perl/handy.h
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   1/*    handy.h
   2 *
   3 *    Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000,
   4 *    2001, 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 by Larry Wall and others
   5 *
   6 *    You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
   7 *    License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
   8 *
   9 */
  10
  11#if !defined(__STDC__)
  12#ifdef NULL
  13#undef NULL
  14#endif
  15#ifndef I286
  16#  define NULL 0
  17#else
  18#  define NULL 0L
  19#endif
  20#endif
  21
  22#define Null(type) ((type)NULL)
  23
  24/*
  25=head1 Handy Values
  26
  27=for apidoc AmU||Nullch
  28Null character pointer.
  29
  30=for apidoc AmU||Nullsv
  31Null SV pointer.
  32
  33=cut
  34*/
  35
  36#define Nullch Null(char*)
  37#define Nullfp Null(PerlIO*)
  38#define Nullsv Null(SV*)
  39
  40#ifdef TRUE
  41#undef TRUE
  42#endif
  43#ifdef FALSE
  44#undef FALSE
  45#endif
  46#define TRUE (1)
  47#define FALSE (0)
  48
  49/* The MUTABLE_*() macros cast pointers to the types shown, in such a way
  50 * (compiler permitting) that casting away const-ness will give a warning;
  51 * e.g.:
  52 *
  53 * const SV *sv = ...;
  54 * AV *av1 = (AV*)sv;        <== BAD:  the const has been silently cast away
  55 * AV *av2 = MUTABLE_AV(sv); <== GOOD: it may warn
  56 */
  57
  58/* For 5.10.x, disable the const cast checking that MUTABLE_PTR does in
  59 * blead */
  60#if 0 && defined(__GNUC__) && !defined(PERL_GCC_BRACE_GROUPS_FORBIDDEN)
  61#  define MUTABLE_PTR(p) ({ void *_p = (p); _p; })
  62#else
  63#  define MUTABLE_PTR(p) ((void *) (p))
  64#endif
  65
  66#define MUTABLE_AV(p)   ((AV *)MUTABLE_PTR(p))
  67#define MUTABLE_CV(p)   ((CV *)MUTABLE_PTR(p))
  68#define MUTABLE_GV(p)   ((GV *)MUTABLE_PTR(p))
  69#define MUTABLE_HV(p)   ((HV *)MUTABLE_PTR(p))
  70#define MUTABLE_IO(p)   ((IO *)MUTABLE_PTR(p))
  71#define MUTABLE_SV(p)   ((SV *)MUTABLE_PTR(p))
  72
  73/* XXX Configure ought to have a test for a boolean type, if I can
  74   just figure out all the headers such a test needs.
  75   Andy Dougherty       August 1996
  76*/
  77/* bool is built-in for g++-2.6.3 and later, which might be used
  78   for extensions.  <_G_config.h> defines _G_HAVE_BOOL, but we can't
  79   be sure _G_config.h will be included before this file.  _G_config.h
  80   also defines _G_HAVE_BOOL for both gcc and g++, but only g++
  81   actually has bool.  Hence, _G_HAVE_BOOL is pretty useless for us.
  82   g++ can be identified by __GNUG__.
  83   Andy Dougherty       February 2000
  84*/
  85#ifdef __GNUG__         /* GNU g++ has bool built-in */
  86#  ifndef HAS_BOOL
  87#    define HAS_BOOL 1
  88#  endif
  89#endif
  90
  91/* The NeXT dynamic loader headers will not build with the bool macro
  92   So declare them now to clear confusion.
  93*/
  94#if defined(NeXT) || defined(__NeXT__)
  95# undef FALSE
  96# undef TRUE
  97  typedef enum bool { FALSE = 0, TRUE = 1 } bool;
  98# define ENUM_BOOL 1
  99# ifndef HAS_BOOL
 100#  define HAS_BOOL 1
 101# endif /* !HAS_BOOL */
 102#endif /* NeXT || __NeXT__ */
 103
 104#ifndef HAS_BOOL
 105# if defined(UTS) || defined(VMS)
 106#  define bool int
 107# else
 108#  define bool char
 109# endif
 110# define HAS_BOOL 1
 111#endif
 112
 113/* Try to figure out __func__ or __FUNCTION__ equivalent, if any.
 114 * XXX Should really be a Configure probe, with HAS__FUNCTION__
 115 *     and FUNCTION__ as results.
 116 * XXX Similarly, a Configure probe for __FILE__ and __LINE__ is needed. */
 117#if (defined(__STDC_VERSION__) && __STDC_VERSION__ >= 199901L) || (defined(__SUNPRO_C)) /* C99 or close enough. */
 118#  define FUNCTION__ __func__
 119#else
 120#  if (defined(_MSC_VER) && _MSC_VER < 1300) || /* Pre-MSVC 7.0 has neither __func__ nor __FUNCTION and no good workarounds, either. */ \
 121      (defined(__DECC_VER)) /* Tru64 or VMS, and strict C89 being used, but not modern enough cc (in Tur64, -c99 not known, only -std1). */
 122#    define FUNCTION__ ""
 123#  else
 124#    define FUNCTION__ __FUNCTION__ /* Common extension. */
 125#  endif
 126#endif
 127
 128/* XXX A note on the perl source internal type system.  The
 129   original intent was that I32 be *exactly* 32 bits.
 130
 131   Currently, we only guarantee that I32 is *at least* 32 bits.
 132   Specifically, if int is 64 bits, then so is I32.  (This is the case
 133   for the Cray.)  This has the advantage of meshing nicely with
 134   standard library calls (where we pass an I32 and the library is
 135   expecting an int), but the disadvantage that an I32 is not 32 bits.
 136   Andy Dougherty       August 1996
 137
 138   There is no guarantee that there is *any* integral type with
 139   exactly 32 bits.  It is perfectly legal for a system to have
 140   sizeof(short) == sizeof(int) == sizeof(long) == 8.
