linux/include/linux/kernel.h
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   1#ifndef _LINUX_KERNEL_H
   2#define _LINUX_KERNEL_H
   3
   4
   5#include <stdarg.h>
   6#include <linux/linkage.h>
   7#include <linux/stddef.h>
   8#include <linux/types.h>
   9#include <linux/compiler.h>
  10#include <linux/bitops.h>
  11#include <linux/log2.h>
  12#include <linux/typecheck.h>
  13#include <linux/printk.h>
  14#include <linux/dynamic_debug.h>
  15#include <asm/byteorder.h>
  16#include <uapi/linux/kernel.h>
  17
  18#define USHRT_MAX       ((u16)(~0U))
  19#define SHRT_MAX        ((s16)(USHRT_MAX>>1))
  20#define SHRT_MIN        ((s16)(-SHRT_MAX - 1))
  21#define INT_MAX         ((int)(~0U>>1))
  22#define INT_MIN         (-INT_MAX - 1)
  23#define UINT_MAX        (~0U)
  24#define LONG_MAX        ((long)(~0UL>>1))
  25#define LONG_MIN        (-LONG_MAX - 1)
  26#define ULONG_MAX       (~0UL)
  27#define LLONG_MAX       ((long long)(~0ULL>>1))
  28#define LLONG_MIN       (-LLONG_MAX - 1)
  29#define ULLONG_MAX      (~0ULL)
  30#define SIZE_MAX        (~(size_t)0)
  31
  32#define U8_MAX          ((u8)~0U)
  33#define S8_MAX          ((s8)(U8_MAX>>1))
  34#define S8_MIN          ((s8)(-S8_MAX - 1))
  35#define U16_MAX         ((u16)~0U)
  36#define S16_MAX         ((s16)(U16_MAX>>1))
  37#define S16_MIN         ((s16)(-S16_MAX - 1))
  38#define U32_MAX         ((u32)~0U)
  39#define S32_MAX         ((s32)(U32_MAX>>1))
  40#define S32_MIN         ((s32)(-S32_MAX - 1))
  41#define U64_MAX         ((u64)~0ULL)
  42#define S64_MAX         ((s64)(U64_MAX>>1))
  43#define S64_MIN         ((s64)(-S64_MAX - 1))
  44
  45#define STACK_MAGIC     0xdeadbeef
  46
  47#define REPEAT_BYTE(x)  ((~0ul / 0xff) * (x))
  48
  49#define ALIGN(x, a)             __ALIGN_KERNEL((x), (a))
  50#define __ALIGN_MASK(x, mask)   __ALIGN_KERNEL_MASK((x), (mask))
  51#define PTR_ALIGN(p, a)         ((typeof(p))ALIGN((unsigned long)(p), (a)))
  52#define IS_ALIGNED(x, a)                (((x) & ((typeof(x))(a) - 1)) == 0)
  53
  54#define ARRAY_SIZE(arr) (sizeof(arr) / sizeof((arr)[0]) + __must_be_array(arr))
  55
  56/*
  57 * This looks more complex than it should be. But we need to
  58 * get the type for the ~ right in round_down (it needs to be
  59 * as wide as the result!), and we want to evaluate the macro
  60 * arguments just once each.
  61 */
  62#define __round_mask(x, y) ((__typeof__(x))((y)-1))
  63#define round_up(x, y) ((((x)-1) | __round_mask(x, y))+1)
  64#define round_down(x, y) ((x) & ~__round_mask(x, y))
  65
  66#define FIELD_SIZEOF(t, f) (sizeof(((t*)0)->f))
  67#define DIV_ROUND_UP(n,d) (((n) + (d) - 1) / (d))
  68#define DIV_ROUND_UP_ULL(ll,d) \
  69        ({ unsigned long long _tmp = (ll)+(d)-1; do_div(_tmp, d); _tmp; })
  70
  71#if BITS_PER_LONG == 32
  72# define DIV_ROUND_UP_SECTOR_T(ll,d) DIV_ROUND_UP_ULL(ll, d)
  73#else
  74# define DIV_ROUND_UP_SECTOR_T(ll,d) DIV_ROUND_UP(ll,d)
  75#endif
  76
  77/* The `const' in roundup() prevents gcc-3.3 from calling __divdi3 */
  78#define roundup(x, y) (                                 \
  79{                                                       \
  80        const typeof(y) __y = y;                        \
  81        (((x) + (__y - 1)) / __y) * __y;                \
  82}                                                       \
  83)
  84#define rounddown(x, y) (                               \
  85{                                                       \
  86        typeof(x) __x = (x);                            \
  87        __x - (__x % (y));                              \
  88}                                                       \
  89)
  90
  91/*
  92 * Divide positive or negative dividend by positive divisor and round
  93 * to closest integer. Result is undefined for negative divisors and
  94 * for negative dividends if the divisor variable type is unsigned.
