2                       T H E  /proc   F I L E S Y S T E M
   4/proc/sys         Terrehon Bowden <>        October 7 1999
   5                  Bodo Bauer <>
   72.4.x update      Jorge Nerin <>      November 14 2000
   8move /proc/sys    Shen Feng <>                 April 1 2009
  10Version 1.3                                              Kernel version 2.2.12
  11                                              Kernel version 2.4.0-test11-pre4
  13fixes/update part 1.1  Stefani Seibold <>       June 9 2009
  15Table of Contents
  18  0     Preface
  19  0.1   Introduction/Credits
  20  0.2   Legal Stuff
  22  1     Collecting System Information
  23  1.1   Process-Specific Subdirectories
  24  1.2   Kernel data
  25  1.3   IDE devices in /proc/ide
  26  1.4   Networking info in /proc/net
  27  1.5   SCSI info
  28  1.6   Parallel port info in /proc/parport
  29  1.7   TTY info in /proc/tty
  30  1.8   Miscellaneous kernel statistics in /proc/stat
  31  1.9   Ext4 file system parameters
  33  2     Modifying System Parameters
  35  3     Per-Process Parameters
  36  3.1   /proc/<pid>/oom_adj & /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj - Adjust the oom-killer
  37                                                                score
  38  3.2   /proc/<pid>/oom_score - Display current oom-killer score
  39  3.3   /proc/<pid>/io - Display the IO accounting fields
  40  3.4   /proc/<pid>/coredump_filter - Core dump filtering settings
  41  3.5   /proc/<pid>/mountinfo - Information about mounts
  42  3.6   /proc/<pid>/comm  & /proc/<pid>/task/<tid>/comm
  43  3.7   /proc/<pid>/task/<tid>/children - Information about task children
  44  3.8   /proc/<pid>/fdinfo/<fd> - Information about opened file
  45  3.9   /proc/<pid>/map_files - Information about memory mapped files
  46  3.10  /proc/<pid>/timerslack_ns - Task timerslack value
  48  4     Configuring procfs
  49  4.1   Mount options
  550.1 Introduction/Credits
  58This documentation is  part of a soon (or  so we hope) to be  released book on
  59the SuSE  Linux distribution. As  there is  no complete documentation  for the
  60/proc file system and we've used  many freely available sources to write these
  61chapters, it  seems only fair  to give the work  back to the  Linux community.
  62This work is  based on the 2.2.*  kernel version and the  upcoming 2.4.*. I'm
  63afraid it's still far from complete, but we  hope it will be useful. As far as
  64we know, it is the first 'all-in-one' document about the /proc file system. It
  65is focused  on the Intel  x86 hardware,  so if you  are looking for  PPC, ARM,
  66SPARC, AXP, etc., features, you probably  won't find what you are looking for.
  67It also only covers IPv4 networking, not IPv6 nor other protocols - sorry. But
  68additions and patches  are welcome and will  be added to this  document if you
  69mail them to Bodo.
  71We'd like  to  thank Alan Cox, Rik van Riel, and Alexey Kuznetsov and a lot of
  72other people for help compiling this documentation. We'd also like to extend a
  73special thank  you to Andi Kleen for documentation, which we relied on heavily
  74to create  this  document,  as well as the additional information he provided.
  75Thanks to  everybody  else  who contributed source or docs to the Linux kernel
  76and helped create a great piece of software... :)
  78If you  have  any comments, corrections or additions, please don't hesitate to
  79contact Bodo  Bauer  at  We'll  be happy to add them to this
  82The   latest   version    of   this   document   is    available   online   at
  85If  the above  direction does  not works  for you,  you could  try the  kernel
  86mailing  list  at  and/or try  to  reach  me  at
  890.2 Legal Stuff
  92We don't  guarantee  the  correctness  of this document, and if you come to us
  93complaining about  how  you  screwed  up  your  system  because  of  incorrect
  94documentation, we won't feel responsible...
 101In This Chapter
 103* Investigating  the  properties  of  the  pseudo  file  system  /proc and its
 104  ability to provide information on the running Linux system
 105* Examining /proc's structure
 106* Uncovering  various  information  about the kernel and the processes running
 107  on the system
 111The proc  file  system acts as an interface to internal data structures in the
 112kernel. It  can  be  used to obtain information about the system and to change
 113certain kernel parameters at runtime (sysctl).
 115First, we'll  take  a  look  at the read-only parts of /proc. In Chapter 2, we
 116show you how you can use /proc/sys to change settings.
 1181.1 Process-Specific Subdirectories
 121The directory  /proc  contains  (among other things) one subdirectory for each
 122process running on the system, which is named after the process ID (PID).
 124The link  self  points  to  the  process reading the file system. Each process
 125subdirectory has the entries listed in Table 1-1.
 128Table 1-1: Process specific entries in /proc
 130 File           Content
 131 clear_refs     Clears page referenced bits shown in smaps output
 132 cmdline        Command line arguments
 133 cpu            Current and last cpu in which it was executed   (2.4)(smp)
 134 cwd            Link to the current working directory
 135 environ        Values of environment variables
 136 exe            Link to the executable of this process
 137 fd             Directory, which contains all file descriptors
 138 maps           Memory maps to executables and library files    (2.4)
 139 mem            Memory held by this process
 140 root           Link to the root directory of this process
 141 stat           Process status
 142 statm          Process memory status information
 143 status         Process status in human readable form
 144 wchan          Present with CONFIG_KALLSYMS=y: it shows the kernel function
 145                symbol the task is blocked in - or "0" if not blocked.
 146 pagemap        Page table
 147 stack          Report full stack trace, enable via CONFIG_STACKTRACE
 148 smaps          an extension based on maps, showing the memory consumption of
 149                each mapping and flags associated with it
 150 numa_maps      an extension based on maps, showing the memory locality and
 151                binding policy as well as mem usage (in pages) of each mapping.
 154For example, to get the status information of a process, all you have to do is
 155read the file /proc/PID/status:
 157  >cat /proc/self/status
 158  Name:   cat
 159  State:  R (running)
 160  Tgid:   5452
 161  Pid:    5452
 162  PPid:   743
 163  TracerPid:      0                                             (2.4)
 164  Uid:    501     501     501     501
 165  Gid:    100     100     100     100
 166  FDSize: 256
 167  Groups: 100 14 16
 168  VmPeak:     5004 kB
 169  VmSize:     5004 kB
 170  VmLck:         0 kB
 171  VmHWM:       476 kB
 172  VmRSS:       476 kB
 173  RssAnon:             352 kB
 174  RssFile:             120 kB
 175  RssShmem:              4 kB
 176  VmData:      156 kB
 177  VmStk:        88 kB
 178  VmExe:        68 kB
 179  VmLib:      1412 kB
 180  VmPTE:        20 kb
 181  VmSwap:        0 kB
 182  HugetlbPages:          0 kB
 183  Threads:        1
 184  SigQ:   0/28578
 185  SigPnd: 0000000000000000
 186  ShdPnd: 0000000000000000
 187  SigBlk: 0000000000000000
 188  SigIgn: 0000000000000000
 189  SigCgt: 0000000000000000
 190  CapInh: 00000000fffffeff
 191  CapPrm: 0000000000000000
 192  CapEff: 0000000000000000
 193  CapBnd: ffffffffffffffff
 194  Seccomp:        0
 195  voluntary_ctxt_switches:        0
 196  nonvoluntary_ctxt_switches:     1
 198This shows you nearly the same information you would get if you viewed it with
 199the ps  command.  In  fact,  ps  uses  the  proc  file  system  to  obtain its
 200information.  But you get a more detailed  view of the  process by reading the
 201file /proc/PID/status. It fields are described in table 1-2.
 203The  statm  file  contains  more  detailed  information about the process
 204memory usage. Its seven fields are explained in Table 1-3.  The stat file
 205contains details information about the process itself.  Its fields are
 206explained in Table 1-4.
 208(for SMP CONFIG users)
 209For making accounting scalable, RSS related information are handled in an
 210asynchronous manner and the value may not be very precise. To see a precise
 211snapshot of a moment, you can see /proc/<pid>/smaps file and scan page table.
 212It's slow but very precise.
 214Table 1-2: Contents of the status files (as of 4.1)
 216 Field                       Content
 217 Name                        filename of the executable
 218 State                       state (R is running, S is sleeping, D is sleeping
 219                             in an uninterruptible wait, Z is zombie,
 220                             T is traced or stopped)
 221 Tgid                        thread group ID
 222 Ngid                        NUMA group ID (0 if none)
 223 Pid                         process id
 224 PPid                        process id of the parent process
 225 TracerPid                   PID of process tracing this process (0 if not)
 226 Uid                         Real, effective, saved set, and  file system UIDs
 227 Gid                         Real, effective, saved set, and  file system GIDs
 228 Umask                       file mode creation mask
 229 FDSize                      number of file descriptor slots currently allocated
 230 Groups                      supplementary group list
 231 NStgid                      descendant namespace thread group ID hierarchy
 232 NSpid                       descendant namespace process ID hierarchy
 233 NSpgid                      descendant namespace process group ID hierarchy
 234 NSsid                       descendant namespace session ID hierarchy
 235 VmPeak                      peak virtual memory size
 236 VmSize                      total program size
 237 VmLck                       locked memory size
 238 VmHWM                       peak resident set size ("high water mark")
 239 VmRSS                       size of memory portions. It contains the three
 240                             following parts (VmRSS = RssAnon + RssFile + RssShmem)
 241 RssAnon                     size of resident anonymous memory
 242 RssFile                     size of resident file mappings
 243 RssShmem                    size of resident shmem memory (includes SysV shm,
 244                             mapping of tmpfs and shared anonymous mappings)
 245 VmData                      size of private data segments
 246 VmStk                       size of stack segments
 247 VmExe                       size of text segment
 248 VmLib                       size of shared library code
 249 VmPTE                       size of page table entries
 250 VmPMD                       size of second level page tables
 251 VmSwap                      amount of swap used by anonymous private data
 252                             (shmem swap usage is not included)