 141
 142   Similarly, there is no guarantee that I16 and U16 have exactly 16
 143   bits.
 144
 145   For dealing with issues that may arise from various 32/64-bit
 146   systems, we will ask Configure to check out
 147
 148        SHORTSIZE == sizeof(short)
 149        INTSIZE == sizeof(int)
 150        LONGSIZE == sizeof(long)
 151        LONGLONGSIZE == sizeof(long long) (if HAS_LONG_LONG)
 152        PTRSIZE == sizeof(void *)
 153        DOUBLESIZE == sizeof(double)
 154        LONG_DOUBLESIZE == sizeof(long double) (if HAS_LONG_DOUBLE).
 155
 156*/
 157
 158#ifdef I_INTTYPES /* e.g. Linux has int64_t without <inttypes.h> */
 159#   include <inttypes.h>
 160#   ifdef INT32_MIN_BROKEN
 161#       undef  INT32_MIN
 162#       define INT32_MIN (-2147483647-1)
 163#   endif
 164#   ifdef INT64_MIN_BROKEN
 165#       undef  INT64_MIN
 166#       define INT64_MIN (-9223372036854775807LL-1)
 167#   endif
 168#endif
 169
 170typedef I8TYPE I8;
 171typedef U8TYPE U8;
 172typedef I16TYPE I16;
 173typedef U16TYPE U16;
 174typedef I32TYPE I32;
 175typedef U32TYPE U32;
 176#ifdef PERL_CORE
 177#   ifdef HAS_QUAD
 178typedef I64TYPE I64;
 179typedef U64TYPE U64;
 180#   endif
 181#endif /* PERL_CORE */
 182
 183#if defined(HAS_QUAD) && defined(USE_64_BIT_INT)
 184#   ifndef UINT64_C /* usually from <inttypes.h> */
 185#       if defined(HAS_LONG_LONG) && QUADKIND == QUAD_IS_LONG_LONG
 186#           define INT64_C(c)   CAT2(c,LL)
 187#           define UINT64_C(c)  CAT2(c,ULL)
 188#       else
 189#           if LONGSIZE == 8 && QUADKIND == QUAD_IS_LONG
 190#               define INT64_C(c)       CAT2(c,L)
 191#               define UINT64_C(c)      CAT2(c,UL)
 192#           else
 193#               define INT64_C(c)       ((I64TYPE)(c))
 194#               define UINT64_C(c)      ((U64TYPE)(c))
 195#           endif
 196#       endif
 197#   endif
 198#endif
 199
 200/* HMB H.Merijn Brand - a placeholder for preparing Configure patches:
 201 * 
 202 * USE_DTRACE   HAS_PSEUDOFORK  HAS_TIMEGM      LOCALTIME_R_NEEDS_TZSET 
 203 * GMTIME_MAX   GMTIME_MIN      LOCALTIME_MAX   LOCALTIME_MIN
 204 * HAS_CTIME64  HAS_LOCALTIME64 HAS_GMTIME64    HAS_DIFFTIME64
 205 * HAS_MKTIME64 HAS_ASCTIME64   HAS_GETADDRINFO HAS_GETNAMEINFO
 206 * HAS_INETNTOP HAS_INETPTON
 207 * Not (yet) used at top level, but mention them for metaconfig
 208 */
 209
 210/* Mention I8SIZE, U8SIZE, I16SIZE, U16SIZE, I32SIZE, U32SIZE,
 211   I64SIZE, and U64SIZE here so that metaconfig pulls them in. */
 212
 213#if defined(UINT8_MAX) && defined(INT16_MAX) && defined(INT32_MAX)
 214
 215/* I8_MAX and I8_MIN constants are not defined, as I8 is an ambiguous type.
 216   Please search CHAR_MAX in perl.h for further details. */
 217#define U8_MAX UINT8_MAX
 218#define U8_MIN UINT8_MIN
 219
 220#define I16_MAX INT16_MAX
 221#define I16_MIN INT16_MIN
 222#define U16_MAX UINT16_MAX
 223#define U16_MIN UINT16_MIN
 224
 225#define I32_MAX INT32_MAX
 226#define I32_MIN INT32_MIN
 227#ifndef UINT32_MAX_BROKEN /* e.g. HP-UX with gcc messes this up */
 228#  define U32_MAX UINT32_MAX
 229#else
 230#  define U32_MAX 4294967295U
 231#endif
 232#define U32_MIN UINT32_MIN
 233
 234#else
 235
 236/* I8_MAX and I8_MIN constants are not defined, as I8 is an ambiguous type.
 237   Please search CHAR_MAX in perl.h for further details. */
 238#define U8_MAX PERL_UCHAR_MAX
 239#define U8_MIN PERL_UCHAR_MIN
 240
 241#define I16_MAX PERL_SHORT_MAX
 242#define I16_MIN PERL_SHORT_MIN
 243#define U16_MAX PERL_USHORT_MAX
 244#define U16_MIN PERL_USHORT_MIN
 245
 246#if LONGSIZE > 4
 247# define I32_MAX PERL_INT_MAX
 248# define I32_MIN PERL_INT_MIN
 249# define U32_MAX PERL_UINT_MAX
 250# define U32_MIN PERL_UINT_MIN
 251#else
 252# define I32_MAX PERL_LONG_MAX
 253# define I32_MIN PERL_LONG_MIN
 254# define U32_MAX PERL_ULONG_MAX
 255# define U32_MIN PERL_ULONG_MIN
 256#endif
 257
 258#endif
 259
 260/* log(2) is pretty close to  0.30103, just in case anyone is grepping for it */
 261#define BIT_DIGITS(N)   (((N)*146)/485 + 1)  /* log2(10) =~ 146/485 */
 262#define TYPE_DIGITS(T)  BIT_DIGITS(sizeof(T) * 8)
 263#define TYPE_CHARS(T)   (TYPE_DIGITS(T) + 2) /* sign, NUL */
 264
 265#define Ctl(ch) ((ch) & 037)
 266
 267/*
 268=head1 SV-Body Allocation
 269
 270=for apidoc Ama|SV*|newSVpvs|const char* s
 271Like C<newSVpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
 272
 273=for apidoc Ama|SV*|newSVpvs_flags|const char* s|U32 flags
 274Like C<newSVpvn_flags>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length
 275pair.