  95 */
  96#define DIV_ROUND_CLOSEST(x, divisor)(                  \
  97{                                                       \
  98        typeof(x) __x = x;                              \
  99        typeof(divisor) __d = divisor;                  \
 100        (((typeof(x))-1) > 0 ||                         \
 101         ((typeof(divisor))-1) > 0 || (__x) > 0) ?      \
 102                (((__x) + ((__d) / 2)) / (__d)) :       \
 103                (((__x) - ((__d) / 2)) / (__d));        \
 104}                                                       \
 105)
 106
 107/*
 108 * Multiplies an integer by a fraction, while avoiding unnecessary
 109 * overflow or loss of precision.
 110 */
 111#define mult_frac(x, numer, denom)(                     \
 112{                                                       \
 113        typeof(x) quot = (x) / (denom);                 \
 114        typeof(x) rem  = (x) % (denom);                 \
 115        (quot * (numer)) + ((rem * (numer)) / (denom)); \
 116}                                                       \
 117)
 118
 119
 120#define _RET_IP_                (unsigned long)__builtin_return_address(0)
 121#define _THIS_IP_  ({ __label__ __here; __here: (unsigned long)&&__here; })
 122
 123#ifdef CONFIG_LBDAF
 124# include <asm/div64.h>
 125# define sector_div(a, b) do_div(a, b)
 126#else
 127# define sector_div(n, b)( \
 128{ \
 129        int _res; \
 130        _res = (n) % (b); \
 131        (n) /= (b); \
 132        _res; \
 133} \
 134)
 135#endif
 136
 137/**
 138 * upper_32_bits - return bits 32-63 of a number
 139 * @n: the number we're accessing
 140 *
 141 * A basic shift-right of a 64- or 32-bit quantity.  Use this to suppress
 142 * the "right shift count >= width of type" warning when that quantity is
 143 * 32-bits.
 144 */
 145#define upper_32_bits(n) ((u32)(((n) >> 16) >> 16))
 146
 147/**
 148 * lower_32_bits - return bits 0-31 of a number
 149 * @n: the number we're accessing
 150 */
 151#define lower_32_bits(n) ((u32)(n))
 152
 153struct completion;
 154struct pt_regs;
 155struct user;
 156
 157#ifdef CONFIG_PREEMPT_VOLUNTARY
 158extern int _cond_resched(void);
 159# define might_resched() _cond_resched()
 160#else
 161# define might_resched() do { } while (0)
 162#endif
 163
 164#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_ATOMIC_SLEEP
 165  void ___might_sleep(const char *file, int line, int preempt_offset);
 166  void __might_sleep(const char *file, int line, int preempt_offset);
 167/**
 168 * might_sleep - annotation for functions that can sleep
 169 *
 170 * this macro will print a stack trace if it is executed in an atomic
 171 * context (spinlock, irq-handler, ...).
 172 *
 173 * This is a useful debugging help to be able to catch problems early and not
 174 * be bitten later when the calling function happens to sleep when it is not
 175 * supposed to.
 176 */
 177# define might_sleep() \
 178        do { __might_sleep(__FILE__, __LINE__, 0); might_resched(); } while (0)
 179# define sched_annotate_sleep() (current->task_state_change = 0)
 180#else
 181  static inline void ___might_sleep(const char *file, int line,
 182                                   int preempt_offset) { }
 183  static inline void __might_sleep(const char *file, int line,
 184                                   int preempt_offset) { }
 185# define might_sleep() do { might_resched(); } while (0)
 186# define sched_annotate_sleep() do { } while (0)
 187#endif
 188
 189#define might_sleep_if(cond) do { if (cond) might_sleep(); } while (0)
 190
 191/*
 192 * abs() handles unsigned and signed longs, ints, shorts and chars.  For all
 193 * input types abs() returns a signed long.
 194 * abs() should not be used for 64-bit types (s64, u64, long long) - use abs64()
 195 * for those.
