perl/README.solaris
<<
>>
Prefs
   1If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
   2see.  It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
   3specifically designed to be readable as is.
   4
   5=head1 NAME
   6
   7README.solaris - Perl version 5 on Solaris systems
   8
   9=head1 DESCRIPTION
  10
  11This document describes various features of Sun's Solaris operating system
  12that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just perl) is
  13compiled and/or runs.  Some issues relating to the older SunOS 4.x are
  14also discussed, though they may be out of date.
  15
  16For the most part, everything should just work.
  17
  18Starting with Solaris 8, perl5.00503 (or higher) is supplied with the
  19operating system, so you might not even need to build a newer version
  20of perl at all.  The Sun-supplied version is installed in /usr/perl5
  21with /usr/bin/perl pointing to /usr/perl5/bin/perl.  Do not disturb
  22that installation unless you really know what you are doing.  If you
  23remove the perl supplied with the OS, you will render some bits of
  24your system inoperable.  If you wish to install a newer version of perl,
  25install it under a different prefix from /usr/perl5.  Common prefixes
  26to use are /usr/local and /opt/perl.
  27
  28You may wish to put your version of perl in the PATH of all users by
  29changing the link /usr/bin/perl.  This is probably OK, as most perl
  30scripts shipped with Solaris use an explicit path.  (There are a few
  31exceptions, such as /usr/bin/rpm2cpio and /etc/rcm/scripts/README, but
  32these are also sufficiently generic that the actual version of perl
  33probably doesn't matter too much.)
  34
  35Solaris ships with a range of Solaris-specific modules.  If you choose
  36to install your own version of perl you will find the source of many of
  37these modules is available on CPAN under the Sun::Solaris:: namespace.
  38
  39Solaris may include two versions of perl, e.g. Solaris 9 includes
  40both 5.005_03 and 5.6.1.  This is to provide stability across Solaris
  41releases, in cases where a later perl version has incompatibilities
  42with the version included in the preceeding Solaris release.  The
  43default perl version will always be the most recent, and in general
  44the old version will only be retained for one Solaris release.  Note
  45also that the default perl will NOT be configured to search for modules
  46in the older version, again due to compatibility/stability concerns.
  47As a consequence if you upgrade Solaris, you will have to
  48rebuild/reinstall any additional CPAN modules that you installed for
  49the previous Solaris version.  See the CPAN manpage under 'autobundle'
  50for a quick way of doing this.
  51
  52As an interim measure, you may either change the #! line of your
  53scripts to specifically refer to the old perl version, e.g. on
  54Solaris 9 use #!/usr/perl5/5.00503/bin/perl to use the perl version
  55that was the default for Solaris 8, or if you have a large number of
  56scripts it may be more convenient to make the old version of perl the
  57default on your system.  You can do this by changing the appropriate
  58symlinks under /usr/perl5 as follows (example for Solaris 9):
  59
  60 # cd /usr/perl5
  61 # rm bin man pod
  62 # ln -s ./5.00503/bin
  63 # ln -s ./5.00503/man
  64 # ln -s ./5.00503/lib/pod
  65 # rm /usr/bin/perl
  66 # ln -s ../perl5/5.00503/bin/perl /usr/bin/perl
  67
  68In both cases this should only be considered to be a temporary
  69measure - you should upgrade to the later version of perl as soon as
  70is practicable.
  71
  72Note also that the perl command-line utilities (e.g. perldoc) and any
  73that are added by modules that you install will be under
  74/usr/perl5/bin, so that directory should be added to your PATH.
  75
  76=head2 Solaris Version Numbers.
  77
  78For consistency with common usage, perl's Configure script performs
  79some minor manipulations on the operating system name and version
  80number as reported by uname.  Here's a partial translation table:
  81
  82          Sun:                      perl's Configure:
  83 uname    uname -r   Name           osname     osvers
  84 SunOS    4.1.3     Solaris 1.1     sunos      4.1.3
  85 SunOS    5.6       Solaris 2.6     solaris    2.6
  86 SunOS    5.8       Solaris 8       solaris    2.8
  87 SunOS    5.9       Solaris 9       solaris    2.9
  88 SunOS    5.10      Solaris 10      solaris    2.10
  89
  90The complete table can be found in the Sun Managers' FAQ
  91L<ftp://ftp.cs.toronto.edu/pub/jdd/sunmanagers/faq> under
  92"9.1) Which Sun models run which versions of SunOS?".