 253 HugetlbPages                size of hugetlb memory portions
 254 Threads                     number of threads
 255 SigQ                        number of signals queued/max. number for queue
 256 SigPnd                      bitmap of pending signals for the thread
 257 ShdPnd                      bitmap of shared pending signals for the process
 258 SigBlk                      bitmap of blocked signals
 259 SigIgn                      bitmap of ignored signals
 260 SigCgt                      bitmap of caught signals
 261 CapInh                      bitmap of inheritable capabilities
 262 CapPrm                      bitmap of permitted capabilities
 263 CapEff                      bitmap of effective capabilities
 264 CapBnd                      bitmap of capabilities bounding set
 265 Seccomp                     seccomp mode, like prctl(PR_GET_SECCOMP, ...)
 266 Cpus_allowed                mask of CPUs on which this process may run
 267 Cpus_allowed_list           Same as previous, but in "list format"
 268 Mems_allowed                mask of memory nodes allowed to this process
 269 Mems_allowed_list           Same as previous, but in "list format"
 270 voluntary_ctxt_switches     number of voluntary context switches
 271 nonvoluntary_ctxt_switches  number of non voluntary context switches
 274Table 1-3: Contents of the statm files (as of 2.6.8-rc3)
 276 Field    Content
 277 size     total program size (pages)            (same as VmSize in status)
 278 resident size of memory portions (pages)       (same as VmRSS in status)
 279 shared   number of pages that are shared       (i.e. backed by a file, same
 280                                                as RssFile+RssShmem in status)
 281 trs      number of pages that are 'code'       (not including libs; broken,
 282                                                        includes data segment)
 283 lrs      number of pages of library            (always 0 on 2.6)
 284 drs      number of pages of data/stack         (including libs; broken,
 285                                                        includes library text)
 286 dt       number of dirty pages                 (always 0 on 2.6)
 290Table 1-4: Contents of the stat files (as of 2.6.30-rc7)
 292 Field          Content
 293  pid           process id
 294  tcomm         filename of the executable
 295  state         state (R is running, S is sleeping, D is sleeping in an
 296                uninterruptible wait, Z is zombie, T is traced or stopped)
 297  ppid          process id of the parent process
 298  pgrp          pgrp of the process
 299  sid           session id
 300  tty_nr        tty the process uses
 301  tty_pgrp      pgrp of the tty
 302  flags         task flags
 303  min_flt       number of minor faults
 304  cmin_flt      number of minor faults with child's
 305  maj_flt       number of major faults
 306  cmaj_flt      number of major faults with child's
 307  utime         user mode jiffies
 308  stime         kernel mode jiffies
 309  cutime        user mode jiffies with child's
 310  cstime        kernel mode jiffies with child's
 311  priority      priority level
 312  nice          nice level
 313  num_threads   number of threads
 314  it_real_value (obsolete, always 0)
 315  start_time    time the process started after system boot
 316  vsize         virtual memory size
 317  rss           resident set memory size
 318  rsslim        current limit in bytes on the rss
 319  start_code    address above which program text can run
 320  end_code      address below which program text can run
 321  start_stack   address of the start of the main process stack
 322  esp           current value of ESP
 323  eip           current value of EIP
 324  pending       bitmap of pending signals
 325  blocked       bitmap of blocked signals
 326  sigign        bitmap of ignored signals
 327  sigcatch      bitmap of caught signals
 328  0             (place holder, used to be the wchan address, use /proc/PID/wchan instead)
 329  0             (place holder)
 330  0             (place holder)
 331  exit_signal   signal to send to parent thread on exit
 332  task_cpu      which CPU the task is scheduled on
 333  rt_priority   realtime priority
 334  policy        scheduling policy (man sched_setscheduler)
 335  blkio_ticks   time spent waiting for block IO
 336  gtime         guest time of the task in jiffies
 337  cgtime        guest time of the task children in jiffies
 338  start_data    address above which program data+bss is placed
 339  end_data      address below which program data+bss is placed
 340  start_brk     address above which program heap can be expanded with brk()
 341  arg_start     address above which program command line is placed
 342  arg_end       address below which program command line is placed
 343  env_start     address above which program environment is placed
 344  env_end       address below which program environment is placed
 345  exit_code     the thread's exit_code in the form reported by the waitpid system call
 348The /proc/PID/maps file containing the currently mapped memory regions and
 349their access permissions.
 351The format is:
 353address           perms offset  dev   inode      pathname
 35508048000-08049000 r-xp 00000000 03:00 8312       /opt/test
 35608049000-0804a000 rw-p 00001000 03:00 8312       /opt/test
 3570804a000-0806b000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0          [heap]
 358a7cb1000-a7cb2000 ---p 00000000 00:00 0
 359a7cb2000-a7eb2000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
 360a7eb2000-a7eb3000 ---p 00000000 00:00 0
 361a7eb3000-a7ed5000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
 362a7ed5000-a8008000 r-xp 00000000 03:00 4222       /lib/
 363a8008000-a800a000 r--p 00133000 03:00 4222       /lib/
 364a800a000-a800b000 rw-p 00135000 03:00 4222       /lib/
 365a800b000-a800e000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
 366a800e000-a8022000 r-xp 00000000 03:00 14462      /lib/
 367a8022000-a8023000 r--p 00013000 03:00 14462      /lib/
 368a8023000-a8024000 rw-p 00014000 03:00 14462      /lib/
 369a8024000-a8027000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
 370a8027000-a8043000 r-xp 00000000 03:00 8317       /lib/
 371a8043000-a8044000 r--p 0001b000 03:00 8317       /lib/
 372a8044000-a8045000 rw-p 0001c000 03:00 8317       /lib/
 373aff35000-aff4a000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0          [stack]
 374ffffe000-fffff000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0          [vdso]
 376where "address" is the address space in the process that it occupies, "perms"
 377is a set of permissions:
 379 r = read
 380 w = write
 381 x = execute
 382 s = shared
 383 p = private (copy on write)
 385"offset" is the offset into the mapping, "dev" is the device (major:minor), and
 386"inode" is the inode  on that device.  0 indicates that  no inode is associated
 387with the memory region, as the case would be with BSS (uninitialized data).
 388The "pathname" shows the name associated file for this mapping.  If the mapping
 389is not associated with a file:
 391 [heap]                   = the heap of the program
 392 [stack]                  = the stack of the main process
 393 [vdso]                   = the "virtual dynamic shared object",
 394                            the kernel system call handler
 396 or if empty, the mapping is anonymous.
 398The /proc/PID/smaps is an extension based on maps, showing the memory
 399consumption for each of the process's mappings. For each of mappings there
 400is a series of lines such as the following:
 40208048000-080bc000 r-xp 00000000 03:02 13130      /bin/bash
 403Size:               1084 kB
 404Rss:                 892 kB
 405Pss:                 374 kB
 406Shared_Clean:        892 kB
 407Shared_Dirty:          0 kB
 408Private_Clean:         0 kB
 409Private_Dirty:         0 kB
 410Referenced:          892 kB
 411Anonymous:             0 kB
 412AnonHugePages:         0 kB
 413ShmemPmdMapped:        0 kB
 414Shared_Hugetlb:        0 kB
 415Private_Hugetlb:       0 kB
 416Swap:                  0 kB
 417SwapPss:               0 kB
 418KernelPageSize:        4 kB
 419MMUPageSize:           4 kB
 420Locked:                0 kB
 421VmFlags: rd ex mr mw me dw
 423the first of these lines shows the same information as is displayed for the
 424mapping in /proc/PID/maps.  The remaining lines show the size of the mapping
 425(size), the amount of the mapping that is currently resident in RAM (RSS), the
 426process' proportional share of this mapping (PSS), the number of clean and
 427dirty private pages in the mapping.
 429The "proportional set size" (PSS) of a process is the count of pages it has
 430in memory, where each page is divided by the number of processes sharing it.
 431So if a process has 1000 pages all to itself, and 1000 shared with one other
 432process, its PSS will be 1500.
 433Note that even a page which is part of a MAP_SHARED mapping, but has only
 434a single pte mapped, i.e.  is currently used by only one process, is accounted
 435as private and not as shared.
 436"Referenced" indicates the amount of memory currently marked as referenced or
 438"Anonymous" shows the amount of memory that does not belong to any file.  Even
 439a mapping associated with a file may contain anonymous pages: when MAP_PRIVATE
 440and a page is modified, the file page is replaced by a private anonymous copy.
 441"AnonHugePages" shows the ammount of memory backed by transparent hugepage.
 442"ShmemPmdMapped" shows the ammount of shared (shmem/tmpfs) memory backed by
 443huge pages.
 444"Shared_Hugetlb" and "Private_Hugetlb" show the ammounts of memory backed by
 445hugetlbfs page which is *not* counted in "RSS" or "PSS" field for historical
 446reasons. And these are not included in {Shared,Private}_{Clean,Dirty} field.
 447"Swap" shows how much would-be-anonymous memory is also used, but out on swap.
 448For shmem mappings, "Swap" includes also the size of the mapped (and not
 449replaced by copy-on-write) part of the underlying shmem object out on swap.
 450"SwapPss" shows proportional swap share of this mapping. Unlike "Swap", this
 451does not take into account swapped out page of underlying shmem objects.
 452"Locked" indicates whether the mapping is locked in memory or not.
 454"VmFlags" field deserves a separate description. This member represents the kernel
 455flags associated with the particular virtual memory area in two letter encoded
 456manner. The codes are the following:
 457    rd  - readable
 458    wr  - writeable
 459    ex  - executable
 460    sh  - shared
 461    mr  - may read
 462    mw  - may write
 463    me  - may execute
 464    ms  - may share
 465    gd  - stack segment growns down
 466    pf  - pure PFN range
 467    dw  - disabled write to the mapped file
 468    lo  - pages are locked in memory
 469    io  - memory mapped I/O area
 470    sr  - sequential read advise provided
 471    rr  - random read advise provided
 472    dc  - do not copy area on fork
 473    de  - do not expand area on remapping
 474    ac  - area is accountable
 475    nr  - swap space is not reserved for the area
 476    ht  - area uses huge tlb pages
 477    ar  - architecture specific flag
 478    dd  - do not include area into core dump
 479    sd  - soft-dirty flag
 480    mm  - mixed map area
 481    hg  - huge page advise flag
 482    nh  - no-huge page advise flag
 483    mg  - mergable advise flag
 485Note that there is no guarantee that every flag and associated mnemonic will
 486be present in all further kernel releases. Things get changed, the flags may
 487be vanished or the reverse -- new added.