 196 */
 197#define abs(x) ({                                               \
 198                long ret;                                       \
 199                if (sizeof(x) == sizeof(long)) {                \
 200                        long __x = (x);                         \
 201                        ret = (__x < 0) ? -__x : __x;           \
 202                } else {                                        \
 203                        int __x = (x);                          \
 204                        ret = (__x < 0) ? -__x : __x;           \
 205                }                                               \
 206                ret;                                            \
 207        })
 208
 209#define abs64(x) ({                             \
 210                s64 __x = (x);                  \
 211                (__x < 0) ? -__x : __x;         \
 212        })
 213
 214/**
 215 * reciprocal_scale - "scale" a value into range [0, ep_ro)
 216 * @val: value
 217 * @ep_ro: right open interval endpoint
 218 *
 219 * Perform a "reciprocal multiplication" in order to "scale" a value into
 220 * range [0, ep_ro), where the upper interval endpoint is right-open.
 221 * This is useful, e.g. for accessing a index of an array containing
 222 * ep_ro elements, for example. Think of it as sort of modulus, only that
 223 * the result isn't that of modulo. ;) Note that if initial input is a
 224 * small value, then result will return 0.
 225 *
 226 * Return: a result based on val in interval [0, ep_ro).
 227 */
 228static inline u32 reciprocal_scale(u32 val, u32 ep_ro)
 229{
 230        return (u32)(((u64) val * ep_ro) >> 32);
 231}
 232
 233#if defined(CONFIG_MMU) && \
 234        (defined(CONFIG_PROVE_LOCKING) || defined(CONFIG_DEBUG_ATOMIC_SLEEP))
 235void might_fault(void);
 236#else
 237static inline void might_fault(void) { }
 238#endif
 239
 240extern struct atomic_notifier_head panic_notifier_list;
 241extern long (*panic_blink)(int state);
 242__printf(1, 2)
 243void panic(const char *fmt, ...)
 244        __noreturn __cold;
 245extern void oops_enter(void);
 246extern void oops_exit(void);
 247void print_oops_end_marker(void);
 248extern int oops_may_print(void);
 249void do_exit(long error_code)
 250        __noreturn;
 251void complete_and_exit(struct completion *, long)
 252        __noreturn;
 253
 254/* Internal, do not use. */
 255int __must_check _kstrtoul(const char *s, unsigned int base, unsigned long *res);
 256int __must_check _kstrtol(const char *s, unsigned int base, long *res);
 257
 258int __must_check kstrtoull(const char *s, unsigned int base, unsigned long long *res);
 259int __must_check kstrtoll(const char *s, unsigned int base, long long *res);
 260
 261/**
 262 * kstrtoul - convert a string to an unsigned long
 263 * @s: The start of the string. The string must be null-terminated, and may also
 264 *  include a single newline before its terminating null. The first character
 265 *  may also be a plus sign, but not a minus sign.
 266 * @base: The number base to use. The maximum supported base is 16. If base is
 267 *  given as 0, then the base of the string is automatically detected with the
 268 *  conventional semantics - If it begins with 0x the number will be parsed as a
 269 *  hexadecimal (case insensitive), if it otherwise begins with 0, it will be
 270 *  parsed as an octal number. Otherwise it will be parsed as a decimal.
 271 * @res: Where to write the result of the conversion on success.
 272 *
 273 * Returns 0 on success, -ERANGE on overflow and -EINVAL on parsing error.
 274 * Used as a replacement for the obsolete simple_strtoull. Return code must
 275 * be checked.
 276*/
 277static inline int __must_check kstrtoul(const char *s, unsigned int base, unsigned long *res)
 278{
 279        /*
 280         * We want to shortcut function call, but
 281         * __builtin_types_compatible_p(unsigned long, unsigned long long) = 0.
 282         */
 283        if (sizeof(unsigned long) == sizeof(unsigned long long) &&
 284            __alignof__(unsigned long) == __alignof__(unsigned long long))
 285                return kstrtoull(s, base, (unsigned long long *)res);
 286        else
 287                return _kstrtoul(s, base, res);
 288}
 289
 290/**
 291 * kstrtol - convert a string to a long
 292 * @s: The start of the string. The string must be null-terminated, and may also
 293 *  include a single newline before its terminating null. The first character
 294 *  may also be a plus sign or a minus sign.
 295 * @base: The number base to use. The maximum supported base is 16. If base is
 296 *  given as 0, then the base of the string is automatically detected with the
 297 *  conventional semantics - If it begins with 0x the number will be parsed as a
 298 *  hexadecimal (case insensitive), if it otherwise begins with 0, it will be
 299 *  parsed as an octal number. Otherwise it will be parsed as a decimal.
 300 * @res: Where to write the result of the conversion on success.