 276
 277=for apidoc Ama|SV*|newSVpvs_share|const char* s
 278Like C<newSVpvn_share>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length
 279pair and omits the hash parameter.
 280
 281=for apidoc Am|void|sv_catpvs|SV* sv|const char* s
 282Like C<sv_catpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
 283
 284=for apidoc Am|void|sv_setpvs|SV* sv|const char* s
 285Like C<sv_setpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
 286
 287=head1 Memory Management
 288
 289=for apidoc Ama|char*|savepvs|const char* s
 290Like C<savepvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
 291
 292=head1 GV Functions
 293
 294=for apidoc Am|HV*|gv_stashpvs|const char* name|I32 create
 295Like C<gv_stashpvn>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
 296
 297=head1 Hash Manipulation Functions
 298
 299=for apidoc Am|SV**|hv_fetchs|HV* tb|const char* key|I32 lval
 300Like C<hv_fetch>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair.
 301
 302=for apidoc Am|SV**|hv_stores|HV* tb|const char* key|NULLOK SV* val
 303Like C<hv_store>, but takes a literal string instead of a string/length pair
 304and omits the hash parameter.
 305
 306=cut
 307*/
 308
 309/* concatenating with "" ensures that only literal strings are accepted as argument */
 310#define STR_WITH_LEN(s)  ("" s ""), (sizeof(s)-1)
 311
 312/* note that STR_WITH_LEN() can't be used as argument to macros or functions that
 313 * under some configurations might be macros, which means that it requires the full
 314 * Perl_xxx(aTHX_ ...) form for any API calls where it's used.
 315 */
 316
 317/* STR_WITH_LEN() shortcuts */
 318#define newSVpvs(str) Perl_newSVpvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str))
 319#define newSVpvs_flags(str,flags)       \
 320    Perl_newSVpvn_flags(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str), flags)
 321#define newSVpvs_share(str) Perl_newSVpvn_share(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str), 0)
 322#define sv_catpvs(sv, str) Perl_sv_catpvn_flags(aTHX_ sv, STR_WITH_LEN(str), SV_GMAGIC)
 323#define sv_setpvs(sv, str) Perl_sv_setpvn(aTHX_ sv, STR_WITH_LEN(str))
 324#define savepvs(str) Perl_savepvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str))
 325#define gv_stashpvs(str, create) Perl_gv_stashpvn(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(str), create)
 326#define gv_fetchpvs(namebeg, add, sv_type) Perl_gv_fetchpvn_flags(aTHX_ STR_WITH_LEN(namebeg), add, sv_type)
 327#define hv_fetchs(hv,key,lval)                                          \
 328  ((SV **)Perl_hv_common(aTHX_ (hv), NULL, STR_WITH_LEN(key), 0,        \
 329                         (lval) ? (HV_FETCH_JUST_SV | HV_FETCH_LVALUE)  \
 330                         : HV_FETCH_JUST_SV, NULL, 0))
 331
 332#define hv_stores(hv,key,val)                                           \
 333  ((SV **)Perl_hv_common(aTHX_ (hv), NULL, STR_WITH_LEN(key), 0,        \
 334                         (HV_FETCH_ISSTORE|HV_FETCH_JUST_SV), (val), 0))
 335
 336
 337/*
 338=head1 Miscellaneous Functions
 339
 340=for apidoc Am|bool|strNE|char* s1|char* s2
 341Test two strings to see if they are different.  Returns true or
 342false.
 343
 344=for apidoc Am|bool|strEQ|char* s1|char* s2
 345Test two strings to see if they are equal.  Returns true or false.
 346
 347=for apidoc Am|bool|strLT|char* s1|char* s2
 348Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is less than the second,
 349C<s2>.  Returns true or false.
 350
 351=for apidoc Am|bool|strLE|char* s1|char* s2
 352Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is less than or equal to the
 353second, C<s2>.  Returns true or false.
 354
 355=for apidoc Am|bool|strGT|char* s1|char* s2
 356Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is greater than the second,
 357C<s2>.  Returns true or false.
 358
 359=for apidoc Am|bool|strGE|char* s1|char* s2
 360Test two strings to see if the first, C<s1>, is greater than or equal to
 361the second, C<s2>.  Returns true or false.
 362
 363=for apidoc Am|bool|strnNE|char* s1|char* s2|STRLEN len
 364Test two strings to see if they are different.  The C<len> parameter
 365indicates the number of bytes to compare.  Returns true or false. (A
 366wrapper for C<strncmp>).
 367
 368=for apidoc Am|bool|strnEQ|char* s1|char* s2|STRLEN len
 369Test two strings to see if they are equal.  The C<len> parameter indicates
 370the number of bytes to compare.  Returns true or false. (A wrapper for
 371C<strncmp>).