  93
  94=head1 RESOURCES
  95
  96There are many, many sources for Solaris information.  A few of the
  97important ones for perl:
  98
  99=over 4
 100
 101=item Solaris FAQ
 102
 103The Solaris FAQ is available at
 104L<http://www.science.uva.nl/pub/solaris/solaris2.html>.
 105
 106The Sun Managers' FAQ is available at
 107L<ftp://ftp.cs.toronto.edu/pub/jdd/sunmanagers/faq>
 108
 109=item Precompiled Binaries
 110
 111Precompiled binaries, links to many sites, and much, much more are
 112available at L<http://www.sunfreeware.com/> and
 113L<http://www.blastwave.org/>.
 114
 115=item Solaris Documentation
 116
 117All Solaris documentation is available on-line at L<http://docs.sun.com/>.
 118
 119=back
 120
 121=head1 SETTING UP
 122
 123=head2 File Extraction Problems on Solaris.
 124
 125Be sure to use a tar program compiled under Solaris (not SunOS 4.x)
 126to extract the perl-5.x.x.tar.gz file.  Do not use GNU tar compiled
 127for SunOS4 on Solaris.  (GNU tar compiled for Solaris should be fine.)
 128When you run SunOS4 binaries on Solaris, the run-time system magically
 129alters pathnames matching m#lib/locale# so that when tar tries to create
 130lib/locale.pm, a file named lib/oldlocale.pm gets created instead.
 131If you found this advice too late and used a SunOS4-compiled tar
 132anyway, you must find the incorrectly renamed file and move it back
 133to lib/locale.pm.
 134
 135=head2 Compiler and Related Tools on Solaris.
 136
 137You must use an ANSI C compiler to build perl.  Perl can be compiled
 138with either Sun's add-on C compiler or with gcc.  The C compiler that
 139shipped with SunOS4 will not do.
 140
 141=head3 Include /usr/ccs/bin/ in your PATH.
 142
 143Several tools needed to build perl are located in /usr/ccs/bin/:  ar,
 144as, ld, and make.  Make sure that /usr/ccs/bin/ is in your PATH.
 145
 146You need to make sure the following packages are installed
 147(this info is extracted from the Solaris FAQ):
 148
 149for tools (sccs, lex, yacc, make, nm, truss, ld, as): SUNWbtool,
 150SUNWsprot, SUNWtoo
 151
 152for libraries & headers: SUNWhea, SUNWarc, SUNWlibm, SUNWlibms, SUNWdfbh,
 153SUNWcg6h, SUNWxwinc, SUNWolinc
 154
 155for 64 bit development: SUNWarcx, SUNWbtoox, SUNWdplx, SUNWscpux,
 156SUNWsprox, SUNWtoox, SUNWlmsx, SUNWlmx, SUNWlibCx
 157
 158If you are in doubt which package contains a file you are missing,
 159try to find an installation that has that file. Then do a
 160
 161 $ grep /my/missing/file /var/sadm/install/contents
 162
 163This will display a line like this:
 164
 165/usr/include/sys/errno.h f none 0644 root bin 7471 37605 956241356 SUNWhea
 166
 167The last item listed (SUNWhea in this example) is the package you need.
 168
 169=head3 Avoid /usr/ucb/cc.
 170
 171You don't need to have /usr/ucb/ in your PATH to build perl.  If you
 172want /usr/ucb/ in your PATH anyway, make sure that /usr/ucb/ is NOT
 173in your PATH before the directory containing the right C compiler.