 301 *
 302 * Returns 0 on success, -ERANGE on overflow and -EINVAL on parsing error.
 303 * Used as a replacement for the obsolete simple_strtoull. Return code must
 304 * be checked.
 305 */
 306static inline int __must_check kstrtol(const char *s, unsigned int base, long *res)
 307{
 308        /*
 309         * We want to shortcut function call, but
 310         * __builtin_types_compatible_p(long, long long) = 0.
 311         */
 312        if (sizeof(long) == sizeof(long long) &&
 313            __alignof__(long) == __alignof__(long long))
 314                return kstrtoll(s, base, (long long *)res);
 315        else
 316                return _kstrtol(s, base, res);
 317}
 318
 319int __must_check kstrtouint(const char *s, unsigned int base, unsigned int *res);
 320int __must_check kstrtoint(const char *s, unsigned int base, int *res);
 321
 322static inline int __must_check kstrtou64(const char *s, unsigned int base, u64 *res)
 323{
 324        return kstrtoull(s, base, res);
 325}
 326
 327static inline int __must_check kstrtos64(const char *s, unsigned int base, s64 *res)
 328{
 329        return kstrtoll(s, base, res);
 330}
 331
 332static inline int __must_check kstrtou32(const char *s, unsigned int base, u32 *res)
 333{
 334        return kstrtouint(s, base, res);
 335}
 336
 337static inline int __must_check kstrtos32(const char *s, unsigned int base, s32 *res)
 338{
 339        return kstrtoint(s, base, res);
 340}
 341
 342int __must_check kstrtou16(const char *s, unsigned int base, u16 *res);
 343int __must_check kstrtos16(const char *s, unsigned int base, s16 *res);
 344int __must_check kstrtou8(const char *s, unsigned int base, u8 *res);
 345int __must_check kstrtos8(const char *s, unsigned int base, s8 *res);
 346
 347int __must_check kstrtoull_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, unsigned long long *res);
 348int __must_check kstrtoll_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, long long *res);
 349int __must_check kstrtoul_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, unsigned long *res);
 350int __must_check kstrtol_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, long *res);
 351int __must_check kstrtouint_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, unsigned int *res);
 352int __must_check kstrtoint_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, int *res);
 353int __must_check kstrtou16_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, u16 *res);
 354int __must_check kstrtos16_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, s16 *res);
 355int __must_check kstrtou8_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, u8 *res);
 356int __must_check kstrtos8_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, s8 *res);
 357
 358static inline int __must_check kstrtou64_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, u64 *res)
 359{
 360        return kstrtoull_from_user(s, count, base, res);
 361}
 362
 363static inline int __must_check kstrtos64_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, s64 *res)
 364{
 365        return kstrtoll_from_user(s, count, base, res);
 366}
 367
 368static inline int __must_check kstrtou32_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, u32 *res)
 369{
 370        return kstrtouint_from_user(s, count, base, res);
 371}
 372
 373static inline int __must_check kstrtos32_from_user(const char __user *s, size_t count, unsigned int base, s32 *res)
 374{
 375        return kstrtoint_from_user(s, count, base, res);
 376}
 377
 378/* Obsolete, do not use.  Use kstrto<foo> instead */
 379
 380extern unsigned long simple_strtoul(const char *,char **,unsigned int);
 381extern long simple_strtol(const char *,char **,unsigned int);
 382extern unsigned long long simple_strtoull(const char *,char **,unsigned int);
 383extern long long simple_strtoll(const char *,char **,unsigned int);
 384
 385extern int num_to_str(char *buf, int size, unsigned long long num);
 386
 387/* lib/printf utilities */
 388
 389extern __printf(2, 3) int sprintf(char *buf, const char * fmt, ...);
 390extern __printf(2, 0) int vsprintf(char *buf, const char *, va_list);
 391extern __printf(3, 4)
 392int snprintf(char *buf, size_t size, const char *fmt, ...);
 393extern __printf(3, 0)
 394int vsnprintf(char *buf, size_t size, const char *fmt, va_list args);
 395extern __printf(3, 4)
 396int scnprintf(char *buf, size_t size, const char *fmt, ...);
 397extern __printf(3, 0)
 398int vscnprintf(char *buf, size_t size, const char *fmt, va_list args);
 399extern __printf(2, 3)
 400char *kasprintf(gfp_t gfp, const char *fmt, ...);
 401extern char *kvasprintf(gfp_t gfp, const char *fmt, va_list args);
 402
 403extern __scanf(2, 3)
 404int sscanf(const char *, const char *, ...);
 405extern __scanf(2, 0)
 406int vsscanf(const char *, const char *, va_list);
 407
 408extern int get_option(char **str, int *pint);
 409extern char *get_options(const char *str, int nints, int *ints);
 410extern unsigned long long memparse(const char *ptr, char **retptr);
 411extern bool parse_option_str(const char *str, const char *option);
 412
 413extern int core_kernel_text(unsigned long addr);
 414extern int core_kernel_data(unsigned long addr);
 415extern int __kernel_text_address(unsigned long addr);
 416extern int kernel_text_address(unsigned long addr);
 417extern int func_ptr_is_kernel_text(void *ptr);
 418
 419unsigned long int_sqrt(unsigned long);
 420
 421extern void bust_spinlocks(int yes);
 422extern int oops_in_progress;            /* If set, an oops, panic(), BUG() or die() is in progress */
 423extern int panic_timeout;
 424extern int panic_on_oops;
 425extern int panic_on_unrecovered_nmi;
 426extern int panic_on_io_nmi;
 427extern int panic_on_warn;
 428extern int sysctl_panic_on_stackoverflow;
 429/*
 430 * Only to be used by arch init code. If the user over-wrote the default
 431 * CONFIG_PANIC_TIMEOUT, honor it.