 489This file is only present if the CONFIG_MMU kernel configuration option is
 492Note: reading /proc/PID/maps or /proc/PID/smaps is inherently racy (consistent
 493output can be achieved only in the single read call).
 494This typically manifests when doing partial reads of these files while the
 495memory map is being modified.  Despite the races, we do provide the following
 4981) The mapped addresses never go backwards, which implies no two
 499   regions will ever overlap.
 5002) If there is something at a given vaddr during the entirety of the
 501   life of the smaps/maps walk, there will be some output for it.
 504The /proc/PID/clear_refs is used to reset the PG_Referenced and ACCESSED/YOUNG
 505bits on both physical and virtual pages associated with a process, and the
 506soft-dirty bit on pte (see Documentation/vm/soft-dirty.txt for details).
 507To clear the bits for all the pages associated with the process
 508    > echo 1 > /proc/PID/clear_refs
 510To clear the bits for the anonymous pages associated with the process
 511    > echo 2 > /proc/PID/clear_refs
 513To clear the bits for the file mapped pages associated with the process
 514    > echo 3 > /proc/PID/clear_refs
 516To clear the soft-dirty bit
 517    > echo 4 > /proc/PID/clear_refs
 519To reset the peak resident set size ("high water mark") to the process's
 520current value:
 521    > echo 5 > /proc/PID/clear_refs
 523Any other value written to /proc/PID/clear_refs will have no effect.
 525The /proc/pid/pagemap gives the PFN, which can be used to find the pageflags
 526using /proc/kpageflags and number of times a page is mapped using
 527/proc/kpagecount. For detailed explanation, see Documentation/vm/pagemap.txt.
 529The /proc/pid/numa_maps is an extension based on maps, showing the memory
 530locality and binding policy, as well as the memory usage (in pages) of
 531each mapping. The output follows a general format where mapping details get
 532summarized separated by blank spaces, one mapping per each file line:
 534address   policy    mapping details
 53600400000 default file=/usr/local/bin/app mapped=1 active=0 N3=1 kernelpagesize_kB=4
 53700600000 default file=/usr/local/bin/app anon=1 dirty=1 N3=1 kernelpagesize_kB=4
 5383206000000 default file=/lib64/ mapped=26 mapmax=6 N0=24 N3=2 kernelpagesize_kB=4
 539320621f000 default file=/lib64/ anon=1 dirty=1 N3=1 kernelpagesize_kB=4
 5403206220000 default file=/lib64/ anon=1 dirty=1 N3=1 kernelpagesize_kB=4
 5413206221000 default anon=1 dirty=1 N3=1 kernelpagesize_kB=4
 5423206800000 default file=/lib64/ mapped=59 mapmax=21 active=55 N0=41 N3=18 kernelpagesize_kB=4
 543320698b000 default file=/lib64/
 5443206b8a000 default file=/lib64/ anon=2 dirty=2 N3=2 kernelpagesize_kB=4
 5453206b8e000 default file=/lib64/ anon=1 dirty=1 N3=1 kernelpagesize_kB=4
 5463206b8f000 default anon=3 dirty=3 active=1 N3=3 kernelpagesize_kB=4
 5477f4dc10a2000 default anon=3 dirty=3 N3=3 kernelpagesize_kB=4
 5487f4dc10b4000 default anon=2 dirty=2 active=1 N3=2 kernelpagesize_kB=4
 5497f4dc1200000 default file=/anon_hugepage\040(deleted) huge anon=1 dirty=1 N3=1 kernelpagesize_kB=2048
 5507fff335f0000 default stack anon=3 dirty=3 N3=3 kernelpagesize_kB=4
 5517fff3369d000 default mapped=1 mapmax=35 active=0 N3=1 kernelpagesize_kB=4
 554"address" is the starting address for the mapping;
 555"policy" reports the NUMA memory policy set for the mapping (see vm/numa_memory_policy.txt);
 556"mapping details" summarizes mapping data such as mapping type, page usage counters,
 557node locality page counters (N0 == node0, N1 == node1, ...) and the kernel page
 558size, in KB, that is backing the mapping up.
 5601.2 Kernel data
 563Similar to  the  process entries, the kernel data files give information about
 564the running kernel. The files used to obtain this information are contained in
 565/proc and  are  listed  in Table 1-5. Not all of these will be present in your
 566system. It  depends  on the kernel configuration and the loaded modules, which
 567files are there, and which are missing.
 569Table 1-5: Kernel info in /proc
 571 File        Content                                           
 572 apm         Advanced power management info                    
 573 buddyinfo   Kernel memory allocator information (see text)     (2.5)
 574 bus         Directory containing bus specific information     
 575 cmdline     Kernel command line                               
 576 cpuinfo     Info about the CPU                                
 577 devices     Available devices (block and character)           
 578 dma         Used DMS channels                                 
 579 filesystems Supported filesystems                             
 580 driver      Various drivers grouped here, currently rtc (2.4)
 581 execdomains Execdomains, related to security                   (2.4)
 582 fb          Frame Buffer devices                               (2.4)
 583 fs          File system parameters, currently nfs/exports      (2.4)
 584 ide         Directory containing info about the IDE subsystem 
 585 interrupts  Interrupt usage                                   
 586 iomem       Memory map                                         (2.4)
 587 ioports     I/O port usage                                    
 588 irq         Masks for irq to cpu affinity                      (2.4)(smp?)
 589 isapnp      ISA PnP (Plug&Play) Info                           (2.4)
 590 kcore       Kernel core image (can be ELF or A.OUT(deprecated in 2.4))   
 591 kmsg        Kernel messages                                   
 592 ksyms       Kernel symbol table                               
 593 loadavg     Load average of last 1, 5 & 15 minutes                
 594 locks       Kernel locks                                      
 595 meminfo     Memory info                                       
 596 misc        Miscellaneous                                     
 597 modules     List of loaded modules                            
 598 mounts      Mounted filesystems                               
 599 net         Networking info (see text)                        
 600 pagetypeinfo Additional page allocator information (see text)  (2.5)
 601 partitions  Table of partitions known to the system           
 602 pci         Deprecated info of PCI bus (new way -> /proc/bus/pci/,
 603             decoupled by lspci                                 (2.4)
 604 rtc         Real time clock                                   
 605 scsi        SCSI info (see text)                              
 606 slabinfo    Slab pool info                                    
 607 softirqs    softirq usage
 608 stat        Overall statistics                                
 609 swaps       Swap space utilization                            
 610 sys         See chapter 2                                     
 611 sysvipc     Info of SysVIPC Resources (msg, sem, shm)          (2.4)
 612 tty         Info of tty drivers
 613 uptime      Wall clock since boot, combined idle time of all cpus
 614 version     Kernel version                                    
 615 video       bttv info of video resources                       (2.4)
 616 vmallocinfo Show vmalloced areas
 619You can,  for  example,  check  which interrupts are currently in use and what
 620they are used for by looking in the file /proc/interrupts:
 622  > cat /proc/interrupts 
 623             CPU0        
 624    0:    8728810          XT-PIC  timer 
 625    1:        895          XT-PIC  keyboard 
 626    2:          0          XT-PIC  cascade 
 627    3:     531695          XT-PIC  aha152x 
 628    4:    2014133          XT-PIC  serial 
 629    5:      44401          XT-PIC  pcnet_cs 
 630    8:          2          XT-PIC  rtc 
 631   11:          8          XT-PIC  i82365 
 632   12:     182918          XT-PIC  PS/2 Mouse 
 633   13:          1          XT-PIC  fpu 
 634   14:    1232265          XT-PIC  ide0 
 635   15:          7          XT-PIC  ide1 
 636  NMI:          0 
 638In 2.4.* a couple of lines where added to this file LOC & ERR (this time is the
 639output of a SMP machine):
 641  > cat /proc/interrupts 
 643             CPU0       CPU1       
 644    0:    1243498    1214548    IO-APIC-edge  timer
 645    1:       8949       8958    IO-APIC-edge  keyboard
 646    2:          0          0          XT-PIC  cascade
 647    5:      11286      10161    IO-APIC-edge  soundblaster
 648    8:          1          0    IO-APIC-edge  rtc
 649    9:      27422      27407    IO-APIC-edge  3c503
 650   12:     113645     113873    IO-APIC-edge  PS/2 Mouse
 651   13:          0          0          XT-PIC  fpu
 652   14:      22491      24012    IO-APIC-edge  ide0
 653   15:       2183       2415    IO-APIC-edge  ide1
 654   17:      30564      30414   IO-APIC-level  eth0
 655   18:        177        164   IO-APIC-level  bttv
 656  NMI:    2457961    2457959 
 657  LOC:    2457882    2457881 
 658  ERR:       2155
 660NMI is incremented in this case because every timer interrupt generates a NMI
 661(Non Maskable Interrupt) which is used by the NMI Watchdog to detect lockups.
 663LOC is the local interrupt counter of the internal APIC of every CPU.
 665ERR is incremented in the case of errors in the IO-APIC bus (the bus that
 666connects the CPUs in a SMP system. This means that an error has been detected,
 667the IO-APIC automatically retry the transmission, so it should not be a big
 668problem, but you should read the SMP-FAQ.
 670In 2.6.2* /proc/interrupts was expanded again.  This time the goal was for
 671/proc/interrupts to display every IRQ vector in use by the system, not
 672just those considered 'most important'.  The new vectors are:
 674  THR -- interrupt raised when a machine check threshold counter
 675  (typically counting ECC corrected errors of memory or cache) exceeds
 676  a configurable threshold.  Only available on some systems.
 678  TRM -- a thermal event interrupt occurs when a temperature threshold
 679  has been exceeded for the CPU.  This interrupt may also be generated
 680  when the temperature drops back to normal.
 682  SPU -- a spurious interrupt is some interrupt that was raised then lowered
 683  by some IO device before it could be fully processed by the APIC.  Hence
 684  the APIC sees the interrupt but does not know what device it came from.