 174
 175=head3 Sun's C Compiler
 176
 177If you use Sun's C compiler, make sure the correct directory
 178(usually /opt/SUNWspro/bin/) is in your PATH (before /usr/ucb/).
 179
 180=head3 GCC
 181
 182If you use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and complete.
 183perl versions since 5.6.0 build fine with gcc > 2.8.1 on Solaris >=
 1842.6.
 185
 186You must Configure perl with
 187
 188 $ sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
 189
 190If you don't, you may experience strange build errors.
 191
 192If you have updated your Solaris version, you may also have to update
 193your gcc.  For example, if you are running Solaris 2.6 and your gcc is
 194installed under /usr/local, check in /usr/local/lib/gcc-lib and make
 195sure you have the appropriate directory, sparc-sun-solaris2.6/ or
 196i386-pc-solaris2.6/.  If gcc's directory is for a different version of
 197Solaris than you are running, then you will need to rebuild gcc for
 198your new version of Solaris.
 199
 200You can get a precompiled version of gcc from
 201L<http://www.sunfreeware.com/> or L<http://www.blastwave.org/>. Make
 202sure you pick up the package for your Solaris release.
 203
 204If you wish to use gcc to build add-on modules for use with the perl
 205shipped with Solaris, you should use the Solaris::PerlGcc module
 206which is available from CPAN.  The perl shipped with Solaris
 207is configured and built with the Sun compilers, and the compiler
 208configuration information stored in Config.pm is therefore only
 209relevant to the Sun compilers.  The Solaris:PerlGcc module contains a
 210replacement Config.pm that is correct for gcc - see the module for
 211details.
 212
 213=head3 GNU as and GNU ld
 214
 215The following information applies to gcc version 2.  Volunteers to
 216update it as appropropriate for gcc version 3 would be appreciated.
 217
 218The versions of as and ld supplied with Solaris work fine for building
 219perl.  There is normally no need to install the GNU versions to
 220compile perl.
 221
 222If you decide to ignore this advice and use the GNU versions anyway,
 223then be sure that they are relatively recent.  Versions newer than 2.7
 224are apparently new enough.  Older versions may have trouble with
 225dynamic loading.
 226
 227If you wish to use GNU ld, then you need to pass it the -Wl,-E flag.
 228The hints/solaris_2.sh file tries to do this automatically by setting
 229the following Configure variables:
 230
 231 ccdlflags="$ccdlflags -Wl,-E"
 232 lddlflags="$lddlflags -Wl,-E -G"
 233
 234However, over the years, changes in gcc, GNU ld, and Solaris ld have made
 235it difficult to automatically detect which ld ultimately gets called.
 236You may have to manually edit config.sh and add the -Wl,-E flags
 237yourself, or else run Configure interactively and add the flags at the
 238appropriate prompts.
 239
 240If your gcc is configured to use GNU as and ld but you want to use the
 241Solaris ones instead to build perl, then you'll need to add
 242-B/usr/ccs/bin/ to the gcc command line.  One convenient way to do
 243that is with
 244
 245 $ sh Configure -Dcc='gcc -B/usr/ccs/bin/'
 246
 247Note that the trailing slash is required.  This will result in some
 248harmless warnings as Configure is run:
 249
 250 gcc: file path prefix `/usr/ccs/bin/' never used
 251
 252These messages may safely be ignored.
 253(Note that for a SunOS4 system, you must use -B/bin/ instead.)
 254
 255Alternatively, you can use the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX environment variable to
 256ensure that Sun's as and ld are used.  Consult your gcc documentation
 257for further information on the -B option and the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX variable.
 258
 259=head3 Sun and GNU make
 260
 261The make under /usr/ccs/bin works fine for building perl.  If you
 262have the Sun C compilers, you will also have a parallel version of
 263make (dmake).  This works fine to build perl, but can sometimes cause
 264problems when running 'make test' due to underspecified dependencies
 265between the different test harness files.  The same problem can also
 266affect the building of some add-on modules, so in those cases either
 267specify '-m serial' on the dmake command line, or use
 268/usr/ccs/bin/make instead.  If you wish to use GNU make, be sure that
 269the set-group-id bit is not set.  If it is, then arrange your PATH so
 270that /usr/ccs/bin/make is before GNU make or else have the system
 271administrator disable the set-group-id bit on GNU make.