 372
 373=cut
 374*/
 375
 376#define strNE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2))
 377#define strEQ(s1,s2) (!strcmp(s1,s2))
 378#define strLT(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) < 0)
 379#define strLE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) <= 0)
 380#define strGT(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) > 0)
 381#define strGE(s1,s2) (strcmp(s1,s2) >= 0)
 382#define strnNE(s1,s2,l) (strncmp(s1,s2,l))
 383#define strnEQ(s1,s2,l) (!strncmp(s1,s2,l))
 384
 385#ifdef HAS_MEMCMP
 386#  define memNE(s1,s2,l) (memcmp(s1,s2,l))
 387#  define memEQ(s1,s2,l) (!memcmp(s1,s2,l))
 388#else
 389#  define memNE(s1,s2,l) (bcmp(s1,s2,l))
 390#  define memEQ(s1,s2,l) (!bcmp(s1,s2,l))
 391#endif
 392
 393#define memEQs(s1, l, s2) \
 394        (sizeof(s2)-1 == l && memEQ(s1, (s2 ""), (sizeof(s2)-1)))
 395#define memNEs(s1, l, s2) !memEQs(s1, l, s2)
 396
 397/*
 398 * Character classes.
 399 *
 400 * Unfortunately, the introduction of locales means that we
 401 * can't trust isupper(), etc. to tell the truth.  And when
 402 * it comes to /\w+/ with tainting enabled, we *must* be able
 403 * to trust our character classes.
 404 *
 405 * Therefore, the default tests in the text of Perl will be
 406 * independent of locale.  Any code that wants to depend on
 407 * the current locale will use the tests that begin with "lc".
 408 */
 409
 410#ifdef HAS_SETLOCALE  /* XXX Is there a better test for this? */
 411#  ifndef CTYPE256
 412#    define CTYPE256
 413#  endif
 414#endif
 415
 416/*
 417
 418=head1 Character classes
 419
 420=for apidoc Am|bool|isALNUM|char ch
 421Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is a US-ASCII (Basic Latin)
 422alphanumeric character (including underscore) or digit.
 423
 424=for apidoc Am|bool|isALPHA|char ch
 425Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is a US-ASCII (Basic Latin) 
 426alphabetic character.
 427
 428=for apidoc Am|bool|isSPACE|char ch
 429Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is a US-ASCII (Basic Latin)
 430whitespace.
 431
 432=for apidoc Am|bool|isDIGIT|char ch
 433Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is a US-ASCII (Basic Latin)
 434digit.
 435
 436=for apidoc Am|bool|isUPPER|char ch
 437Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is a US-ASCII (Basic Latin)
 438uppercase character.
 439
 440=for apidoc Am|bool|isLOWER|char ch
 441Returns a boolean indicating whether the C C<char> is a US-ASCII (Basic Latin)
 442lowercase character.
 443
 444=for apidoc Am|char|toUPPER|char ch
 445Converts the specified character to uppercase.  Characters outside the
 446US-ASCII (Basic Latin) range are viewed as not having any case.
 447
 448=for apidoc Am|char|toLOWER|char ch
 449Converts the specified character to lowercase.  Characters outside the
 450US-ASCII (Basic Latin) range are viewed as not having any case.
 451
 452=cut
 453*/
 454
 455#define isALNUM(c)      (isALPHA(c) || isDIGIT(c) || (c) == '_')
 456#define isIDFIRST(c)    (isALPHA(c) || (c) == '_')
 457#define isALPHA(c)      (isUPPER(c) || isLOWER(c))
 458#define isSPACE(c) \
 459        ((c) == ' ' || (c) == '\t' || (c) == '\n' || (c) =='\r' || (c) == '\f')
 460#define isPSXSPC(c)     (isSPACE(c) || (c) == '\v')
 461#define isBLANK(c)      ((c) == ' ' || (c) == '\t')
 462#define isDIGIT(c)      ((c) >= '0' && (c) <= '9')
 463#ifdef EBCDIC
 464    /* In EBCDIC we do not do locales: therefore() isupper() is fine. */
 465#   define isUPPER(c)   isupper(c)
 466#   define isLOWER(c)   islower(c)
 467#   define isALNUMC(c)  isalnum(c)
 468#   define isASCII(c)   isascii(c)
 469#   define isCNTRL(c)   iscntrl(c)
 470#   define isGRAPH(c)   isgraph(c)
 471#   define isPRINT(c)   isprint(c)
 472#   define isPUNCT(c)   ispunct(c)
 473#   define isXDIGIT(c)  isxdigit(c)
 474#   define toUPPER(c)   toupper(c)
 475#   define toLOWER(c)   tolower(c)
 476#else
 477#   define isUPPER(c)   ((c) >= 'A' && (c) <= 'Z')
 478#   define isLOWER(c)   ((c) >= 'a' && (c) <= 'z')
 479#   define isALNUMC(c)  (isALPHA(c) || isDIGIT(c))
 480#   define isASCII(c)   ((c) <= 127)
 481#   define isCNTRL(c)   ((c) < ' ' || (c) == 127)
 482#   define isGRAPH(c)   (isALNUM(c) || isPUNCT(c))
 483#   define isPRINT(c)   (((c) >= 32 && (c) < 127))
 484#   define isPUNCT(c)   (((c) >= 33 && (c) <= 47) || ((c) >= 58 && (c) <= 64)  || ((c) >= 91 && (c) <= 96) || ((c) >= 123 && (c) <= 126))
 485#   define isXDIGIT(c)  (isDIGIT(c) || ((c) >= 'a' && (c) <= 'f') || ((c) >= 'A' && (c) <= 'F'))
 486#   define toUPPER(c)   (isLOWER(c) ? (c) - ('a' - 'A') : (c))
 487#   define toLOWER(c)   (isUPPER(c) ? (c) + ('a' - 'A') : (c))
 488#endif
 489
 490#ifdef USE_NEXT_CTYPE
 491
 492#  define isALNUM_LC(c) \
 493        (NXIsAlNum((unsigned int)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
 494#  define isIDFIRST_LC(c) \
 495        (NXIsAlpha((unsigned int)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
 496#  define isALPHA_LC(c)         NXIsAlpha((unsigned int)(c))
 497#  define isSPACE_LC(c)         NXIsSpace((unsigned int)(c))
 498#  define isDIGIT_LC(c)         NXIsDigit((unsigned int)(c))
 499#  define isUPPER_LC(c)         NXIsUpper((unsigned int)(c))