 432 */
 433static inline void set_arch_panic_timeout(int timeout, int arch_default_timeout)
 434{
 435        if (panic_timeout == arch_default_timeout)
 436                panic_timeout = timeout;
 437}
 438extern const char *print_tainted(void);
 439enum lockdep_ok {
 440        LOCKDEP_STILL_OK,
 441        LOCKDEP_NOW_UNRELIABLE
 442};
 443extern void add_taint(unsigned flag, enum lockdep_ok);
 444extern int test_taint(unsigned flag);
 445extern unsigned long get_taint(void);
 446extern int root_mountflags;
 447
 448extern bool early_boot_irqs_disabled;
 449
 450/* Values used for system_state */
 451extern enum system_states {
 452        SYSTEM_BOOTING,
 453        SYSTEM_RUNNING,
 454        SYSTEM_HALT,
 455        SYSTEM_POWER_OFF,
 456        SYSTEM_RESTART,
 457} system_state;
 458
 459#define TAINT_PROPRIETARY_MODULE        0
 460#define TAINT_FORCED_MODULE             1
 461#define TAINT_CPU_OUT_OF_SPEC           2
 462#define TAINT_FORCED_RMMOD              3
 463#define TAINT_MACHINE_CHECK             4
 464#define TAINT_BAD_PAGE                  5
 465#define TAINT_USER                      6
 466#define TAINT_DIE                       7
 467#define TAINT_OVERRIDDEN_ACPI_TABLE     8
 468#define TAINT_WARN                      9
 469#define TAINT_CRAP                      10
 470#define TAINT_FIRMWARE_WORKAROUND       11
 471#define TAINT_OOT_MODULE                12
 472#define TAINT_UNSIGNED_MODULE           13
 473#define TAINT_SOFTLOCKUP                14
 474
 475extern const char hex_asc[];
 476#define hex_asc_lo(x)   hex_asc[((x) & 0x0f)]
 477#define hex_asc_hi(x)   hex_asc[((x) & 0xf0) >> 4]
 478
 479static inline char *hex_byte_pack(char *buf, u8 byte)
 480{
 481        *buf++ = hex_asc_hi(byte);
 482        *buf++ = hex_asc_lo(byte);
 483        return buf;
 484}
 485
 486extern const char hex_asc_upper[];
 487#define hex_asc_upper_lo(x)     hex_asc_upper[((x) & 0x0f)]
 488#define hex_asc_upper_hi(x)     hex_asc_upper[((x) & 0xf0) >> 4]
 489
 490static inline char *hex_byte_pack_upper(char *buf, u8 byte)
 491{
 492        *buf++ = hex_asc_upper_hi(byte);
 493        *buf++ = hex_asc_upper_lo(byte);
 494        return buf;
 495}
 496
 497extern int hex_to_bin(char ch);
 498extern int __must_check hex2bin(u8 *dst, const char *src, size_t count);
 499extern char *bin2hex(char *dst, const void *src, size_t count);
 500
 501bool mac_pton(const char *s, u8 *mac);
 502
 503/*
 504 * General tracing related utility functions - trace_printk(),
 505 * tracing_on/tracing_off and tracing_start()/tracing_stop
 506 *
 507 * Use tracing_on/tracing_off when you want to quickly turn on or off
 508 * tracing. It simply enables or disables the recording of the trace events.