 272
 273=head3 Avoid libucb.
 274
 275Solaris provides some BSD-compatibility functions in /usr/ucblib/libucb.a.
 276Perl will not build and run correctly if linked against -lucb since it
 277contains routines that are incompatible with the standard Solaris libc.
 278Normally this is not a problem since the solaris hints file prevents
 279Configure from even looking in /usr/ucblib for libraries, and also
 280explicitly omits -lucb.
 281
 282=head2 Environment for Compiling perl on Solaris
 283
 284=head3 PATH
 285
 286Make sure your PATH includes the compiler (/opt/SUNWspro/bin/ if you're
 287using Sun's compiler) as well as /usr/ccs/bin/ to pick up the other
 288development tools (such as make, ar, as, and ld).  Make sure your path
 289either doesn't include /usr/ucb or that it includes it after the
 290compiler and compiler tools and other standard Solaris directories.
 291You definitely don't want /usr/ucb/cc.
 292
 293=head3 LD_LIBRARY_PATH
 294
 295If you have the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable set, be sure that
 296it does NOT include /lib or /usr/lib.  If you will be building
 297extensions that call third-party shared libraries (e.g. Berkeley DB)
 298then make sure that your LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes
 299the directory with that library (e.g. /usr/local/lib).
 300
 301If you get an error message
 302
 303 dlopen: stub interception failed
 304
 305it is probably because your LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable
 306includes a directory which is a symlink to /usr/lib (such as /lib).
 307The reason this causes a problem is quite subtle.  The file
 308libdl.so.1.0 actually *only* contains functions which generate 'stub
 309interception failed' errors!  The runtime linker intercepts links to
 310"/usr/lib/libdl.so.1.0" and links in internal implementations of those
 311functions instead.  [Thanks to Tim Bunce for this explanation.]
 312
 313=head1 RUN CONFIGURE.
 314
 315See the INSTALL file for general information regarding Configure.
 316Only Solaris-specific issues are discussed here.  Usually, the
 317defaults should be fine.
 318
 319=head2 64-bit perl on Solaris.
 320
 321See the INSTALL file for general information regarding 64-bit compiles.
 322In general, the defaults should be fine for most people.
 323
 324By default, perl-5.6.0 (or later) is compiled as a 32-bit application
 325with largefile and long-long support.
 326
 327=head3 General 32-bit vs. 64-bit issues.
 328
 329Solaris 7 and above will run in either 32 bit or 64 bit mode on SPARC
 330CPUs, via a reboot. You can build 64 bit apps whilst running 32 bit
 331mode and vice-versa. 32 bit apps will run under Solaris running in
 332either 32 or 64 bit mode.  64 bit apps require Solaris to be running
 33364 bit mode.
 334
 335Existing 32 bit apps are properly known as LP32, i.e. Longs and
 336Pointers are 32 bit.  64-bit apps are more properly known as LP64.
 337The discriminating feature of a LP64 bit app is its ability to utilise a
 33864-bit address space.  It is perfectly possible to have a LP32 bit app
 339that supports both 64-bit integers (long long) and largefiles (> 2GB),
 340and this is the default for perl-5.6.0.
 341
 342For a more complete explanation of 64-bit issues, see the
 343"Solaris 64-bit Developer's Guide" at L<http://docs.sun.com/>
 344
 345You can detect the OS mode using "isainfo -v", e.g.
 346
 347 $ isainfo -v   # Ultra 30 in 64 bit mode
 348 64-bit sparcv9 applications
 349 32-bit sparc applications
 350
 351By default, perl will be compiled as a 32-bit application.  Unless
 352you want to allocate more than ~ 4GB of memory inside perl, or unless
 353you need more than 255 open file descriptors, you probably don't need
 354perl to be a 64-bit app.