 685  For this case the APIC will generate the interrupt with a IRQ vector
 686  of 0xff. This might also be generated by chipset bugs.
 688  RES, CAL, TLB -- rescheduling, call and TLB flush interrupts are
 689  sent from one CPU to another per the needs of the OS.  Typically,
 690  their statistics are used by kernel developers and interested users to
 691  determine the occurrence of interrupts of the given type.
 693The above IRQ vectors are displayed only when relevant.  For example,
 694the threshold vector does not exist on x86_64 platforms.  Others are
 695suppressed when the system is a uniprocessor.  As of this writing, only
 696i386 and x86_64 platforms support the new IRQ vector displays.
 698Of some interest is the introduction of the /proc/irq directory to 2.4.
 699It could be used to set IRQ to CPU affinity, this means that you can "hook" an
 700IRQ to only one CPU, or to exclude a CPU of handling IRQs. The contents of the
 701irq subdir is one subdir for each IRQ, and two files; default_smp_affinity and
 704For example 
 705  > ls /proc/irq/
 706  0  10  12  14  16  18  2  4  6  8  prof_cpu_mask
 707  1  11  13  15  17  19  3  5  7  9  default_smp_affinity
 708  > ls /proc/irq/0/
 709  smp_affinity
 711smp_affinity is a bitmask, in which you can specify which CPUs can handle the
 712IRQ, you can set it by doing:
 714  > echo 1 > /proc/irq/10/smp_affinity
 716This means that only the first CPU will handle the IRQ, but you can also echo
 7175 which means that only the first and third CPU can handle the IRQ.
 719The contents of each smp_affinity file is the same by default:
 721  > cat /proc/irq/0/smp_affinity
 722  ffffffff
 724There is an alternate interface, smp_affinity_list which allows specifying
 725a cpu range instead of a bitmask:
 727  > cat /proc/irq/0/smp_affinity_list
 728  1024-1031
 730The default_smp_affinity mask applies to all non-active IRQs, which are the
 731IRQs which have not yet been allocated/activated, and hence which lack a
 732/proc/irq/[0-9]* directory.
 734The node file on an SMP system shows the node to which the device using the IRQ
 735reports itself as being attached. This hardware locality information does not
 736include information about any possible driver locality preference.
 738prof_cpu_mask specifies which CPUs are to be profiled by the system wide
 739profiler. Default value is ffffffff (all cpus if there are only 32 of them).
 741The way IRQs are routed is handled by the IO-APIC, and it's Round Robin
 742between all the CPUs which are allowed to handle it. As usual the kernel has
 743more info than you and does a better job than you, so the defaults are the
 744best choice for almost everyone.  [Note this applies only to those IO-APIC's
 745that support "Round Robin" interrupt distribution.]
 747There are  three  more  important subdirectories in /proc: net, scsi, and sys.
 748The general  rule  is  that  the  contents,  or  even  the  existence of these
 749directories, depend  on your kernel configuration. If SCSI is not enabled, the
 750directory scsi  may  not  exist. The same is true with the net, which is there
 751only when networking support is present in the running kernel.
 753The slabinfo  file  gives  information  about  memory usage at the slab level.
 754Linux uses  slab  pools for memory management above page level in version 2.2.
 755Commonly used  objects  have  their  own  slab  pool (such as network buffers,
 756directory cache, and so on).
 760> cat /proc/buddyinfo
 762Node 0, zone      DMA      0      4      5      4      4      3 ...
 763Node 0, zone   Normal      1      0      0      1    101      8 ...
 764Node 0, zone  HighMem      2      0      0      1      1      0 ...
 766External fragmentation is a problem under some workloads, and buddyinfo is a
 767useful tool for helping diagnose these problems.  Buddyinfo will give you a 
 768clue as to how big an area you can safely allocate, or why a previous
 769allocation failed.
 771Each column represents the number of pages of a certain order which are 
 772available.  In this case, there are 0 chunks of 2^0*PAGE_SIZE available in 
 773ZONE_DMA, 4 chunks of 2^1*PAGE_SIZE in ZONE_DMA, 101 chunks of 2^4*PAGE_SIZE 
 774available in ZONE_NORMAL, etc... 
 776More information relevant to external fragmentation can be found in
 779> cat /proc/pagetypeinfo
 780Page block order: 9
 781Pages per block:  512
 783Free pages count per migrate type at order       0      1      2      3      4      5      6      7      8      9     10
 784Node    0, zone      DMA, type    Unmovable      0      0      0      1      1      1      1      1      1      1      0
 785Node    0, zone      DMA, type  Reclaimable      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0
 786Node    0, zone      DMA, type      Movable      1      1      2      1      2      1      1      0      1      0      2
 787Node    0, zone      DMA, type      Reserve      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      1      0
 788Node    0, zone      DMA, type      Isolate      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0
 789Node    0, zone    DMA32, type    Unmovable    103     54     77      1      1      1     11      8      7      1      9
 790Node    0, zone    DMA32, type  Reclaimable      0      0      2      1      0      0      0      0      1      0      0
 791Node    0, zone    DMA32, type      Movable    169    152    113     91     77     54     39     13      6      1    452
 792Node    0, zone    DMA32, type      Reserve      1      2      2      2      2      0      1      1      1      1      0
 793Node    0, zone    DMA32, type      Isolate      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0
 795Number of blocks type     Unmovable  Reclaimable      Movable      Reserve      Isolate
 796Node 0, zone      DMA            2            0            5            1            0
 797Node 0, zone    DMA32           41            6          967            2            0
 799Fragmentation avoidance in the kernel works by grouping pages of different
 800migrate types into the same contiguous regions of memory called page blocks.
 801A page block is typically the size of the default hugepage size e.g. 2MB on
 802X86-64. By keeping pages grouped based on their ability to move, the kernel
 803can reclaim pages within a page block to satisfy a high-order allocation.
 805The pagetypinfo begins with information on the size of a page block. It
 806then gives the same type of information as buddyinfo except broken down
 807by migrate-type and finishes with details on how many page blocks of each
 808type exist.
 810If min_free_kbytes has been tuned correctly (recommendations made by hugeadm
 811from libhugetlbfs, one can
 812make an estimate of the likely number of huge pages that can be allocated
 813at a given point in time. All the "Movable" blocks should be allocatable
 814unless memory has been mlock()'d. Some of the Reclaimable blocks should
 815also be allocatable although a lot of filesystem metadata may have to be
 816reclaimed to achieve this.
 822Provides information about distribution and utilization of memory.  This
 823varies by architecture and compile options.  The following is from a
 82416GB PIII, which has highmem enabled.  You may not have all of these fields.
 826> cat /proc/meminfo
 828MemTotal:     16344972 kB
 829MemFree:      13634064 kB
 830MemAvailable: 14836172 kB
 831Buffers:          3656 kB
 832Cached:        1195708 kB
 833SwapCached:          0 kB
 834Active:         891636 kB
 835Inactive:      1077224 kB
 836HighTotal:    15597528 kB
 837HighFree:     13629632 kB
 838LowTotal:       747444 kB
 839LowFree:          4432 kB
 840SwapTotal:           0 kB
 841SwapFree:            0 kB
 842Dirty:             968 kB
 843Writeback:           0 kB
 844AnonPages:      861800 kB
 845Mapped:         280372 kB
 846Shmem:             644 kB
 847Slab:           284364 kB
 848SReclaimable:   159856 kB
 849SUnreclaim:     124508 kB
 850PageTables:      24448 kB
 851NFS_Unstable:        0 kB
 852Bounce:              0 kB
 853WritebackTmp:        0 kB
 854CommitLimit:   7669796 kB
 855Committed_AS:   100056 kB
 856VmallocTotal:   112216 kB
 857VmallocUsed:       428 kB
 858VmallocChunk:   111088 kB
 859AnonHugePages:   49152 kB
 860ShmemHugePages:      0 kB
 861ShmemPmdMapped:      0 kB
 864    MemTotal: Total usable ram (i.e. physical ram minus a few reserved
 865              bits and the kernel binary code)
 866     MemFree: The sum of LowFree+HighFree
 867MemAvailable: An estimate of how much memory is available for starting new
 868              applications, without swapping. Calculated from MemFree,
 869              SReclaimable, the size of the file LRU lists, and the low
 870              watermarks in each zone.
 871              The estimate takes into account that the system needs some
 872              page cache to function well, and that not all reclaimable
 873              slab will be reclaimable, due to items being in use. The
 874              impact of those factors will vary from system to system.
 875     Buffers: Relatively temporary storage for raw disk blocks
 876              shouldn't get tremendously large (20MB or so)
 877      Cached: in-memory cache for files read from the disk (the
 878              pagecache).  Doesn't include SwapCached
 879  SwapCached: Memory that once was swapped out, is swapped back in but
 880              still also is in the swapfile (if memory is needed it
 881              doesn't need to be swapped out AGAIN because it is already
 882              in the swapfile. This saves I/O)
 883      Active: Memory that has been used more recently and usually not
 884              reclaimed unless absolutely necessary.
 885    Inactive: Memory which has been less recently used.  It is more
 886              eligible to be reclaimed for other purposes
 887   HighTotal:
 888    HighFree: Highmem is all memory above ~860MB of physical memory
 889              Highmem areas are for use by userspace programs, or
 890              for the pagecache.  The kernel must use tricks to access
 891              this memory, making it slower to access than lowmem.
 892    LowTotal:
 893     LowFree: Lowmem is memory which can be used for everything that
 894              highmem can be used for, but it is also available for the
 895              kernel's use for its own data structures.  Among many
 896              other things, it is where everything from the Slab is
 897              allocated.  Bad things happen when you're out of lowmem.