 509 * This also corresponds to the user space /sys/kernel/debug/tracing/tracing_on
 510 * file, which gives a means for the kernel and userspace to interact.
 511 * Place a tracing_off() in the kernel where you want tracing to end.
 512 * From user space, examine the trace, and then echo 1 > tracing_on
 513 * to continue tracing.
 514 *
 515 * tracing_stop/tracing_start has slightly more overhead. It is used
 516 * by things like suspend to ram where disabling the recording of the
 517 * trace is not enough, but tracing must actually stop because things
 518 * like calling smp_processor_id() may crash the system.
 519 *
 520 * Most likely, you want to use tracing_on/tracing_off.
 521 */
 522#ifdef CONFIG_RING_BUFFER
 523/* trace_off_permanent stops recording with no way to bring it back */
 524void tracing_off_permanent(void);
 525#else
 526static inline void tracing_off_permanent(void) { }
 527#endif
 528
 529enum ftrace_dump_mode {
 530        DUMP_NONE,
 531        DUMP_ALL,
 532        DUMP_ORIG,
 533};
 534
 535#ifdef CONFIG_TRACING
 536void tracing_on(void);
 537void tracing_off(void);
 538int tracing_is_on(void);
 539void tracing_snapshot(void);
 540void tracing_snapshot_alloc(void);
 541
 542extern void tracing_start(void);
 543extern void tracing_stop(void);
 544
 545static inline __printf(1, 2)
 546void ____trace_printk_check_format(const char *fmt, ...)
 547{
 548}
 549#define __trace_printk_check_format(fmt, args...)                       \
 550do {                                                                    \
 551        if (0)                                                          \
 552                ____trace_printk_check_format(fmt, ##args);             \
 553} while (0)
 554
 555/**
 556 * trace_printk - printf formatting in the ftrace buffer
 557 * @fmt: the printf format for printing
 558 *
 559 * Note: __trace_printk is an internal function for trace_printk and
 560 *       the @ip is passed in via the trace_printk macro.
 561 *
 562 * This function allows a kernel developer to debug fast path sections
 563 * that printk is not appropriate for. By scattering in various
 564 * printk like tracing in the code, a developer can quickly see
 565 * where problems are occurring.
 566 *
 567 * This is intended as a debugging tool for the developer only.
 568 * Please refrain from leaving trace_printks scattered around in
 569 * your code. (Extra memory is used for special buffers that are
 570 * allocated when trace_printk() is used)
 571 *
 572 * A little optization trick is done here. If there's only one
 573 * argument, there's no need to scan the string for printf formats.
 574 * The trace_puts() will suffice. But how can we take advantage of
 575 * using trace_puts() when trace_printk() has only one argument?
 576 * By stringifying the args and checking the size we can tell
 577 * whether or not there are args. __stringify((__VA_ARGS__)) will
 578 * turn into "()\0" with a size of 3 when there are no args, anything
 579 * else will be bigger. All we need to do is define a string to this,
 580 * and then take its size and compare to 3. If it's bigger, use
 581 * do_trace_printk() otherwise, optimize it to trace_puts(). Then just
 582 * let gcc optimize the rest.
 583 */
 584
 585#define trace_printk(fmt, ...)                          \
 586do {                                                    \
 587        char _______STR[] = __stringify((__VA_ARGS__)); \
 588        if (sizeof(_______STR) > 3)                     \
 589                do_trace_printk(fmt, ##__VA_ARGS__);    \
 590        else                                            \
 591                trace_puts(fmt);                        \
 592} while (0)
 593
 594#define do_trace_printk(fmt, args...)                                   \
 595do {                                                                    \
 596        static const char *trace_printk_fmt                             \
 597                __attribute__((section("__trace_printk_fmt"))) =        \
 598                __builtin_constant_p(fmt) ? fmt : NULL;                 \
 599                                                                        \
 600        __trace_printk_check_format(fmt, ##args);                       \
 601                                                                        \
 602        if (__builtin_constant_p(fmt))                                  \
 603                __trace_bprintk(_THIS_IP_, trace_printk_fmt, ##args);   \
 604        else                                                            \
 605                __trace_printk(_THIS_IP_, fmt, ##args);                 \
 606} while (0)
 607
 608extern __printf(2, 3)
 609int __trace_bprintk(unsigned long ip, const char *fmt, ...);
 610
 611extern __printf(2, 3)
 612int __trace_printk(unsigned long ip, const char *fmt, ...);
 613
 614/**
 615 * trace_puts - write a string into the ftrace buffer
 616 * @str: the string to record
 617 *
 618 * Note: __trace_bputs is an internal function for trace_puts and
 619 *       the @ip is passed in via the trace_puts macro.