 500#  define isLOWER_LC(c)         NXIsLower((unsigned int)(c))
 501#  define isALNUMC_LC(c)        NXIsAlNum((unsigned int)(c))
 502#  define isCNTRL_LC(c)         NXIsCntrl((unsigned int)(c))
 503#  define isGRAPH_LC(c)         NXIsGraph((unsigned int)(c))
 504#  define isPRINT_LC(c)         NXIsPrint((unsigned int)(c))
 505#  define isPUNCT_LC(c)         NXIsPunct((unsigned int)(c))
 506#  define toUPPER_LC(c)         NXToUpper((unsigned int)(c))
 507#  define toLOWER_LC(c)         NXToLower((unsigned int)(c))
 508
 509#else /* !USE_NEXT_CTYPE */
 510
 511#  if defined(CTYPE256) || (!defined(isascii) && !defined(HAS_ISASCII))
 512
 513#    define isALNUM_LC(c)   (isalnum((unsigned char)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
 514#    define isIDFIRST_LC(c) (isalpha((unsigned char)(c)) || (char)(c) == '_')
 515#    define isALPHA_LC(c)       isalpha((unsigned char)(c))
 516#    define isSPACE_LC(c)       isspace((unsigned char)(c))
 517#    define isDIGIT_LC(c)       isdigit((unsigned char)(c))
 518#    define isUPPER_LC(c)       isupper((unsigned char)(c))
 519#    define isLOWER_LC(c)       islower((unsigned char)(c))
 520#    define isALNUMC_LC(c)      isalnum((unsigned char)(c))
 521#    define isCNTRL_LC(c)       iscntrl((unsigned char)(c))
 522#    define isGRAPH_LC(c)       isgraph((unsigned char)(c))
 523#    define isPRINT_LC(c)       isprint((unsigned char)(c))
 524#    define isPUNCT_LC(c)       ispunct((unsigned char)(c))
 525#    define toUPPER_LC(c)       toupper((unsigned char)(c))
 526#    define toLOWER_LC(c)       tolower((unsigned char)(c))
 527
 528#  else
 529
 530#    define isALNUM_LC(c)       (isascii(c) && (isalnum(c) || (c) == '_'))
 531#    define isIDFIRST_LC(c)     (isascii(c) && (isalpha(c) || (c) == '_'))
 532#    define isALPHA_LC(c)       (isascii(c) && isalpha(c))
 533#    define isSPACE_LC(c)       (isascii(c) && isspace(c))
 534#    define isDIGIT_LC(c)       (isascii(c) && isdigit(c))
 535#    define isUPPER_LC(c)       (isascii(c) && isupper(c))
 536#    define isLOWER_LC(c)       (isascii(c) && islower(c))
 537#    define isALNUMC_LC(c)      (isascii(c) && isalnum(c))
 538#    define isCNTRL_LC(c)       (isascii(c) && iscntrl(c))
 539#    define isGRAPH_LC(c)       (isascii(c) && isgraph(c))
 540#    define isPRINT_LC(c)       (isascii(c) && isprint(c))
 541#    define isPUNCT_LC(c)       (isascii(c) && ispunct(c))
 542#    define toUPPER_LC(c)       toupper(c)
 543#    define toLOWER_LC(c)       tolower(c)
 544
 545#  endif
 546#endif /* USE_NEXT_CTYPE */
 547
 548#define isPSXSPC_LC(c)          (isSPACE_LC(c) || (c) == '\v')
 549#define isBLANK_LC(c)           isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
 550
 551#define isALNUM_uni(c)          is_uni_alnum(c)
 552#define isIDFIRST_uni(c)        is_uni_idfirst(c)
 553#define isALPHA_uni(c)          is_uni_alpha(c)
 554#define isSPACE_uni(c)          is_uni_space(c)
 555#define isDIGIT_uni(c)          is_uni_digit(c)
 556#define isUPPER_uni(c)          is_uni_upper(c)
 557#define isLOWER_uni(c)          is_uni_lower(c)
 558#define isALNUMC_uni(c)         is_uni_alnumc(c)
 559#define isASCII_uni(c)          is_uni_ascii(c)
 560#define isCNTRL_uni(c)          is_uni_cntrl(c)
 561#define isGRAPH_uni(c)          is_uni_graph(c)
 562#define isPRINT_uni(c)          is_uni_print(c)
 563#define isPUNCT_uni(c)          is_uni_punct(c)
 564#define isXDIGIT_uni(c)         is_uni_xdigit(c)
 565#define toUPPER_uni(c,s,l)      to_uni_upper(c,s,l)
 566#define toTITLE_uni(c,s,l)      to_uni_title(c,s,l)
 567#define toLOWER_uni(c,s,l)      to_uni_lower(c,s,l)
 568#define toFOLD_uni(c,s,l)       to_uni_fold(c,s,l)
 569
 570#define isPSXSPC_uni(c)         (isSPACE_uni(c) ||(c) == '\f')
 571#define isBLANK_uni(c)          isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
 572
 573#define isALNUM_LC_uvchr(c)     (c < 256 ? isALNUM_LC(c) : is_uni_alnum_lc(c))
 574#define isIDFIRST_LC_uvchr(c)   (c < 256 ? isIDFIRST_LC(c) : is_uni_idfirst_lc(c))
 575#define isALPHA_LC_uvchr(c)     (c < 256 ? isALPHA_LC(c) : is_uni_alpha_lc(c))
 576#define isSPACE_LC_uvchr(c)     (c < 256 ? isSPACE_LC(c) : is_uni_space_lc(c))
 577#define isDIGIT_LC_uvchr(c)     (c < 256 ? isDIGIT_LC(c) : is_uni_digit_lc(c))
 578#define isUPPER_LC_uvchr(c)     (c < 256 ? isUPPER_LC(c) : is_uni_upper_lc(c))
 579#define isLOWER_LC_uvchr(c)     (c < 256 ? isLOWER_LC(c) : is_uni_lower_lc(c))
 580#define isALNUMC_LC_uvchr(c)    (c < 256 ? isALNUMC_LC(c) : is_uni_alnumc_lc(c))
 581#define isCNTRL_LC_uvchr(c)     (c < 256 ? isCNTRL_LC(c) : is_uni_cntrl_lc(c))
 582#define isGRAPH_LC_uvchr(c)     (c < 256 ? isGRAPH_LC(c) : is_uni_graph_lc(c))
 583#define isPRINT_LC_uvchr(c)     (c < 256 ? isPRINT_LC(c) : is_uni_print_lc(c))
 584#define isPUNCT_LC_uvchr(c)     (c < 256 ? isPUNCT_LC(c) : is_uni_punct_lc(c))
 585
 586#define isPSXSPC_LC_uni(c)      (isSPACE_LC_uni(c) ||(c) == '\f')
 587#define isBLANK_LC_uni(c)       isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
 588
 589#define isALNUM_utf8(p)         is_utf8_alnum(p)
 590/* The ID_Start of Unicode is quite limiting: it assumes a L-class
 591 * character (meaning that you cannot have, say, a CJK character).