 898   SwapTotal: total amount of swap space available
 899    SwapFree: Memory which has been evicted from RAM, and is temporarily
 900              on the disk
 901       Dirty: Memory which is waiting to get written back to the disk
 902   Writeback: Memory which is actively being written back to the disk
 903   AnonPages: Non-file backed pages mapped into userspace page tables
 904AnonHugePages: Non-file backed huge pages mapped into userspace page tables
 905      Mapped: files which have been mmaped, such as libraries
 906       Shmem: Total memory used by shared memory (shmem) and tmpfs
 907ShmemHugePages: Memory used by shared memory (shmem) and tmpfs allocated
 908              with huge pages
 909ShmemPmdMapped: Shared memory mapped into userspace with huge pages
 910        Slab: in-kernel data structures cache
 911SReclaimable: Part of Slab, that might be reclaimed, such as caches
 912  SUnreclaim: Part of Slab, that cannot be reclaimed on memory pressure
 913  PageTables: amount of memory dedicated to the lowest level of page
 914              tables.
 915NFS_Unstable: NFS pages sent to the server, but not yet committed to stable
 916              storage
 917      Bounce: Memory used for block device "bounce buffers"
 918WritebackTmp: Memory used by FUSE for temporary writeback buffers
 919 CommitLimit: Based on the overcommit ratio ('vm.overcommit_ratio'),
 920              this is the total amount of  memory currently available to
 921              be allocated on the system. This limit is only adhered to
 922              if strict overcommit accounting is enabled (mode 2 in
 923              'vm.overcommit_memory').
 924              The CommitLimit is calculated with the following formula:
 925              CommitLimit = ([total RAM pages] - [total huge TLB pages]) *
 926                             overcommit_ratio / 100 + [total swap pages]
 927              For example, on a system with 1G of physical RAM and 7G
 928              of swap with a `vm.overcommit_ratio` of 30 it would
 929              yield a CommitLimit of 7.3G.
 930              For more details, see the memory overcommit documentation
 931              in vm/overcommit-accounting.
 932Committed_AS: The amount of memory presently allocated on the system.
 933              The committed memory is a sum of all of the memory which
 934              has been allocated by processes, even if it has not been
 935              "used" by them as of yet. A process which malloc()'s 1G
 936              of memory, but only touches 300M of it will show up as
 937              using 1G. This 1G is memory which has been "committed" to
 938              by the VM and can be used at any time by the allocating
 939              application. With strict overcommit enabled on the system
 940              (mode 2 in 'vm.overcommit_memory'),allocations which would
 941              exceed the CommitLimit (detailed above) will not be permitted.
 942              This is useful if one needs to guarantee that processes will
 943              not fail due to lack of memory once that memory has been
 944              successfully allocated.
 945VmallocTotal: total size of vmalloc memory area
 946 VmallocUsed: amount of vmalloc area which is used
 947VmallocChunk: largest contiguous block of vmalloc area which is free
 953Provides information about vmalloced/vmaped areas. One line per area,
 954containing the virtual address range of the area, size in bytes,
 955caller information of the creator, and optional information depending
 956on the kind of area :
 958 pages=nr    number of pages
 959 phys=addr   if a physical address was specified
 960 ioremap     I/O mapping (ioremap() and friends)
 961 vmalloc     vmalloc() area
 962 vmap        vmap()ed pages
 963 user        VM_USERMAP area
 964 vpages      buffer for pages pointers was vmalloced (huge area)
 965 N<node>=nr  (Only on NUMA kernels)
 966             Number of pages allocated on memory node <node>
 968> cat /proc/vmallocinfo
 9690xffffc20000000000-0xffffc20000201000 2101248 alloc_large_system_hash+0x204 ...
 970  /0x2c0 pages=512 vmalloc N0=128 N1=128 N2=128 N3=128
 9710xffffc20000201000-0xffffc20000302000 1052672 alloc_large_system_hash+0x204 ...
 972  /0x2c0 pages=256 vmalloc N0=64 N1=64 N2=64 N3=64
 9730xffffc20000302000-0xffffc20000304000    8192 acpi_tb_verify_table+0x21/0x4f...
 974  phys=7fee8000 ioremap
 9750xffffc20000304000-0xffffc20000307000   12288 acpi_tb_verify_table+0x21/0x4f...
 976  phys=7fee7000 ioremap
 9770xffffc2000031d000-0xffffc2000031f000    8192 init_vdso_vars+0x112/0x210
 9780xffffc2000031f000-0xffffc2000032b000   49152 cramfs_uncompress_init+0x2e ...
 979  /0x80 pages=11 vmalloc N0=3 N1=3 N2=2 N3=3
 9800xffffc2000033a000-0xffffc2000033d000   12288 sys_swapon+0x640/0xac0      ...
 981  pages=2 vmalloc N1=2
 9820xffffc20000347000-0xffffc2000034c000   20480 xt_alloc_table_info+0xfe ...
 983  /0x130 [x_tables] pages=4 vmalloc N0=4
 9840xffffffffa0000000-0xffffffffa000f000   61440 sys_init_module+0xc27/0x1d00 ...
 985   pages=14 vmalloc N2=14
 9860xffffffffa000f000-0xffffffffa0014000   20480 sys_init_module+0xc27/0x1d00 ...
 987   pages=4 vmalloc N1=4
 9880xffffffffa0014000-0xffffffffa0017000   12288 sys_init_module+0xc27/0x1d00 ...
 989   pages=2 vmalloc N1=2
 9900xffffffffa0017000-0xffffffffa0022000   45056 sys_init_module+0xc27/0x1d00 ...
 991   pages=10 vmalloc N0=10
 997Provides counts of softirq handlers serviced since boot time, for each cpu.
 999> cat /proc/softirqs
1000                CPU0       CPU1       CPU2       CPU3
1001      HI:          0          0          0          0
1002   TIMER:      27166      27120      27097      27034
1003  NET_TX:          0          0          0         17
1004  NET_RX:         42          0          0         39
1005   BLOCK:          0          0        107       1121
1006 TASKLET:          0          0          0        290
1007   SCHED:      27035      26983      26971      26746
1008 HRTIMER:          0          0          0          0
1009     RCU:       1678       1769       2178       2250
10121.3 IDE devices in /proc/ide
1015The subdirectory /proc/ide contains information about all IDE devices of which
1016the kernel  is  aware.  There is one subdirectory for each IDE controller, the
1017file drivers  and a link for each IDE device, pointing to the device directory
1018in the controller specific subtree.
1020The file  drivers  contains general information about the drivers used for the
1021IDE devices:
1023  > cat /proc/ide/drivers
1024  ide-cdrom version 4.53
1025  ide-disk version 1.08
1027More detailed  information  can  be  found  in  the  controller  specific
1028subdirectories. These  are  named  ide0,  ide1  and  so  on.  Each  of  these
1029directories contains the files shown in table 1-6.
1032Table 1-6: IDE controller info in  /proc/ide/ide?
1034 File    Content                                 
1035 channel IDE channel (0 or 1)                    
1036 config  Configuration (only for PCI/IDE bridge) 
1037 mate    Mate name                               
1038 model   Type/Chipset of IDE controller          
1041Each device  connected  to  a  controller  has  a separate subdirectory in the
1042controllers directory.  The  files  listed in table 1-7 are contained in these
1046Table 1-7: IDE device information
1048 File             Content                                    
1049 cache            The cache                                  
1050 capacity         Capacity of the medium (in 512Byte blocks) 
1051 driver           driver and version                         
1052 geometry         physical and logical geometry              
1053 identify         device identify block                      
1054 media            media type                                 
1055 model            device identifier                          
1056 settings         device setup                               
1057 smart_thresholds IDE disk management thresholds             
1058 smart_values     IDE disk management values                 
1061The most  interesting  file is settings. This file contains a nice overview of
1062the drive parameters:
1064  # cat /proc/ide/ide0/hda/settings 
1065  name                    value           min             max             mode 
1066  ----                    -----           ---             ---             ---- 
1067  bios_cyl                526             0               65535           rw 
1068  bios_head               255             0               255             rw 
1069  bios_sect               63              0               63              rw 
1070  breada_readahead        4               0               127             rw 
1071  bswap                   0               0               1               r 
1072  file_readahead          72              0               2097151         rw 
1073  io_32bit                0               0               3               rw 
1074  keepsettings            0               0               1               rw 
1075  max_kb_per_request      122             1               127             rw 
1076  multcount               0               0               8               rw 
1077  nice1                   1               0               1               rw 
1078  nowerr                  0               0               1               rw 
1079  pio_mode                write-only      0               255             w 
1080  slow                    0               0               1               rw 
1081  unmaskirq               0               0               1               rw 
1082  using_dma               0               0               1               rw 
10851.4 Networking info in /proc/net
1088The subdirectory  /proc/net  follows  the  usual  pattern. Table 1-8 shows the
1089additional values  you  get  for  IP  version 6 if you configure the kernel to
1090support this. Table 1-9 lists the files and their meaning.
1093Table 1-8: IPv6 info in /proc/net
1095 File       Content                                               
1096 udp6       UDP sockets (IPv6)                                    
1097 tcp6       TCP sockets (IPv6)                                    
1098 raw6       Raw device statistics (IPv6)                          
1099 igmp6      IP multicast addresses, which this host joined (IPv6) 
1100 if_inet6   List of IPv6 interface addresses                      
1101 ipv6_route Kernel routing table for IPv6                         
1102 rt6_stats  Global IPv6 routing tables statistics                 
1103 sockstat6  Socket statistics (IPv6)                              
1104 snmp6      Snmp data (IPv6)                                      
1108Table 1-9: Network info in /proc/net
1110 File          Content                                                         
1111 arp           Kernel  ARP table                                               
1112 dev           network devices with statistics                                 
1113 dev_mcast     the Layer2 multicast groups a device is listening too
1114               (interface index, label, number of references, number of bound
1115               addresses). 
1116 dev_stat      network device status                                           
1117 ip_fwchains   Firewall chain linkage                                          
1118 ip_fwnames    Firewall chain names                                            
1119 ip_masq       Directory containing the masquerading tables                    
1120 ip_masquerade Major masquerading table                                        
1121 netstat       Network statistics                                              
1122 raw           raw device statistics                                           
1123 route         Kernel routing table                                            
1124 rpc           Directory containing rpc info                                   
1125 rt_cache      Routing cache                                                   
1126 snmp          SNMP data                                                       
1127 sockstat      Socket statistics                                               
1128 tcp           TCP  sockets                                                    
1129 udp           UDP sockets                                                     
1130 unix          UNIX domain sockets                                             
1131 wireless      Wireless interface data (Wavelan etc)                           
1132 igmp          IP multicast addresses, which this host joined                  
1133 psched        Global packet scheduler parameters.                             