 620 *
 621 * This is similar to trace_printk() but is made for those really fast
 622 * paths that a developer wants the least amount of "Heisenbug" affects,
 623 * where the processing of the print format is still too much.
 624 *
 625 * This function allows a kernel developer to debug fast path sections
 626 * that printk is not appropriate for. By scattering in various
 627 * printk like tracing in the code, a developer can quickly see
 628 * where problems are occurring.
 629 *
 630 * This is intended as a debugging tool for the developer only.
 631 * Please refrain from leaving trace_puts scattered around in
 632 * your code. (Extra memory is used for special buffers that are
 633 * allocated when trace_puts() is used)
 634 *
 635 * Returns: 0 if nothing was written, positive # if string was.
 636 *  (1 when __trace_bputs is used, strlen(str) when __trace_puts is used)
 637 */
 638
 639#define trace_puts(str) ({                                              \
 640        static const char *trace_printk_fmt                             \
 641                __attribute__((section("__trace_printk_fmt"))) =        \
 642                __builtin_constant_p(str) ? str : NULL;                 \
 643                                                                        \
 644        if (__builtin_constant_p(str))                                  \
 645                __trace_bputs(_THIS_IP_, trace_printk_fmt);             \
 646        else                                                            \
 647                __trace_puts(_THIS_IP_, str, strlen(str));              \
 648})
 649extern int __trace_bputs(unsigned long ip, const char *str);
 650extern int __trace_puts(unsigned long ip, const char *str, int size);
 651
 652extern void trace_dump_stack(int skip);
 653
 654/*
 655 * The double __builtin_constant_p is because gcc will give us an error
 656 * if we try to allocate the static variable to fmt if it is not a
 657 * constant. Even with the outer if statement.
 658 */
 659#define ftrace_vprintk(fmt, vargs)                                      \
 660do {                                                                    \
 661        if (__builtin_constant_p(fmt)) {                                \
 662                static const char *trace_printk_fmt                     \
 663                  __attribute__((section("__trace_printk_fmt"))) =      \
 664                        __builtin_constant_p(fmt) ? fmt : NULL;         \
 665                                                                        \
 666                __ftrace_vbprintk(_THIS_IP_, trace_printk_fmt, vargs);  \
 667        } else                                                          \
 668                __ftrace_vprintk(_THIS_IP_, fmt, vargs);                \
 669} while (0)
 670
 671extern int
 672__ftrace_vbprintk(unsigned long ip, const char *fmt, va_list ap);
 673
 674extern int
 675__ftrace_vprintk(unsigned long ip, const char *fmt, va_list ap);
 676
 677extern void ftrace_dump(enum ftrace_dump_mode oops_dump_mode);
 678#else
 679static inline void tracing_start(void) { }
 680static inline void tracing_stop(void) { }
 681static inline void trace_dump_stack(int skip) { }
 682
 683static inline void tracing_on(void) { }
 684static inline void tracing_off(void) { }
 685static inline int tracing_is_on(void) { return 0; }
 686static inline void tracing_snapshot(void) { }
 687static inline void tracing_snapshot_alloc(void) { }
 688
 689static inline __printf(1, 2)
 690int trace_printk(const char *fmt, ...)
 691{
 692        return 0;
 693}
 694static inline int
 695ftrace_vprintk(const char *fmt, va_list ap)
 696{
 697        return 0;
 698}
 699static inline void ftrace_dump(enum ftrace_dump_mode oops_dump_mode) { }
 700#endif /* CONFIG_TRACING */
 701
 702/*
 703 * min()/max()/clamp() macros that also do
 704 * strict type-checking.. See the
 705 * "unnecessary" pointer comparison.