 592 * Instead, let's allow ID_Continue but not digits. */
 593#define isIDFIRST_utf8(p)       (is_utf8_idcont(p) && !is_utf8_digit(p))
 594#define isALPHA_utf8(p)         is_utf8_alpha(p)
 595#define isSPACE_utf8(p)         is_utf8_space(p)
 596#define isDIGIT_utf8(p)         is_utf8_digit(p)
 597#define isUPPER_utf8(p)         is_utf8_upper(p)
 598#define isLOWER_utf8(p)         is_utf8_lower(p)
 599#define isALNUMC_utf8(p)        is_utf8_alnumc(p)
 600#define isASCII_utf8(p)         is_utf8_ascii(p)
 601#define isCNTRL_utf8(p)         is_utf8_cntrl(p)
 602#define isGRAPH_utf8(p)         is_utf8_graph(p)
 603#define isPRINT_utf8(p)         is_utf8_print(p)
 604#define isPUNCT_utf8(p)         is_utf8_punct(p)
 605#define isXDIGIT_utf8(p)        is_utf8_xdigit(p)
 606#define toUPPER_utf8(p,s,l)     to_utf8_upper(p,s,l)
 607#define toTITLE_utf8(p,s,l)     to_utf8_title(p,s,l)
 608#define toLOWER_utf8(p,s,l)     to_utf8_lower(p,s,l)
 609
 610#define isPSXSPC_utf8(c)        (isSPACE_utf8(c) ||(c) == '\f')
 611#define isBLANK_utf8(c)         isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
 612
 613#define isALNUM_LC_utf8(p)      isALNUM_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p,  0))
 614#define isIDFIRST_LC_utf8(p)    isIDFIRST_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p,  0))
 615#define isALPHA_LC_utf8(p)      isALPHA_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p,  0))
 616#define isSPACE_LC_utf8(p)      isSPACE_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p,  0))
 617#define isDIGIT_LC_utf8(p)      isDIGIT_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p,  0))
 618#define isUPPER_LC_utf8(p)      isUPPER_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p,  0))
 619#define isLOWER_LC_utf8(p)      isLOWER_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p,  0))
 620#define isALNUMC_LC_utf8(p)     isALNUMC_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p,  0))
 621#define isCNTRL_LC_utf8(p)      isCNTRL_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p,  0))
 622#define isGRAPH_LC_utf8(p)      isGRAPH_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p,  0))
 623#define isPRINT_LC_utf8(p)      isPRINT_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p,  0))
 624#define isPUNCT_LC_utf8(p)      isPUNCT_LC_uvchr(utf8_to_uvchr(p,  0))
 625
 626#define isPSXSPC_LC_utf8(c)     (isSPACE_LC_utf8(c) ||(c) == '\f')
 627#define isBLANK_LC_utf8(c)      isBLANK(c) /* could be wrong */
 628
 629#ifdef EBCDIC
 630#  ifdef PERL_IMPLICIT_CONTEXT
 631#    define toCTRL(c)     Perl_ebcdic_control(aTHX_ c)
 632#  else
 633#    define toCTRL        Perl_ebcdic_control
 634#  endif
 635#else
 636  /* This conversion works both ways, strangely enough. */
 637#  define toCTRL(c)    (toUPPER(c) ^ 64)
 638#endif
 639
 640/* Line numbers are unsigned, 32 bits. */
 641typedef U32 line_t;
 642#define NOLINE ((line_t) 4294967295UL)
 643
 644
 645/*
 646=head1 Memory Management
 647
 648=for apidoc Am|void|Newx|void* ptr|int nitems|type
 649The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function.
 650
 651In 5.9.3, Newx() and friends replace the older New() API, and drops
 652the first parameter, I<x>, a debug aid which allowed callers to identify
 653themselves.  This aid has been superseded by a new build option,
 654PERL_MEM_LOG (see L<perlhack/PERL_MEM_LOG>).  The older API is still
 655there for use in XS modules supporting older perls.
 656
 657=for apidoc Am|void|Newxc|void* ptr|int nitems|type|cast
 658The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function, with
 659cast.  See also C<Newx>.