1134 netlink       List of PF_NETLINK sockets                                      
1135 ip_mr_vifs    List of multicast virtual interfaces                            
1136 ip_mr_cache   List of multicast routing cache                                 
1139You can  use  this  information  to see which network devices are available in
1140your system and how much traffic was routed over those devices:
1142  > cat /proc/net/dev 
1143  Inter-|Receive                                                   |[... 
1144   face |bytes    packets errs drop fifo frame compressed multicast|[... 
1145      lo:  908188   5596     0    0    0     0          0         0 [...         
1146    ppp0:15475140  20721   410    0    0   410          0         0 [...  
1147    eth0:  614530   7085     0    0    0     0          0         1 [... 
1149  ...] Transmit 
1150  ...] bytes    packets errs drop fifo colls carrier compressed 
1151  ...]  908188     5596    0    0    0     0       0          0 
1152  ...] 1375103    17405    0    0    0     0       0          0 
1153  ...] 1703981     5535    0    0    0     3       0          0 
1155In addition, each Channel Bond interface has its own directory.  For
1156example, the bond0 device will have a directory called /proc/net/bond0/.
1157It will contain information that is specific to that bond, such as the
1158current slaves of the bond, the link status of the slaves, and how
1159many times the slaves link has failed.
11611.5 SCSI info
1164If you  have  a  SCSI  host adapter in your system, you'll find a subdirectory
1165named after  the driver for this adapter in /proc/scsi. You'll also see a list
1166of all recognized SCSI devices in /proc/scsi:
1168  >cat /proc/scsi/scsi 
1169  Attached devices: 
1170  Host: scsi0 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00 
1171    Vendor: IBM      Model: DGHS09U          Rev: 03E0 
1172    Type:   Direct-Access                    ANSI SCSI revision: 03 
1173  Host: scsi0 Channel: 00 Id: 06 Lun: 00 
1174    Vendor: PIONEER  Model: CD-ROM DR-U06S   Rev: 1.04 
1175    Type:   CD-ROM                           ANSI SCSI revision: 02 
1178The directory  named  after  the driver has one file for each adapter found in
1179the system.  These  files  contain information about the controller, including
1180the used  IRQ  and  the  IO  address range. The amount of information shown is
1181dependent on  the adapter you use. The example shows the output for an Adaptec
1182AHA-2940 SCSI adapter:
1184  > cat /proc/scsi/aic7xxx/0 
1186  Adaptec AIC7xxx driver version: 5.1.19/3.2.4 
1187  Compile Options: 
1188    TCQ Enabled By Default : Disabled 
1189    AIC7XXX_PROC_STATS     : Disabled 
1190    AIC7XXX_RESET_DELAY    : 5 
1191  Adapter Configuration: 
1192             SCSI Adapter: Adaptec AHA-294X Ultra SCSI host adapter 
1193                             Ultra Wide Controller 
1194      PCI MMAPed I/O Base: 0xeb001000 
1195   Adapter SEEPROM Config: SEEPROM found and used. 
1196        Adaptec SCSI BIOS: Enabled 
1197                      IRQ: 10 
1198                     SCBs: Active 0, Max Active 2, 
1199                           Allocated 15, HW 16, Page 255 
1200               Interrupts: 160328 
1201        BIOS Control Word: 0x18b6 
1202     Adapter Control Word: 0x005b 
1203     Extended Translation: Enabled 
1204  Disconnect Enable Flags: 0xffff 
1205       Ultra Enable Flags: 0x0001 
1206   Tag Queue Enable Flags: 0x0000 
1207  Ordered Queue Tag Flags: 0x0000 
1208  Default Tag Queue Depth: 8 
1209      Tagged Queue By Device array for aic7xxx host instance 0: 
1210        {255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255} 
1211      Actual queue depth per device for aic7xxx host instance 0: 
1212        {1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1} 
1213  Statistics: 
1214  (scsi0:0:0:0) 
1215    Device using Wide/Sync transfers at 40.0 MByte/sec, offset 8 
1216    Transinfo settings: current(12/8/1/0), goal(12/8/1/0), user(12/15/1/0) 
1217    Total transfers 160151 (74577 reads and 85574 writes) 
1218  (scsi0:0:6:0) 
1219    Device using Narrow/Sync transfers at 5.0 MByte/sec, offset 15 
1220    Transinfo settings: current(50/15/0/0), goal(50/15/0/0), user(50/15/0/0) 
1221    Total transfers 0 (0 reads and 0 writes) 
12241.6 Parallel port info in /proc/parport
1227The directory  /proc/parport  contains information about the parallel ports of
1228your system.  It  has  one  subdirectory  for  each port, named after the port
1229number (0,1,2,...).
1231These directories contain the four files shown in Table 1-10.
1234Table 1-10: Files in /proc/parport
1236 File      Content                                                             
1237 autoprobe Any IEEE-1284 device ID information that has been acquired.         
1238 devices   list of the device drivers using that port. A + will appear by the
1239           name of the device currently using the port (it might not appear
1240           against any). 
1241 hardware  Parallel port's base address, IRQ line and DMA channel.             
1242 irq       IRQ that parport is using for that port. This is in a separate
1243           file to allow you to alter it by writing a new value in (IRQ
1244           number or none). 
12471.7 TTY info in /proc/tty
1250Information about  the  available  and actually used tty's can be found in the
1251directory /proc/tty.You'll  find  entries  for drivers and line disciplines in
1252this directory, as shown in Table 1-11.
1255Table 1-11: Files in /proc/tty
1257 File          Content                                        
1258 drivers       list of drivers and their usage                
1259 ldiscs        registered line disciplines                    
1260 driver/serial usage statistic and status of single tty lines 
1263To see  which  tty's  are  currently in use, you can simply look into the file
1266  > cat /proc/tty/drivers 
1267  pty_slave            /dev/pts      136   0-255 pty:slave 
1268  pty_master           /dev/ptm      128   0-255 pty:master 
1269  pty_slave            /dev/ttyp       3   0-255 pty:slave 
1270  pty_master           /dev/pty        2   0-255 pty:master 
1271  serial               /dev/cua        5   64-67 serial:callout 
1272  serial               /dev/ttyS       4   64-67 serial 
1273  /dev/tty0            /dev/tty0       4       0 system:vtmaster 
1274  /dev/ptmx            /dev/ptmx       5       2 system 
1275  /dev/console         /dev/console    5       1 system:console 
1276  /dev/tty             /dev/tty        5       0 system:/dev/tty 
1277  unknown              /dev/tty        4    1-63 console 
12801.8 Miscellaneous kernel statistics in /proc/stat
1283Various pieces   of  information about  kernel activity  are  available in the
1284/proc/stat file.  All  of  the numbers reported  in  this file are  aggregates
1285since the system first booted.  For a quick look, simply cat the file:
1287  > cat /proc/stat
1288  cpu  2255 34 2290 22625563 6290 127 456 0 0 0
1289  cpu0 1132 34 1441 11311718 3675 127 438 0 0 0
1290  cpu1 1123 0 849 11313845 2614 0 18 0 0 0
1291  intr 114930548 113199788 3 0 5 263 0 4 [... lots more numbers ...]
1292  ctxt 1990473
1293  btime 1062191376
1294  processes 2915
1295  procs_running 1
1296  procs_blocked 0
1297  softirq 183433 0 21755 12 39 1137 231 21459 2263
1299The very first  "cpu" line aggregates the  numbers in all  of the other "cpuN"
1300lines.  These numbers identify the amount of time the CPU has spent performing
1301different kinds of work.  Time units are in USER_HZ (typically hundredths of a
1302second).  The meanings of the columns are as follows, from left to right:
1304- user: normal processes executing in user mode
1305- nice: niced processes executing in user mode
1306- system: processes executing in kernel mode
1307- idle: twiddling thumbs
1308- iowait: waiting for I/O to complete
1309- irq: servicing interrupts
1310- softirq: servicing softirqs
1311- steal: involuntary wait
1312- guest: running a normal guest
1313- guest_nice: running a niced guest
1315The "intr" line gives counts of interrupts  serviced since boot time, for each
1316of the  possible system interrupts.   The first  column  is the  total of  all
1317interrupts serviced  including  unnumbered  architecture specific  interrupts;
1318each  subsequent column is the  total for that particular numbered interrupt.
1319Unnumbered interrupts are not shown, only summed into the total.
1321The "ctxt" line gives the total number of context switches across all CPUs.
1323The "btime" line gives  the time at which the  system booted, in seconds since
1324the Unix epoch.
1326The "processes" line gives the number  of processes and threads created, which
1327includes (but  is not limited  to) those  created by  calls to the  fork() and
1328clone() system calls.
1330The "procs_running" line gives the total number of threads that are
1331running or ready to run (i.e., the total number of runnable threads).
1333The   "procs_blocked" line gives  the  number of  processes currently blocked,
1334waiting for I/O to complete.
1336The "softirq" line gives counts of softirqs serviced since boot time, for each
1337of the possible system softirqs. The first column is the total of all
1338softirqs serviced; each subsequent column is the total for that particular
13421.9 Ext4 file system parameters
1345Information about mounted ext4 file systems can be found in
1346/proc/fs/ext4.  Each mounted filesystem will have a directory in
1347/proc/fs/ext4 based on its device name (i.e., /proc/fs/ext4/hdc or
1348/proc/fs/ext4/dm-0).   The files in each per-device directory are shown
1349in Table 1-12, below.
1351Table 1-12: Files in /proc/fs/ext4/<devname>
1353 File            Content                                        
1354 mb_groups       details of multiblock allocator buddy cache of free blocks
13572.0 /proc/consoles
1359Shows registered system console lines.