 355
 356=head3 Large File Support
 357
 358For Solaris 2.6 and onwards, there are two different ways for 32-bit
 359applications to manipulate large files (files whose size is > 2GByte).
 360(A 64-bit application automatically has largefile support built in
 361by default.)
 362
 363First is the "transitional compilation environment", described in
 364lfcompile64(5).  According to the man page,
 365
 366 The transitional compilation  environment  exports  all  the
 367 explicit 64-bit functions (xxx64()) and types in addition to
 368 all the regular functions (xxx()) and types. Both xxx()  and
 369 xxx64()  functions  are  available to the program source.  A
 370 32-bit application must use the xxx64() functions in  order
 371 to  access  large  files.  See the lf64(5) manual page for a
 372 complete listing of the 64-bit transitional interfaces.
 373
 374The transitional compilation environment is obtained with the
 375following compiler and linker flags:
 376
 377 getconf LFS64_CFLAGS        -D_LARGEFILE64_SOURCE
 378 getconf LFS64_LDFLAG        # nothing special needed
 379 getconf LFS64_LIBS          # nothing special needed
 380
 381Second is the "large file compilation environment", described in
 382lfcompile(5).  According to the man page,
 383
 384 Each interface named xxx() that needs to access 64-bit entities
 385 to  access  large  files maps to a xxx64() call in the
 386 resulting binary. All relevant data types are defined to  be
 387 of correct size (for example, off_t has a typedef definition
 388 for a 64-bit entity).
 389
 390 An application compiled in this environment is able  to  use
 391 the  xxx()  source interfaces to access both large and small
 392 files, rather than having to explicitly utilize the  transitional
 393 xxx64()  interface  calls to access large files.
 394
 395Two exceptions are fseek() and ftell().  32-bit applications should
 396use fseeko(3C) and ftello(3C).  These will get automatically mapped
 397to fseeko64() and ftello64().
 398
 399The large file compilation environment is obtained with
 400
 401 getconf LFS_CFLAGS      -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64
 402 getconf LFS_LDFLAGS     # nothing special needed
 403 getconf LFS_LIBS        # nothing special needed
 404
 405By default, perl uses the large file compilation environment and
 406relies on Solaris to do the underlying mapping of interfaces.
 407
 408=head3 Building an LP64 perl
 409
 410To compile a 64-bit application on an UltraSparc with a recent Sun Compiler,
 411you need to use the flag "-xarch=v9".  getconf(1) will tell you this, e.g.
 412
 413 $ getconf -a | grep v9
 414 XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS:         -xarch=v9
 415 XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS:        -xarch=v9
 416 XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LINTFLAGS:      -xarch=v9
 417 XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_CFLAGS:       -xarch=v9
 418 XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS:      -xarch=v9
 419 XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS:    -xarch=v9
 420 _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS:        -xarch=v9
 421 _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS:       -xarch=v9
 422 _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LINTFLAGS:     -xarch=v9
 423 _XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_CFLAGS:      -xarch=v9
 424 _XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS:     -xarch=v9
 425 _XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS:   -xarch=v9
 426
 427This flag is supported in Sun WorkShop Compilers 5.0 and onwards
 428(now marketed under the name Forte) when used on Solaris 7 or later on
 429UltraSparc systems.
 430
 431If you are using gcc, you would need to use -mcpu=v9 -m64 instead.  This
 432option is not yet supported as of gcc 2.95.2; from install/SPECIFIC
 433in that release:
 434
 435 GCC version 2.95 is not able to compile code correctly for sparc64
 436 targets. Users of the Linux kernel, at least, can use the sparc32
 437 program to start up a new shell invocation with an environment that
 438 causes configure to recognize (via uname -a) the system as sparc-*-*
 439 instead.
 440
 441All this should be handled automatically by the hints file, if
 442requested.
 443
 444=head3 Long Doubles.
 445
 446As of 5.8.1, long doubles are working if you use the Sun compilers
 447(needed for additional math routines not included in libm).
 448
 449=head2 Threads in perl on Solaris.
