus, whether a FC port is based on a physical port or on a virtual port,
  60  each will appear as a unique scsi_host with its own target and lun space.
  62  Note: At this time, the transport is written to create only NPIV-based
  63    vports. However, consideration was given to VF-based vports and it
  64    should be a minor change to add support if needed.  The remaining
  65    discussion will concentrate on NPIV.
  67  Note: World Wide Name assignment (and uniqueness guarantees) are left
  68    up to an administrative entity controlling the vport. For example,
  69    if vports are to be associated with virtual machines, a XEN mgmt
  70    utility would be responsible for creating wwpn/wwnn's for the vport,
  71    using it's own naming authority and OUI. (Note: it already does this
  72    for virtual MAC addresses).
  75Device Trees and Vport Objects:
  78  Today, the device tree typically contains the scsi_host object,
  79  with rports and scsi target objects underneath it. Currently the FC
  80  transport creates the vport object and places it under the scsi_host
  81  object corresponding to the physical adapter.  The LLDD will allocate
  82  a new scsi_host for the vport and link it's object under the vport.
  83  The remainder of the tree under the vports scsi_host is the same
  84  as the non-NPIV case. The transport is written currently to easily
  85  allow the parent of the vport to be something other than the scsi_host.
  86  This could be used in the future to link the object onto a vm-specific
  87  device tree. If the vport's parent is not the physical port's scsi_host,
  88  a symbolic link to the vport object will be placed in the physical
  89  port's scsi_host.
  91  Here's what to expect in the device tree :
  92   The typical Physical Port's Scsi_Host:
  93     /sys/devices/.../host17/
  94   and it has the typical descendant tree:
  95     /sys/devices/.../host17/rport-17:0-0/target17:0:0/17:0:0:0:
  96   and then the vport is created on the Physical Port:
  97     /sys/devices/.../host17/vport-17:0-0
  98   and the vport's Scsi_Host is then created:
  99     /sys/devices/.../host17/vport-17:0-0/host18
 100   and then the rest of the tree progresses, such as:
 101     /sys/devices/.../host17/vport-17:0-0/host18/rport-18:0-0/target18:0:0/18:0:0:0:
 103  Here's what to expect in the sysfs tree :
 104   scsi_hosts:
 105     /sys/class/scsi_host/host17                physical port's scsi_host
 106     /sys/class/scsi_host/host18                vport's scsi_host
 107   fc_hosts:
 108     /sys/class/fc_host/host17                  physical port's fc_host
 109     /sys/class/fc_host/host18                  vport's fc_host
 110   fc_vports:
 111     /sys/class/fc_vports/vport-17:0-0          the vport's fc_vport
 112   fc_rports:
 113     /sys/class/fc_remote_ports/rport-17:0-0    rport on the physical port
 114     /sys/class/fc_remote_ports/rport-18:0-0    rport on the vport
 117Vport Attributes:
 120  The new fc_vport class object has the following attributes
 122     node_name:                                                 Read_Only
 123       The WWNN of the vport
 125     port_name:                                                 Read_Only
 126       The WWPN of the vport
 128     roles:                                                     Read_Only
 129       Indicates the FC4 roles enabled on the vport.
 131     symbolic_name:                                             Read_Write
 132       A string, appended to the driver's symbolic port name string, which
 133       is registered with the switch to identify the vport. For example,
 134       a hypervisor could set this string to "Xen Domain 2 VM 5 Vport 2",
 135       and this set of identifiers can be seen on switch management screens
 136       to identify the port.
 138     vport_delete:                                              Write_Only
 139       When written with a "1", will tear down the vport.
 141     vport_disable:                                             Write_Only
 142       When written with a "1", will transition the vport to a disabled.
 143       state.  The vport will still be instantiated with the Linux kernel,
 144       but it will not be active on the FC link.
 145       When written with a "0", will enable the vport.
 147     vport_last_state:                                          Read_Only
 148       Indicates the previous state of the vport.  See the section below on
 149       "Vport States".
 151     vport_state:                                               Read_Only
 152       Indicates the state of the vport.  See the section below on
 153       "Vport States".
 155     vport_type:                                                Read_Only
 156       Reflects the FC mechanism used to create the virtual port.
 157       Only NPIV is supported currently.
 160  For the fc_host class object, the following attributes are added for vports:
 162     max_npiv_vports:                                           Read_Only
 163       Indicates the maximum number of NPIV-based vports that the
 164       driver/adapter can support on the fc_host.