1361To see which character device lines are currently used for the system console
1362/dev/console, you may simply look into the file /proc/consoles:
1364  > cat /proc/consoles
1365  tty0                 -WU (ECp)       4:7
1366  ttyS0                -W- (Ep)        4:64
1368The columns are:
1370  device               name of the device
1371  operations           R = can do read operations
1372                       W = can do write operations
1373                       U = can do unblank
1374  flags                E = it is enabled
1375                       C = it is preferred console
1376                       B = it is primary boot console
1377                       p = it is used for printk buffer
1378                       b = it is not a TTY but a Braille device
1379                       a = it is safe to use when cpu is offline
1380  major:minor          major and minor number of the device separated by a colon
1385The /proc file system serves information about the running system. It not only
1386allows access to process data but also allows you to request the kernel status
1387by reading files in the hierarchy.
1389The directory  structure  of /proc reflects the types of information and makes
1390it easy, if not obvious, where to look for specific data.
1398In This Chapter
1400* Modifying kernel parameters by writing into files found in /proc/sys
1401* Exploring the files which modify certain parameters
1402* Review of the /proc/sys file tree
1406A very  interesting part of /proc is the directory /proc/sys. This is not only
1407a source  of  information,  it also allows you to change parameters within the
1408kernel. Be  very  careful  when attempting this. You can optimize your system,
1409but you  can  also  cause  it  to  crash.  Never  alter kernel parameters on a
1410production system.  Set  up  a  development machine and test to make sure that
1411everything works  the  way  you want it to. You may have no alternative but to
1412reboot the machine once an error has been made.
1414To change  a  value,  simply  echo  the new value into the file. An example is
1415given below  in the section on the file system data. You need to be root to do
1416this. You  can  create  your  own  boot script to perform this every time your
1417system boots.
1419The files  in /proc/sys can be used to fine tune and monitor miscellaneous and
1420general things  in  the operation of the Linux kernel. Since some of the files
1421can inadvertently  disrupt  your  system,  it  is  advisable  to  read  both
1422documentation and  source  before actually making adjustments. In any case, be
1423very careful  when  writing  to  any  of these files. The entries in /proc may
1424change slightly between the 2.1.* and the 2.2 kernel, so if there is any doubt
1425review the kernel documentation in the directory /usr/src/linux/Documentation.
1426This chapter  is  heavily  based  on the documentation included in the pre 2.2
1427kernels, and became part of it in version 2.2.1 of the Linux kernel.
1429Please see: Documentation/sysctl/ directory for descriptions of these
1435Certain aspects  of  kernel  behavior  can be modified at runtime, without the
1436need to  recompile  the kernel, or even to reboot the system. The files in the
1437/proc/sys tree  can  not only be read, but also modified. You can use the echo
1438command to write value into these files, thereby changing the default settings
1439of the kernel.
14463.1 /proc/<pid>/oom_adj & /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj- Adjust the oom-killer score
1449These file can be used to adjust the badness heuristic used to select which
1450process gets killed in out of memory conditions.
1452The badness heuristic assigns a value to each candidate task ranging from 0
1453(never kill) to 1000 (always kill) to determine which process is targeted.  The
1454units are roughly a proportion along that range of allowed memory the process
1455may allocate from based on an estimation of its current memory and swap use.
1456For example, if a task is using all allowed memory, its badness score will be
14571000.  If it is using half of its allowed memory, its score will be 500.
1459There is an additional factor included in the badness score: the current memory
1460and swap usage is discounted by 3% for root processes.
1462The amount of "allowed" memory depends on the context in which the oom killer
1463was called.  If it is due to the memory assigned to the allocating task's cpuset
1464being exhausted, the allowed memory represents the set of mems assigned to that
1465cpuset.  If it is due to a mempolicy's node(s) being exhausted, the allowed
1466memory represents the set of mempolicy nodes.  If it is due to a memory
1467limit (or swap limit) being reached, the allowed memory is that configured
1468limit.  Finally, if it is due to the entire system being out of memory, the
1469allowed memory represents all allocatable resources.
1471The value of /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj is added to the badness score before it
1472is used to determine which task to kill.  Acceptable values range from -1000
1473(OOM_SCORE_ADJ_MIN) to +1000 (OOM_SCORE_ADJ_MAX).  This allows userspace to
1474polarize the preference for oom killing either by always preferring a certain
1475task or completely disabling it.  The lowest possible value, -1000, is
1476equivalent to disabling oom killing entirely for that task since it will always
1477report a badness score of 0.
1479Consequently, it is very simple for userspace to define the amount of memory to
1480consider for each task.  Setting a /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj value of +500, for
1481example, is roughly equivalent to allowing the remainder of tasks sharing the
1482same system, cpuset, mempolicy, or memory controller resources to use at least
148350% more memory.  A value of -500, on the other hand, would be roughly
1484equivalent to discounting 50% of the task's allowed memory from being considered
1485as scoring against the task.
1487For backwards compatibility with previous kernels, /proc/<pid>/oom_adj may also
1488be used to tune the badness score.  Its acceptable values range from -16
1489(OOM_ADJUST_MIN) to +15 (OOM_ADJUST_MAX) and a special value of -17
1490(OOM_DISABLE) to disable oom killing entirely for that task.  Its value is
1491scaled linearly with /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj.
1493The value of /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj may be reduced no lower than the last
1494value set by a CAP_SYS_RESOURCE process. To reduce the value any lower
1495requires CAP_SYS_RESOURCE.
1497Caveat: when a parent task is selected, the oom killer will sacrifice any first
1498generation children with separate address spaces instead, if possible.  This
1499avoids servers and important system daemons from being killed and loses the
1500minimal amount of work.
15033.2 /proc/<pid>/oom_score - Display current oom-killer score
1506This file can be used to check the current score used by the oom-killer is for
1507any given <pid>. Use it together with /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj to tune which
1508process should be killed in an out-of-memory situation.
15113.3  /proc/<pid>/io - Display the IO accounting fields
1514This file contains IO statistics for each running process
1519test:/tmp # dd if=/dev/zero of=/tmp/test.dat &
1520[1] 3828
1522test:/tmp # cat /proc/3828/io
1523rchar: 323934931
1524wchar: 323929600
1525syscr: 632687
1526syscw: 632675
1527read_bytes: 0
1528write_bytes: 323932160
1529cancelled_write_bytes: 0
1538I/O counter: chars read
1539The number of bytes which this task has caused to be read from storage. This
1540is simply the sum of bytes which this process passed to read() and pread().
1541It includes things like tty IO and it is unaffected by whether or not actual
1542physical disk IO was required (the read might have been satisfied from
1549I/O counter: chars written
1550The number of bytes which this task has caused, or shall cause to be written
1551to disk. Similar caveats apply here as with rchar.
1557I/O counter: read syscalls
1558Attempt to count the number of read I/O operations, i.e. syscalls like read()
1559and pread().
1565I/O counter: write syscalls
1566Attempt to count the number of write I/O operations, i.e. syscalls like
1567write() and pwrite().
1573I/O counter: bytes read
1574Attempt to count the number of bytes which this process really did cause to
1575be fetched from the storage layer. Done at the submit_bio() level, so it is
1576accurate for block-backed filesystems. <please add status regarding NFS and
1577CIFS at a later time>
1583I/O counter: bytes written
1584Attempt to count the number of bytes which this process caused to be sent to
1585the storage layer. This is done at page-dirtying time.
1591The big inaccuracy here is truncate. If a process writes 1MB to a file and
1592then deletes the file, it will in fact perform no writeout. But it will have
1593been accounted as having caused 1MB of write.
1594In other words: The number of bytes which this process caused to not happen,
1595by truncating pagecache. A task can cause "negative" IO too. If this task
1596truncates some dirty pagecache, some IO which another task has been accounted
1597for (in its write_bytes) will not be happening. We _could_ just subtract that
1598from the truncating task's write_bytes, but there is information loss in doing
1605At its current implementation state, this is a bit racy on 32-bit machines: if
1606process A reads process B's /proc/pid/io while process B is updating one of
1607those 64-bit counters, process A could see an intermediate result.
1610More information about this can be found within the taskstats documentation in
16133.4 /proc/<pid>/coredump_filter - Core dump filtering settings
1615When a process is dumped, all anonymous memory is written to a core file as
1616long as the size of the core file isn't limited. But sometimes we don't want
1617to dump some memory segments, for example, huge shared memory or DAX.
1618Conversely, sometimes we want to save file-backed memory segments into a core
1619file, not only the individual files.
1621/proc/<pid>/coredump_filter allows you to customize which memory segments
1622will be dumped when the <pid> process is dumped. coredump_filter is a bitmask
1623of memory types. If a bit of the bitmask is set, memory segments of the
1624corresponding memory type are dumped, otherwise they are not dumped.
1626The following 9 memory types are supported:
1627  - (bit 0) anonymous private memory
1628  - (bit 1) anonymous shared memory
1629  - (bit 2) file-backed private memory
1630  - (bit 3) file-backed shared memory
1631  - (bit 4) ELF header pages in file-backed private memory areas (it is
1632            effective only if the bit 2 is cleared)
1633  - (bit 5) hugetlb private memory
1634  - (bit 6) hugetlb shared memory
1635  - (bit 7) DAX private memory
1636  - (bit 8) DAX shared memory
1638  Note that MMIO pages such as frame buffer are never dumped and vDSO pages
1639  are always dumped regardless of the bitmask status.
1641  Note that bits 0-4 don't affect hugetlb or DAX memory. hugetlb memory is
1642  only affected by bit 5-6, and DAX is only affected by bits 7-8.
1644The default value of coredump_filter is 0x33; this means all anonymous memory
1645segments, ELF header pages and hugetlb private memory are dumped.
1647If you don't want to dump all shared memory segments attached to pid 1234,
1648write 0x31 to the process's proc file.
1650  $ echo 0x31 > /proc/1234/coredump_filter
1652When a new process is created, the process inherits the bitmask status from its
1653parent. It is useful to set up coredump_filter before the program runs.