 450
 451It is possible to build a threaded version of perl on Solaris.  The entire
 452perl thread implementation is still experimental, however, so beware.
 453
 454=head2 Malloc Issues with perl on Solaris.
 455
 456Starting from perl 5.7.1 perl uses the Solaris malloc, since the perl
 457malloc breaks when dealing with more than 2GB of memory, and the Solaris
 458malloc also seems to be faster.
 459
 460If you for some reason (such as binary backward compatibility) really
 461need to use perl's malloc, you can rebuild perl from the sources
 462and Configure the build with 
 463
 464 $ sh Configure -Dusemymalloc
 465
 466You should not use perl's malloc if you are building with gcc.  There
 467are reports of core dumps, especially in the PDL module.  The problem
 468appears to go away under -DDEBUGGING, so it has been difficult to
 469track down.  Sun's compiler appears to be okay with or without perl's
 470malloc. [XXX further investigation is needed here.]
 471
 472=head1 MAKE PROBLEMS.
 473
 474=over 4
 475
 476=item Dynamic Loading Problems With GNU as and GNU ld
 477
 478If you have problems with dynamic loading using gcc on SunOS or
 479Solaris, and you are using GNU as and GNU ld, see the section
 480L<"GNU as and GNU ld"> above.
 481
 482=item ld.so.1: ./perl: fatal: relocation error:
 483
 484If you get this message on SunOS or Solaris, and you're using gcc,
 485it's probably the GNU as or GNU ld problem in the previous item
 486L<"GNU as and GNU ld">.
 487
 488=item dlopen: stub interception failed
 489
 490The primary cause of the 'dlopen: stub interception failed' message is
 491that the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes a directory
 492which is a symlink to /usr/lib (such as /lib).  See
 493L<"LD_LIBRARY_PATH"> above.
 494
 495=item #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified"
 496
 497This is a common error when trying to build perl on Solaris 2.6 with a
 498gcc installation from Solaris 2.5 or 2.5.1.  The Solaris header files
 499changed, so you need to update your gcc installation.  You can either
 500rerun the fixincludes script from gcc or take the opportunity to
 501update your gcc installation.
 502
 503=item sh: ar: not found
 504
 505This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
 506was not found.  You need to check your PATH environment variable to
 507make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command.  This
 508is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin/
 509directory.
 510
 511=back
 512
 513=head1 MAKE TEST
 514
 515=head2 op/stat.t test 4 in Solaris
 516
 517op/stat.t test 4 may fail if you are on a tmpfs of some sort.
 518Building in /tmp sometimes shows this behavior.  The
 519test suite detects if you are building in /tmp, but it may not be able
 520to catch all tmpfs situations.
 521
 522=head2 nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
 523
 524See L<perlhpux/"nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent">.
 525
 526=head1 PREBUILT BINARIES OF PERL FOR SOLARIS.
 527
 528You can pick up prebuilt binaries for Solaris from
 529L<http://www.sunfreeware.com/>, L<http://www.blastwave.org>,
 530ActiveState L<http://www.activestate.com/>, and
 531L<http://www.perl.com/> under the Binaries list at the top of the
 532page.  There are probably other sources as well.  Please note that
 533these sites are under the control of their respective owners, not the
 534perl developers.
 535
 536=head1 RUNTIME ISSUES FOR PERL ON SOLARIS.
 537
 538=head2 Limits on Numbers of Open Files on Solaris.
 539
 540The stdio(3C) manpage notes that for LP32 applications, only 255
 541files may be opened using fopen(), and only file descriptors 0
 542through 255 can be used in a stream.  Since perl calls open() and
 543then fdopen(3C) with the resulting file descriptor, perl is limited
 544to 255 simultaneous open files, even if sysopen() is used.  If this
 545proves to be an insurmountable problem, you can compile perl as a
 546LP64 application, see L<Building an LP64 perl> for details.  Note
 547also that the default resource limit for open file descriptors on
 548Solaris is 255, so you will have to modify your ulimit or rctl
 549(Solaris 9 onwards) appropriately.