 166     npiv_vports_inuse:                                         Read_Only
 167       Indicates how many NPIV-based vports have been instantiated on the
 168       fc_host.
 170     vport_create:                                              Write_Only
 171       A "simple" create interface to instantiate a vport on an fc_host.
 172       A "<WWPN>:<WWNN>" string is written to the attribute. The transport
 173       then instantiates the vport object and calls the LLDD to create the
 174       vport with the role of FCP_Initiator.  Each WWN is specified as 16
 175       hex characters and may *not* contain any prefixes (e.g. 0x, x, etc).
 177     vport_delete:                                              Write_Only
 178        A "simple" delete interface to teardown a vport. A "<WWPN>:<WWNN>"
 179        string is written to the attribute. The transport will locate the
 180        vport on the fc_host with the same WWNs and tear it down.  Each WWN
 181        is specified as 16 hex characters and may *not* contain any prefixes
 182        (e.g. 0x, x, etc).
 185Vport States:
 188  Vport instantiation consists of two parts:
 189    - Creation with the kernel and LLDD. This means all transport and
 190      driver data structures are built up, and device objects created.
 191      This is equivalent to a driver "attach" on an adapter, which is
 192      independent of the adapter's link state.
 193    - Instantiation of the vport on the FC link via ELS traffic, etc.
 194      This is equivalent to a "link up" and successful link initialization.
 195  Further information can be found in the interfaces section below for
 196  Vport Creation.
 198  Once a vport has been instantiated with the kernel/LLDD, a vport state
 199  can be reported via the sysfs attribute. The following states exist:
 201    FC_VPORT_UNKNOWN            - Unknown
 202      An temporary state, typically set only while the vport is being
 203      instantiated with the kernel and LLDD.
 205    FC_VPORT_ACTIVE             - Active
 206      The vport has been successfully been created on the FC link.
 207      It is fully functional.
 209    FC_VPORT_DISABLED           - Disabled
 210      The vport instantiated, but "disabled". The vport is not instantiated
 211      on the FC link. This is equivalent to a physical port with the
 212      link "down".
 214    FC_VPORT_LINKDOWN           - Linkdown
 215      The vport is not operational as the physical link is not operational.
 217    FC_VPORT_INITIALIZING       - Initializing
 218      The vport is in the process of instantiating on the FC link.
 219      The LLDD will set this state just prior to starting the ELS traffic
 220      to create the vport. This state will persist until the vport is
 221      successfully created (state becomes FC_VPORT_ACTIVE) or it fails
 222      (state is one of the values below).  As this state is transitory,
 223      it will not be preserved in the "vport_last_state".
 225    FC_VPORT_NO_FABRIC_SUPP     - No Fabric Support
 226      The vport is not operational. One of the following conditions were
 227      encountered:
 228       - The FC topology is not Point-to-Point
 229       - The FC port is not connected to an F_Port
 230       - The F_Port has indicated that NPIV is not supported.
 232    FC_VPORT_NO_FABRIC_RSCS     - No Fabric Resources
 233      The vport is not operational. The Fabric failed FDISC with a status
 234      indicating that it does not have sufficient resources to complete
 235      the operation.
 237    FC_VPORT_FABRIC_LOGOUT      - Fabric Logout
 238      The vport is not operational. The Fabric has LOGO'd the N_Port_ID
 239      associated with the vport.
 241    FC_VPORT_FABRIC_REJ_WWN     - Fabric Rejected WWN
 242      The vport is not operational. The Fabric failed FDISC with a status
 243      indicating that the WWN's are not valid.
 245    FC_VPORT_FAILED             - VPort Failed
 246      The vport is not operational. This is a catchall for all other
 247      error conditions.