1654For example:
1656  $ echo 0x7 > /proc/self/coredump_filter
1657  $ ./some_program
16593.5     /proc/<pid>/mountinfo - Information about mounts
1662This file contains lines of the form:
166436 35 98:0 /mnt1 /mnt2 rw,noatime master:1 - ext3 /dev/root rw,errors=continue
1665(1)(2)(3)   (4)   (5)      (6)      (7)   (8) (9)   (10)         (11)
1667(1) mount ID:  unique identifier of the mount (may be reused after umount)
1668(2) parent ID:  ID of parent (or of self for the top of the mount tree)
1669(3) major:minor:  value of st_dev for files on filesystem
1670(4) root:  root of the mount within the filesystem
1671(5) mount point:  mount point relative to the process's root
1672(6) mount options:  per mount options
1673(7) optional fields:  zero or more fields of the form "tag[:value]"
1674(8) separator:  marks the end of the optional fields
1675(9) filesystem type:  name of filesystem of the form "type[.subtype]"
1676(10) mount source:  filesystem specific information or "none"
1677(11) super options:  per super block options
1679Parsers should ignore all unrecognised optional fields.  Currently the
1680possible optional fields are:
1682shared:X  mount is shared in peer group X
1683master:X  mount is slave to peer group X
1684propagate_from:X  mount is slave and receives propagation from peer group X (*)
1685unbindable  mount is unbindable
1687(*) X is the closest dominant peer group under the process's root.  If
1688X is the immediate master of the mount, or if there's no dominant peer
1689group under the same root, then only the "master:X" field is present
1690and not the "propagate_from:X" field.
1692For more information on mount propagation see:
1694  Documentation/filesystems/sharedsubtree.txt
16973.6     /proc/<pid>/comm  & /proc/<pid>/task/<tid>/comm
1699These files provide a method to access a tasks comm value. It also allows for
1700a task to set its own or one of its thread siblings comm value. The comm value
1701is limited in size compared to the cmdline value, so writing anything longer
1702then the kernel's TASK_COMM_LEN (currently 16 chars) will result in a truncated
1703comm value.
17063.7     /proc/<pid>/task/<tid>/children - Information about task children
1708This file provides a fast way to retrieve first level children pids
1709of a task pointed by <pid>/<tid> pair. The format is a space separated
1710stream of pids.
1712Note the "first level" here -- if a child has own children they will
1713not be listed here, one needs to read /proc/<children-pid>/task/<tid>/children
1714to obtain the descendants.
1716Since this interface is intended to be fast and cheap it doesn't
1717guarantee to provide precise results and some children might be
1718skipped, especially if they've exited right after we printed their
1719pids, so one need to either stop or freeze processes being inspected
1720if precise results are needed.
17233.8     /proc/<pid>/fdinfo/<fd> - Information about opened file
1725This file provides information associated with an opened file. The regular
1726files have at least three fields -- 'pos', 'flags' and mnt_id. The 'pos'
1727represents the current offset of the opened file in decimal form [see lseek(2)
1728for details], 'flags' denotes the octal O_xxx mask the file has been
1729created with [see open(2) for details] and 'mnt_id' represents mount ID of
1730the file system containing the opened file [see 3.5 /proc/<pid>/mountinfo
1731for details].
1733A typical output is
1735        pos:    0
1736        flags:  0100002
1737        mnt_id: 19
1739All locks associated with a file descriptor are shown in its fdinfo too.
1741lock:       1: FLOCK  ADVISORY  WRITE 359 00:13:11691 0 EOF
1743The files such as eventfd, fsnotify, signalfd, epoll among the regular pos/flags
1744pair provide additional information particular to the objects they represent.
1746        Eventfd files
1747        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1748        pos:    0
1749        flags:  04002
1750        mnt_id: 9
1751        eventfd-count:  5a
1753        where 'eventfd-count' is hex value of a counter.
1755        Signalfd files
1756        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1757        pos:    0
1758        flags:  04002
1759        mnt_id: 9
1760        sigmask:        0000000000000200
1762        where 'sigmask' is hex value of the signal mask associated
1763        with a file.
1765        Epoll files
1766        ~~~~~~~~~~~
1767        pos:    0
1768        flags:  02
1769        mnt_id: 9
1770        tfd:        5 events:       1d data: ffffffffffffffff
1772        where 'tfd' is a target file descriptor number in decimal form,
1773        'events' is events mask being watched and the 'data' is data
1774        associated with a target [see epoll(7) for more details].
1776        Fsnotify files
1777        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1778        For inotify files the format is the following
1780        pos:    0
1781        flags:  02000000
1782        inotify wd:3 ino:9e7e sdev:800013 mask:800afce ignored_mask:0 fhandle-bytes:8 fhandle-type:1 f_handle:7e9e0000640d1b6d
1784        where 'wd' is a watch descriptor in decimal form, ie a target file
1785        descriptor number, 'ino' and 'sdev' are inode and device where the
1786        target file resides and the 'mask' is the mask of events, all in hex
1787        form [see inotify(7) for more details].
1789        If the kernel was built with exportfs support, the path to the target
1790        file is encoded as a file handle.  The file handle is provided by three
1791        fields 'fhandle-bytes', 'fhandle-type' and 'f_handle', all in hex
1792        format.
1794        If the kernel is built without exportfs support the file handle won't be
1795        printed out.
1797        If there is no inotify mark attached yet the 'inotify' line will be omitted.
1799        For fanotify files the format is
1801        pos:    0
1802        flags:  02
1803        mnt_id: 9
1804        fanotify flags:10 event-flags:0
1805        fanotify mnt_id:12 mflags:40 mask:38 ignored_mask:40000003
1806        fanotify ino:4f969 sdev:800013 mflags:0 mask:3b ignored_mask:40000000 fhandle-bytes:8 fhandle-type:1 f_handle:69f90400c275b5b4
1808        where fanotify 'flags' and 'event-flags' are values used in fanotify_init
1809        call, 'mnt_id' is the mount point identifier, 'mflags' is the value of
1810        flags associated with mark which are tracked separately from events
1811        mask. 'ino', 'sdev' are target inode and device, 'mask' is the events
1812        mask and 'ignored_mask' is the mask of events which are to be ignored.
1813        All in hex format. Incorporation of 'mflags', 'mask' and 'ignored_mask'
1814        does provide information about flags and mask used in fanotify_mark
1815        call [see fsnotify manpage for details].
1817        While the first three lines are mandatory and always printed, the rest is
1818        optional and may be omitted if no marks created yet.
1820        Timerfd files
1821        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1823        pos:    0
1824        flags:  02
1825        mnt_id: 9
1826        clockid: 0
1827        ticks: 0
1828        settime flags: 01
1829        it_value: (0, 49406829)
1830        it_interval: (1, 0)
1832        where 'clockid' is the clock type and 'ticks' is the number of the timer expirations
1833        that have occurred [see timerfd_create(2) for details]. 'settime flags' are
1834        flags in octal form been used to setup the timer [see timerfd_settime(2) for
1835        details]. 'it_value' is remaining time until the timer exiration.
1836        'it_interval' is the interval for the timer. Note the timer might be set up
1837        with TIMER_ABSTIME option which will be shown in 'settime flags', but 'it_value'
1838        still exhibits timer's remaining time.
18403.9     /proc/<pid>/map_files - Information about memory mapped files
1842This directory contains symbolic links which represent memory mapped files
1843the process is maintaining.  Example output:
1845     | lr-------- 1 root root 64 Jan 27 11:24 333c600000-333c620000 -> /usr/lib64/
1846     | lr-------- 1 root root 64 Jan 27 11:24 333c81f000-333c820000 -> /usr/lib64/
1847     | lr-------- 1 root root 64 Jan 27 11:24 333c820000-333c821000 -> /usr/lib64/
1848     | ...
1849     | lr-------- 1 root root 64 Jan 27 11:24 35d0421000-35d0422000 -> /usr/lib64/
1850     | lr-------- 1 root root 64 Jan 27 11:24 400000-41a000 -> /usr/bin/ls
1852The name of a link represents the virtual memory bounds of a mapping, i.e.
1855The main purpose of the map_files is to retrieve a set of memory mapped
1856files in a fast way instead of parsing /proc/<pid>/maps or
1857/proc/<pid>/smaps, both of which contain many more records.  At the same
1858time one can open(2) mappings from the listings of two processes and
1859comparing their inode numbers to figure out which anonymous memory areas
1860are actually shared.
18623.10    /proc/<pid>/timerslack_ns - Task timerslack value
1864This file provides the value of the task's timerslack value in nanoseconds.
1865This value specifies a amount of time that normal timers may be deferred
1866in order to coalesce timers and avoid unnecessary wakeups.
1868This allows a task's interactivity vs power consumption trade off to be
1871Writing 0 to the file will set the tasks timerslack to the default value.
1873Valid values are from 0 - ULLONG_MAX
1875An application setting the value must have PTRACE_MODE_ATTACH_FSCREDS level
1876permissions on the task specified to change its timerslack_ns value.
1880Configuring procfs
18834.1     Mount options
1886The following mount options are supported:
1888        hidepid=        Set /proc/<pid>/ access mode.
1889        gid=            Set the group authorized to learn processes information.
1891hidepid=0 means classic mode - everybody may access all /proc/<pid>/ directories
1894hidepid=1 means users may not access any /proc/<pid>/ directories but their
1895own.  Sensitive files like cmdline, sched*, status are now protected against
1896other users.  This makes it impossible to learn whether any user runs
1897specific program (given the program doesn't reveal itself by its behaviour).
1898As an additional bonus, as /proc/<pid>/cmdline is unaccessible for other users,
1899poorly written programs passing sensitive information via program arguments are
1900now protected against local eavesdroppers.
1902hidepid=2 means hidepid=1 plus all /proc/<pid>/ will be fully invisible to other
1903users.  It doesn't mean that it hides a fact whether a process with a specific
1904pid value exists (it can be learned by other means, e.g. by "kill -0 $PID"),
1905but it hides process' uid and gid, which may be learned by stat()'ing
1906/proc/<pid>/ otherwise.  It greatly complicates an intruder's task of gathering
1907information about running processes, whether some daemon runs with elevated
1908privileges, whether other user runs some sensitive program, whether other users
1909run any program at all, etc.
1911gid= defines a group authorized to learn processes information otherwise
1912prohibited by hidepid=.  If you use some daemon like identd which needs to learn
1913information about processes information, just add identd to this group.
1914 kindly hosted by Redpill Linpro AS, provider of Linux consulting and operations services since 1995.