 706 */
 707#define min(x, y) ({                            \
 708        typeof(x) _min1 = (x);                  \
 709        typeof(y) _min2 = (y);                  \
 710        (void) (&_min1 == &_min2);              \
 711        _min1 < _min2 ? _min1 : _min2; })
 712
 713#define max(x, y) ({                            \
 714        typeof(x) _max1 = (x);                  \
 715        typeof(y) _max2 = (y);                  \
 716        (void) (&_max1 == &_max2);              \
 717        _max1 > _max2 ? _max1 : _max2; })
 718
 719#define min3(x, y, z) min((typeof(x))min(x, y), z)
 720#define max3(x, y, z) max((typeof(x))max(x, y), z)
 721
 722/**
 723 * min_not_zero - return the minimum that is _not_ zero, unless both are zero
 724 * @x: value1
 725 * @y: value2
 726 */
 727#define min_not_zero(x, y) ({                   \
 728        typeof(x) __x = (x);                    \
 729        typeof(y) __y = (y);                    \
 730        __x == 0 ? __y : ((__y == 0) ? __x : min(__x, __y)); })
 731
 732/**
 733 * clamp - return a value clamped to a given range with strict typechecking
 734 * @val: current value
 735 * @lo: lowest allowable value
 736 * @hi: highest allowable value
 737 *
 738 * This macro does strict typechecking of lo/hi to make sure they are of the
 739 * same type as val.  See the unnecessary pointer comparisons.
 740 */
 741#define clamp(val, lo, hi) min((typeof(val))max(val, lo), hi)
 742
 743/*
 744 * ..and if you can't take the strict
 745 * types, you can specify one yourself.
 746 *
 747 * Or not use min/max/clamp at all, of course.
 748 */
 749#define min_t(type, x, y) ({                    \
 750        type __min1 = (x);                      \
 751        type __min2 = (y);                      \
 752        __min1 < __min2 ? __min1: __min2; })
 753
 754#define max_t(type, x, y) ({                    \
 755        type __max1 = (x);                      \
 756        type __max2 = (y);                      \
 757        __max1 > __max2 ? __max1: __max2; })
 758
 759/**
 760 * clamp_t - return a value clamped to a given range using a given type
 761 * @type: the type of variable to use
 762 * @val: current value
 763 * @lo: minimum allowable value
 764 * @hi: maximum allowable value
 765 *
 766 * This macro does no typechecking and uses temporary variables of type
 767 * 'type' to make all the comparisons.
 768 */
 769#define clamp_t(type, val, lo, hi) min_t(type, max_t(type, val, lo), hi)
 770
 771/**
 772 * clamp_val - return a value clamped to a given range using val's type
 773 * @val: current value
 774 * @lo: minimum allowable value
 775 * @hi: maximum allowable value
 776 *
 777 * This macro does no typechecking and uses temporary variables of whatever
 778 * type the input argument 'val' is.  This is useful when val is an unsigned
 779 * type and min and max are literals that will otherwise be assigned a signed
 780 * integer type.
 781 */
 782#define clamp_val(val, lo, hi) clamp_t(typeof(val), val, lo, hi)
 783
 784
 785/*
 786 * swap - swap value of @a and @b
 787 */
 788#define swap(a, b) \
 789        do { typeof(a) __tmp = (a); (a) = (b); (b) = __tmp; } while (0)
 790
 791/**
 792 * container_of - cast a member of a structure out to the containing structure
 793 * @ptr:        the pointer to the member.
 794 * @type:       the type of the container struct this is embedded in.
 795 * @member:     the name of the member within the struct.
 796 *
 797 */
 798#define container_of(ptr, type, member) ({                      \
 799        const typeof( ((type *)0)->member ) *__mptr = (ptr);    \
 800        (type *)( (char *)__mptr - offsetof(type,member) );})
 801
 802/* Trap pasters of __FUNCTION__ at compile-time */
 803#define __FUNCTION__ (__func__)
 804
 805/* Rebuild everything on CONFIG_FTRACE_MCOUNT_RECORD */
 806#ifdef CONFIG_FTRACE_MCOUNT_RECORD
 807# define REBUILD_DUE_TO_FTRACE_MCOUNT_RECORD
 808#endif
 809
 810/* Permissions on a sysfs file: you didn't miss the 0 prefix did you? */
 811#define VERIFY_OCTAL_PERMISSIONS(perms)                                 \
 812        (BUILD_BUG_ON_ZERO((perms) < 0) +                               \
 813         BUILD_BUG_ON_ZERO((perms) > 0777) +                            \
 814         /* User perms >= group perms >= other perms */                 \
 815         BUILD_BUG_ON_ZERO(((perms) >> 6) < (((perms) >> 3) & 7)) +     \
 816         BUILD_BUG_ON_ZERO((((perms) >> 3) & 7) < ((perms) & 7)) +      \
 817         /* Other writable?  Generally considered a bad idea. */        \
 818         BUILD_BUG_ON_ZERO((perms) & 2) +                               \
 819         (perms))
 820#endif
 821
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