 250  The following state table indicates the different state transitions:
 252    State              Event                            New State
 253    --------------------------------------------------------------------
 254     n/a                Initialization                  Unknown
 255    Unknown:            Link Down                       Linkdown
 256                        Link Up & Loop                  No Fabric Support
 257                        Link Up & no Fabric             No Fabric Support
 258                        Link Up & FLOGI response        No Fabric Support
 259                          indicates no NPIV support
 260                        Link Up & FDISC being sent      Initializing
 261                        Disable request                 Disable
 262    Linkdown:           Link Up                         Unknown
 263    Initializing:       FDISC ACC                       Active
 264                        FDISC LS_RJT w/ no resources    No Fabric Resources
 265                        FDISC LS_RJT w/ invalid         Fabric Rejected WWN
 266                          pname or invalid nport_id
 267                        FDISC LS_RJT failed for         Vport Failed
 268                          other reasons
 269                        Link Down                       Linkdown
 270                        Disable request                 Disable
 271    Disable:            Enable request                  Unknown
 272    Active:             LOGO received from fabric       Fabric Logout
 273                        Link Down                       Linkdown
 274                        Disable request                 Disable
 275    Fabric Logout:      Link still up                   Unknown
 277         The following 4 error states all have the same transitions:
 278    No Fabric Support:
 279    No Fabric Resources:
 280    Fabric Rejected WWN:
 281    Vport Failed:
 282                        Disable request                 Disable
 283                        Link goes down                  Linkdown
 286Transport <-> LLDD Interfaces :
 289Vport support by LLDD:
 291  The LLDD indicates support for vports by supplying a vport_create()
 292  function in the transport template.  The presense of this function will
 293  cause the creation of the new attributes on the fc_host.  As part of
 294  the physical port completing its initialization relative to the
 295  transport, it should set the max_npiv_vports attribute to indicate the
 296  maximum number of vports the driver and/or adapter supports.
 299Vport Creation:
 301  The LLDD vport_create() syntax is:
 303      int vport_create(struct fc_vport *vport, bool disable)
 305    where:
 306      vport:    Is the newly allocated vport object
 307      disable:  If "true", the vport is to be created in a disabled stated.
 308                If "false", the vport is to be enabled upon creation.
 310  When a request is made to create a new vport (via sgio/netlink, or the
 311  vport_create fc_host attribute), the transport will validate that the LLDD
 312  can support another vport (e.g. max_npiv_vports > npiv_vports_inuse).
 313  If not, the create request will be failed.  If space remains, the transport
 314  will increment the vport count, create the vport object, and then call the
 315  LLDD's vport_create() function with the newly allocated vport object.
 317  As mentioned above, vport creation is divided into two parts:
 318    - Creation with the kernel and LLDD. This means all transport and
 319      driver data structures are built up, and device objects created.
 320      This is equivalent to a driver "attach" on an adapter, which is
 321      independent of the adapter's link state.
 322    - Instantiation of the vport on the FC link via ELS traffic, etc.
 323      This is equivalent to a "link up" and successful link initialization.
 325  The LLDD's vport_create() function will not synchronously wait for both
 326  parts to be fully completed before returning. It must validate that the
 327  infrastructure exists to support NPIV, and complete the first part of
 328  vport creation (data structure build up) before returning.  We do not
 329  hinge vport_create() on the link-side operation mainly because:
 330    - The link may be down. It is not a failure if it is. It simply
 331      means the vport is in an inoperable state until the link comes up.
 332      This is consistent with the link bouncing post vport creation.
 333    - The vport may be created in a disabled state.
 334    - This is consistent with a model where:  the vport equates to a
 335      FC adapter. The vport_create is synonymous with driver attachment
 336      to the adapter, which is independent of link state.
 338    Note: special error codes have been defined to delineate infrastructure
 339      failure cases for quicker resolution.
 341  The expected behavior for the LLDD's vport_create() function is:
 342    - Validate Infrastructure:
 343        - If the driver or adapter cannot support another vport, whether
 344            due to improper firmware, (a lie about) max_npiv, or a lack of
 345            some other resource - return VPCERR_UNSUPPORTED.
 346        - If the driver validates the WWN's against those already active on
 347            the adapter and detects an overlap - return VPCERR_BAD_WWN.
 348        - If the driver detects the topology is loop, non-fabric, or the
 349            FLOGI did not support NPIV - return VPCERR_NO_FABRIC_SUPP.
 350    - Allocate data structures. If errors are encountered, such as out
 351        of memory conditions, return the respective negative Exxx error code.
 352    - If the role is FCP Initiator, the LLDD is to :
 353        - Call scsi_host_alloc() to allocate a scsi_host for the vport.
 354        - Call scsi_add_host(new_shost, &vport->dev) to start the scsi_host
 355          and bind it as a child of the vport device.
 356        - Initializes the fc_host attribute values.
 357    - Kick of further vport state transitions based on the disable flag and
 358        link state - and return success (zero).