 550
 551=head1 SOLARIS-SPECIFIC MODULES.
 552
 553See the modules under the Solaris:: and Sun::Solaris namespaces on CPAN,
 554see L<http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/Solaris/> and
 555L<http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/Sun/>.
 556
 557=head1 SOLARIS-SPECIFIC PROBLEMS WITH MODULES.
 558
 559=head2 Proc::ProcessTable on Solaris
 560
 561Proc::ProcessTable does not compile on Solaris with perl5.6.0 and higher
 562if you have LARGEFILES defined.  Since largefile support is the
 563default in 5.6.0 and later, you have to take special steps to use this
 564module.
 565
 566The problem is that various structures visible via procfs use off_t,
 567and if you compile with largefile support these change from 32 bits to
 56864 bits.  Thus what you get back from procfs doesn't match up with
 569the structures in perl, resulting in garbage.  See proc(4) for further
 570discussion.
 571
 572A fix for Proc::ProcessTable is to edit Makefile to
 573explicitly remove the largefile flags from the ones MakeMaker picks up
 574from Config.pm.  This will result in Proc::ProcessTable being built
 575under the correct environment.  Everything should then be OK as long as
 576Proc::ProcessTable doesn't try to share off_t's with the rest of perl,
 577or if it does they should be explicitly specified as off64_t.
 578
 579=head2 BSD::Resource on Solaris
 580
 581BSD::Resource versions earlier than 1.09 do not compile on Solaris
 582with perl 5.6.0 and higher, for the same reasons as Proc::ProcessTable.
 583BSD::Resource versions starting from 1.09 have a workaround for the problem.
 584
 585=head2 Net::SSLeay on Solaris
 586
 587Net::SSLeay requires a /dev/urandom to be present. This device is
 588available from Solaris 9 onwards.  For earlier Solaris versions you
 589can either get the package SUNWski (packaged with several Sun
 590software products, for example the Sun WebServer, which is part of
 591the Solaris Server Intranet Extension, or the Sun Directory Services,
 592part of Solaris for ISPs) or download the ANDIrand package from
 593L<http://www.cosy.sbg.ac.at/~andi/>. If you use SUNWski, make a
 594symbolic link /dev/urandom pointing to /dev/random.  For more details,
 595see Document ID27606 entitled "Differing /dev/random support requirements
 596within Solaris[TM] Operating Environments", available at
 597http://sunsolve.sun.com .
 598
 599It may be possible to use the Entropy Gathering Daemon (written in
 600Perl!), available from L<http://www.lothar.com/tech/crypto/>.
 601
 602=head1 SunOS 4.x
 603
 604In SunOS 4.x you most probably want to use the SunOS ld, /usr/bin/ld,
 605since the more recent versions of GNU ld (like 2.13) do not seem to
 606work for building Perl anymore.  When linking the extensions, the
 607GNU ld gets very unhappy and spews a lot of errors like this
 608
 609  ... relocation truncated to fit: BASE13 ...
 610
 611and dies.  Therefore the SunOS 4.1 hints file explicitly sets the
 612ld to be /usr/bin/ld.
 613
 614As of Perl 5.8.1 the dynamic loading of libraries (DynaLoader, XSLoader)
 615also seems to have become broken in in SunOS 4.x.  Therefore the default
 616is to build Perl statically.
 617
 618Running the test suite in SunOS 4.1 is a bit tricky since the
 619F<lib/Tie/File/t/09_gen_rs> test hangs (subtest #51, FWIW) for some
 620unknown reason.  Just stop the test and kill that particular Perl
 621process.
 622
 623There are various other failures, that as of SunOS 4.1.4 and gcc 3.2.2
 624look a lot like gcc bugs.  Many of the failures happen in the Encode
 625tests, where for example when the test expects "0" you get "&#48;"
 626which should after a little squinting look very odd indeed.
 627Another example is earlier in F<t/run/fresh_perl> where chr(0xff) is
 628expected but the test fails because the result is chr(0xff).  Exactly.