 660
 661=for apidoc Am|void|Newxz|void* ptr|int nitems|type
 662The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<malloc> function.  The allocated
 663memory is zeroed with C<memzero>.  See also C<Newx>.
 664
 665=for apidoc Am|void|Renew|void* ptr|int nitems|type
 666The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<realloc> function.
 667
 668=for apidoc Am|void|Renewc|void* ptr|int nitems|type|cast
 669The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<realloc> function, with
 670cast.
 671
 672=for apidoc Am|void|Safefree|void* ptr
 673The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<free> function.
 674
 675=for apidoc Am|void|Move|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
 676The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memmove> function.  The C<src> is the
 677source, C<dest> is the destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is
 678the type.  Can do overlapping moves.  See also C<Copy>.
 679
 680=for apidoc Am|void *|MoveD|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
 681Like C<Move> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
 682optimise.
 683
 684=for apidoc Am|void|Copy|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
 685The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memcpy> function.  The C<src> is the
 686source, C<dest> is the destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is
 687the type.  May fail on overlapping copies.  See also C<Move>.
 688
 689=for apidoc Am|void *|CopyD|void* src|void* dest|int nitems|type
 690
 691Like C<Copy> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
 692optimise.
 693
 694=for apidoc Am|void|Zero|void* dest|int nitems|type
 695
 696The XSUB-writer's interface to the C C<memzero> function.  The C<dest> is the
 697destination, C<nitems> is the number of items, and C<type> is the type.
 698
 699=for apidoc Am|void *|ZeroD|void* dest|int nitems|type
 700
 701Like C<Zero> but returns dest. Useful for encouraging compilers to tail-call
 702optimise.
 703
 704=for apidoc Am|void|StructCopy|type src|type dest|type
 705This is an architecture-independent macro to copy one structure to another.
 706
 707=for apidoc Am|void|PoisonWith|void* dest|int nitems|type|U8 byte
 708
 709Fill up memory with a byte pattern (a byte repeated over and over
 710again) that hopefully catches attempts to access uninitialized memory.
 711
 712=for apidoc Am|void|PoisonNew|void* dest|int nitems|type
 713
 714PoisonWith(0xAB) for catching access to allocated but uninitialized memory.
 715
 716=for apidoc Am|void|PoisonFree|void* dest|int nitems|type
 717
 718PoisonWith(0xEF) for catching access to freed memory.
 719
 720=for apidoc Am|void|Poison|void* dest|int nitems|type
 721
 722PoisonWith(0xEF) for catching access to freed memory.
 723
 724=cut */
 725
 726/* Maintained for backwards-compatibility only. Use newSV() instead. */
 727#ifndef PERL_CORE
 728#define NEWSV(x,len)    newSV(len)
 729#endif
 730
 731#define MEM_SIZE_MAX ((MEM_SIZE)~0)
 732
 733/* The +0.0 in MEM_WRAP_CHECK_ is an attempt to foil
 734 * overly eager compilers that will bleat about e.g.
 735 * (U16)n > (size_t)~0/sizeof(U16) always being false. */
 736#ifdef PERL_MALLOC_WRAP
 737#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t) MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,PL_memory_wrap)
 738#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,a) \
 739        (void)(sizeof(t) > 1 && ((MEM_SIZE)(n)+0.0) > MEM_SIZE_MAX/sizeof(t) && (Perl_croak_nocontext("%s",(a)),0))
 740#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t),
 741
 742#define PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(n) ((void)(((n) > MEM_SIZE_MAX - 2 * PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM) ? (Perl_croak_nocontext("%s",PL_memory_wrap),0):0),((n-1+PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM)&~((MEM_SIZE)PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM-1)))
 743
 744#else
 745
 746#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK(n,t)
 747#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_1(n,t,a)
 748#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_2(n,t,a,b)
 749#define MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t)
 750
 751#define PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP(n) (((n-1+PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM)&~((MEM_SIZE)PERL_STRLEN_ROUNDUP_QUANTUM-1)))
 752
 753#endif
 754
 755#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
 756/*
 757 * If PERL_MEM_LOG is defined, all Newx()s, Renew()s, and Safefree()s
 758 * go through functions, which are handy for debugging breakpoints, but
 759 * which more importantly get the immediate calling environment (file and
 760 * line number, and C function name if available) passed in.  This info can
 761 * then be used for logging the calls, for which one gets a sample
 762 * implementation if PERL_MEM_LOG_STDERR is defined.
 763 *
 764 * Known problems:
 765 * - all memory allocs do not get logged, only those
 766 *   that go through Newx() and derivatives (while all
 767 *  Safefrees do get logged)
 768 * - __FILE__ and __LINE__ do not work everywhere
 769 * - __func__ or __FUNCTION__ even less so
 770 * - I think more goes on after the perlio frees but
 771 *   the thing is that STDERR gets closed (as do all
 772 *   the file descriptors)
 773 * - no deeper calling stack than the caller of the Newx()
 774 *   or the kind, but do I look like a C reflection/introspection
 775 *   utility to you?
 776 * - the function prototypes for the logging functions
 777 *   probably should maybe be somewhere else than handy.h
 778 * - one could consider inlining (macrofying) the logging
 779 *   for speed, but I am too lazy
 780 * - one could imagine recording the allocations in a hash,
 781 *   (keyed by the allocation address?), and maintain that
 782 *   through reallocs and frees, but how to do that without
 783 *   any News() happening...?