 360  LLDD Implementers Notes:
 361  - It is suggested that there be a different fc_function_templates for
 362    the physical port and the virtual port.  The physical port's template
 363    would have the vport_create, vport_delete, and vport_disable functions,
 364    while the vports would not.
 365  - It is suggested that there be different scsi_host_templates
 366    for the physical port and virtual port. Likely, there are driver
 367    attributes, embedded into the scsi_host_template, that are applicable
 368    for the physical port only (link speed, topology setting, etc). This
 369    ensures that the attributes are applicable to the respective scsi_host.
 372Vport Disable/Enable:
 374  The LLDD vport_disable() syntax is:
 376      int vport_disable(struct fc_vport *vport, bool disable)
 378    where:
 379      vport:    Is vport to to be enabled or disabled
 380      disable:  If "true", the vport is to be disabled.
 381                If "false", the vport is to be enabled.
 383  When a request is made to change the disabled state on a vport, the
 384  transport will validate the request against the existing vport state.
 385  If the request is to disable and the vport is already disabled, the
 386  request will fail. Similarly, if the request is to enable, and the
 387  vport is not in a disabled state, the request will fail.  If the request
 388  is valid for the vport state, the transport will call the LLDD to
 389  change the vport's state.
 391  Within the LLDD, if a vport is disabled, it remains instantiated with
 392  the kernel and LLDD, but it is not active or visible on the FC link in
 393  any way. (see Vport Creation and the 2 part instantiation discussion).
 394  The vport will remain in this state until it is deleted or re-enabled.
 395  When enabling a vport, the LLDD reinstantiates the vport on the FC
 396  link - essentially restarting the LLDD statemachine (see Vport States
 397  above).
 400Vport Deletion:
 402  The LLDD vport_delete() syntax is:
 404      int vport_delete(struct fc_vport *vport)
 406    where:
 407      vport:    Is vport to delete
 409  When a request is made to delete a vport (via sgio/netlink, or via the
 410  fc_host or fc_vport vport_delete attributes), the transport will call
 411  the LLDD to terminate the vport on the FC link, and teardown all other
 412  datastructures and references.  If the LLDD completes successfully,
 413  the transport will teardown the vport objects and complete the vport
 414  removal.  If the LLDD delete request fails, the vport object will remain,
 415  but will be in an indeterminate state.
 417  Within the LLDD, the normal code paths for a scsi_host teardown should
 418  be followed. E.g. If the vport has a FCP Initiator role, the LLDD
 419  will call fc_remove_host() for the vports scsi_host, followed by
 420  scsi_remove_host() and scsi_host_put() for the vports scsi_host.
 424  fc_host port_type attribute:
 425    There is a new fc_host port_type value - FC_PORTTYPE_NPIV. This value
 426    must be set on all vport-based fc_hosts.  Normally, on a physical port,
 427    the port_type attribute would be set to NPORT, NLPORT, etc based on the
 428    topology type and existence of the fabric. As this is not applicable to
 429    a vport, it makes more sense to report the FC mechanism used to create
 430    the vport.
 432  Driver unload:
 433    FC drivers are required to call fc_remove_host() prior to calling
 434    scsi_remove_host().  This allows the fc_host to tear down all remote
 435    ports prior the scsi_host being torn down.  The fc_remove_host() call
 436    was updated to remove all vports for the fc_host as well.
 439Transport supplied functions
 442The following functions are supplied by the FC-transport for use by LLDs.
 444   fc_vport_create - create a vport
 445   fc_vport_terminate - detach and remove a vport
 450 * fc_vport_create - Admin App or LLDD requests creation of a vport
 451 * @shost:     scsi host the virtual port is connected to.
 452 * @ids:       The world wide names, FC4 port roles, etc for
 453 *              the virtual port.
 454 *
 455 * Notes:
 456 *     This routine assumes no locks are held on entry.
 457 */
 458struct fc_vport *
 459fc_vport_create(struct Scsi_Host *shost, struct fc_vport_identifiers *ids)
 462 * fc_vport_terminate - Admin App or LLDD requests termination of a vport
 463 * @vport:      fc_vport to be terminated
 464 *
 465 * Calls the LLDD vport_delete() function, then deallocates and removes
 466 * the vport from the shost and object tree.
 467 *
 468 * Notes:
 469 *      This routine assumes no locks are held on entry.
 470 */
 472fc_vport_terminate(struct fc_vport *vport)
 477The following people have contributed to this document:
 484James Smart