 629
 630This is the "make test" result from the said combination:
 631
 632  Failed 27 test scripts out of 745, 96.38% okay.
 633
 634Running the C<harness> is painful because of the many failing
 635Unicode-related tests will output megabytes of failure messages,
 636but if one patiently waits, one gets these results:
 637
 638 Failed Test                     Stat Wstat Total Fail  Failed  List of Failed
 639 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
 640 ...
 641 ../ext/Encode/t/at-cn.t            4  1024    29    4  13.79%  14-17
 642 ../ext/Encode/t/at-tw.t           10  2560    17   10  58.82%  2 4 6 8 10 12
 643                                                                14-17
 644 ../ext/Encode/t/enc_data.t        29  7424    ??   ??       %  ??
 645 ../ext/Encode/t/enc_eucjp.t       29  7424    ??   ??       %  ??
 646 ../ext/Encode/t/enc_module.t      29  7424    ??   ??       %  ??
 647 ../ext/Encode/t/encoding.t        29  7424    ??   ??       %  ??
 648 ../ext/Encode/t/grow.t            12  3072    24   12  50.00%  2 4 6 8 10 12 14
 649                                                                16 18 20 22 24
 650  Failed Test                     Stat Wstat Total Fail  Failed  List of Failed
 651 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 652 ../ext/Encode/t/guess.t          255 65280    29   40 137.93%  10-29
 653 ../ext/Encode/t/jperl.t           29  7424    15   30 200.00%  1-15
 654 ../ext/Encode/t/mime-header.t      2   512    10    2  20.00%  2-3
 655 ../ext/Encode/t/perlio.t          22  5632    38   22  57.89%  1-4 9-16 19-20
 656                                                                23-24 27-32
 657 ../ext/List/Util/t/shuffle.t       0   139    ??   ??       %  ??
 658 ../ext/PerlIO/t/encoding.t                    14    1   7.14%  11
 659 ../ext/PerlIO/t/fallback.t                     9    2  22.22%  3 5
 660 ../ext/Socket/t/socketpair.t       0     2    45   70 155.56%  11-45
 661 ../lib/CPAN/t/vcmp.t                          30    1   3.33%  25
 662 ../lib/Tie/File/t/09_gen_rs.t      0    15    ??   ??       %  ??
 663 ../lib/Unicode/Collate/t/test.t              199   30  15.08%  7 26-27 71-75
 664                                                                81-88 95 101
 665                                                                103-104 106 108-
 666                                                                109 122 124 161
 667                                                                169-172
 668 ../lib/sort.t                      0   139   119   26  21.85%  107-119
 669 op/alarm.t                                     4    1  25.00%  4
 670 op/utfhash.t                                  97    1   1.03%  31
 671 run/fresh_perl.t                              91    1   1.10%  32
 672 uni/tr_7jis.t                                 ??   ??       %  ??
 673 uni/tr_eucjp.t                    29  7424     6   12 200.00%  1-6
 674 uni/tr_sjis.t                     29  7424     6   12 200.00%  1-6
 675 56 tests and 467 subtests skipped.
 676 Failed 27/811 test scripts, 96.67% okay. 1383/75399 subtests failed, 98.17% okay.
 677
 678The alarm() test failure is caused by system() apparently blocking
 679alarm().  That is probably a libc bug, and given that SunOS 4.x
 680has been end-of-lifed years ago, don't hold your breath for a fix.
 681In addition to that, don't try anything too Unicode-y, especially
 682with Encode, and you should be fine in SunOS 4.x.
 683
 684=head1 AUTHOR
 685
 686The original was written by Andy Dougherty F<doughera@lafayette.edu>
 687drawing heavily on advice from Alan Burlison, Nick Ing-Simmons, Tim Bunce,
 688and many other Solaris users over the years.
 689
 690Please report any errors, updates, or suggestions to F<perlbug@perl.org>.
 691
lxr.linux.no kindly hosted by Redpill Linpro AS, provider of Linux consulting and operations services since 1995.