 784 */
 785
 786PERL_EXPORT_C Malloc_t Perl_mem_log_alloc(const UV n, const UV typesize, const char *type_name, Malloc_t newalloc, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
 787
 788PERL_EXPORT_C Malloc_t Perl_mem_log_realloc(const UV n, const UV typesize, const char *type_name, Malloc_t oldalloc, Malloc_t newalloc, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
 789
 790PERL_EXPORT_C Malloc_t Perl_mem_log_free(Malloc_t oldalloc, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
 791
 792# ifdef PERL_CORE
 793#  ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG_STDERR
 794enum mem_log_type {
 795  MLT_ALLOC,
 796  MLT_REALLOC,
 797  MLT_FREE,
 798  MLT_NEW_SV,
 799  MLT_DEL_SV
 800};
 801#  endif
 802#  if defined(PERL_IN_SV_C)  /* those are only used in sv.c */
 803void Perl_mem_log_new_sv(const SV *sv, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
 804void Perl_mem_log_del_sv(const SV *sv, const char *filename, const int linenumber, const char *funcname);
 805#  endif
 806# endif
 807
 808#endif
 809
 810#ifdef PERL_MEM_LOG
 811#define MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,a)     Perl_mem_log_alloc(n,sizeof(t),STRINGIFY(t),a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
 812#define MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,a) Perl_mem_log_realloc(n,sizeof(t),STRINGIFY(t),v,a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
 813#define MEM_LOG_FREE(a)          Perl_mem_log_free(a,__FILE__,__LINE__,FUNCTION__)
 814#endif
 815
 816#ifndef MEM_LOG_ALLOC
 817#define MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,a)     (a)
 818#endif
 819#ifndef MEM_LOG_REALLOC
 820#define MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,a) (a)
 821#endif
 822#ifndef MEM_LOG_FREE
 823#define MEM_LOG_FREE(a)          (a)
 824#endif
 825
 826#define Newx(v,n,t)     (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (t*)MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,safemalloc((MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
 827#define Newxc(v,n,t,c)  (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (c*)MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,safemalloc((MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
 828#define Newxz(v,n,t)    (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (t*)MEM_LOG_ALLOC(n,t,safecalloc((n),sizeof(t)))))
 829
 830#ifndef PERL_CORE
 831/* pre 5.9.x compatibility */
 832#define New(x,v,n,t)    Newx(v,n,t)
 833#define Newc(x,v,n,t,c) Newxc(v,n,t,c)
 834#define Newz(x,v,n,t)   Newxz(v,n,t)
 835#endif
 836
 837#define Renew(v,n,t) \
 838          (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (t*)MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,saferealloc((Malloc_t)(v),(MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
 839#define Renewc(v,n,t,c) \
 840          (v = (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (c*)MEM_LOG_REALLOC(n,t,v,saferealloc((Malloc_t)(v),(MEM_SIZE)((n)*sizeof(t))))))
 841
 842#ifdef PERL_POISON
 843#define Safefree(d) \
 844  ((d) ? (void)(safefree(MEM_LOG_FREE((Malloc_t)(d))), Poison(&(d), 1, Malloc_t)) : (void) 0)
 845#else
 846#define Safefree(d)     safefree(MEM_LOG_FREE((Malloc_t)(d)))
 847#endif
 848
 849#define Move(s,d,n,t)   (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memmove((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
 850#define Copy(s,d,n,t)   (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memcpy((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
 851#define Zero(d,n,t)     (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)))
 852
 853#define MoveD(s,d,n,t)  (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memmove((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
 854#define CopyD(s,d,n,t)  (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memcpy((char*)(d),(const char*)(s), (n) * sizeof(t)))
 855#ifdef HAS_MEMSET
 856#define ZeroD(d,n,t)    (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)))
 857#else
 858/* Using bzero(), which returns void.  */
 859#define ZeroD(d,n,t)    (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) memzero((char*)(d), (n) * sizeof(t)),d)
 860#endif
 861
 862#define PoisonWith(d,n,t,b)     (MEM_WRAP_CHECK_(n,t) (void)memset((char*)(d), (U8)(b), (n) * sizeof(t)))
 863#define PoisonNew(d,n,t)        PoisonWith(d,n,t,0xAB)
 864#define PoisonFree(d,n,t)       PoisonWith(d,n,t,0xEF)
 865#define Poison(d,n,t)           PoisonFree(d,n,t)
 866
 867#ifdef USE_STRUCT_COPY
 868#define StructCopy(s,d,t) (*((t*)(d)) = *((t*)(s)))
 869#else
 870#define StructCopy(s,d,t) Copy(s,d,1,t)
 871#endif
 872
 873#define C_ARRAY_LENGTH(a)       (sizeof(a)/sizeof((a)[0]))
 874
 875#ifdef NEED_VA_COPY
 876# ifdef va_copy
 877#  define Perl_va_copy(s, d) va_copy(d, s)
 878# else
 879#  if defined(__va_copy)
 880#   define Perl_va_copy(s, d) __va_copy(d, s)
 881#  else
 882#   define Perl_va_copy(s, d) Copy(s, d, 1, va_list)
 883#  endif
 884# endif
 885#endif
 886
 887/* convenience debug macros */
 888#ifdef USE_ITHREADS
 889#define pTHX_FORMAT  "Perl interpreter: 0x%p"
 890#define pTHX__FORMAT ", Perl interpreter: 0x%p"
 891#define pTHX_VALUE_   (void *)my_perl,
 892#define pTHX_VALUE    (void *)my_perl
 893#define pTHX__VALUE_ ,(void *)my_perl,
 894#define pTHX__VALUE  ,(void *)my_perl
 895#else
 896#define pTHX_FORMAT
 897#define pTHX__FORMAT
 898#define pTHX_VALUE_
 899#define pTHX_VALUE
 900#define pTHX__VALUE_
 901#define pTHX__VALUE
 902#endif /* USE_ITHREADS */
 903
 904/*
 905 * Local variables:
 906 * c-indentation-style: bsd
 907 * c-basic-offset: 4
 908 * indent-tabs-mode: t
 909 * End:
 910 *
 911 * ex: set ts=8 sts=4 sw=4 noet:
 912 */
 913
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