linux/Documentation/devices.txt
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   1
   2                    LINUX ALLOCATED DEVICES (4.x+ version)
   3
   4This list is the Linux Device List, the official registry of allocated
   5device numbers and /dev directory nodes for the Linux operating
   6system.
   7
   8The LaTeX version of this document is no longer maintained, nor is
   9the document that used to reside at lanana.org.  This version in the
  10mainline Linux kernel is the master document.  Updates shall be sent
  11as patches to the kernel maintainers (see the SubmittingPatches document).
  12Specifically explore the sections titled "CHAR and MISC DRIVERS", and
  13"BLOCK LAYER" in the MAINTAINERS file to find the right maintainers
  14to involve for character and block devices.
  15
  16This document is included by reference into the Filesystem Hierarchy
  17Standard (FHS).  The FHS is available from http://www.pathname.com/fhs/.
  18
  19Allocations marked (68k/Amiga) apply to Linux/68k on the Amiga
  20platform only.  Allocations marked (68k/Atari) apply to Linux/68k on
  21the Atari platform only.
  22
  23This document is in the public domain.  The authors requests, however,
  24that semantically altered versions are not distributed without
  25permission of the authors, assuming the authors can be contacted without
  26an unreasonable effort.
  27
  28
  29          **** DEVICE DRIVERS AUTHORS PLEASE READ THIS ****
  30
  31Linux now has extensive support for dynamic allocation of device numbering
  32and can use sysfs and udev (systemd) to handle the naming needs. There are
  33still some exceptions in the serial and boot device area. Before asking
  34for a device number make sure you actually need one.
  35
  36To have a major number allocated, or a minor number in situations
  37where that applies (e.g. busmice), please submit a patch and send to
  38the authors as indicated above.
  39
  40Keep the description of the device *in the same format
  41as this list*.  The reason for this is that it is the only way we have
  42found to ensure we have all the requisite information to publish your
  43device and avoid conflicts.
  44
  45Finally, sometimes we have to play "namespace police."  Please don't be
  46offended.  We often get submissions for /dev names that would be bound
  47to cause conflicts down the road.  We are trying to avoid getting in a
  48situation where we would have to suffer an incompatible forward
  49change.  Therefore, please consult with us *before* you make your
  50device names and numbers in any way public, at least to the point
  51where it would be at all difficult to get them changed.
  52
  53Your cooperation is appreciated.
  54
  55
  56  0             Unnamed devices (e.g. non-device mounts)
  57                  0 = reserved as null device number
  58                See block major 144, 145, 146 for expansion areas.
  59
  60  1 char        Memory devices
  61                  1 = /dev/mem          Physical memory access
  62                  2 = /dev/kmem         Kernel virtual memory access
  63                  3 = /dev/null         Null device
  64                  4 = /dev/port         I/O port access
  65                  5 = /dev/zero         Null byte source
  66                  6 = /dev/core         OBSOLETE - replaced by /proc/kcore
  67                  7 = /dev/full         Returns ENOSPC on write
  68                  8 = /dev/random       Nondeterministic random number gen.
  69                  9 = /dev/urandom      Faster, less secure random number gen.
  70                 10 = /dev/aio          Asynchronous I/O notification interface
  71                 11 = /dev/kmsg         Writes to this come out as printk's, reads
  72                                        export the buffered printk records.
  73                 12 = /dev/oldmem       OBSOLETE - replaced by /proc/vmcore
  74
  75  1 block       RAM disk
  76                  0 = /dev/ram0         First RAM disk
  77                  1 = /dev/ram1         Second RAM disk
  78                    ...
  79                250 = /dev/initrd       Initial RAM disk
  80
  81                Older kernels had /dev/ramdisk (1, 1) here.
  82                /dev/initrd refers to a RAM disk which was preloaded
  83                by the boot loader; newer kernels use /dev/ram0 for
  84                the initrd.
  85
  86  2 char        Pseudo-TTY masters
  87                  0 = /dev/ptyp0        First PTY master
  88                  1 = /dev/ptyp1        Second PTY master
  89                    ...
  90                255 = /dev/ptyef        256th PTY master
  91
  92                Pseudo-tty's are named as follows:
  93                * Masters are "pty", slaves are "tty";
  94                * the fourth letter is one of pqrstuvwxyzabcde indicating
  95                  the 1st through 16th series of 16 pseudo-ttys each, and
  96                * the fifth letter is one of 0123456789abcdef indicating
  97                  the position within the series.
  98
  99                These are the old-style (BSD) PTY devices; Unix98
 100                devices are on major 128 and above and use the PTY
 101                master multiplex (/dev/ptmx) to acquire a PTY on
 102                demand.
 103
 104  2 block       Floppy disks
 105                  0 = /dev/fd0          Controller 0, drive 0, autodetect
 106                  1 = /dev/fd1          Controller 0, drive 1, autodetect
 107                  2 = /dev/fd2          Controller 0, drive 2, autodetect
 108                  3 = /dev/fd3          Controller 0, drive 3, autodetect
 109                128 = /dev/fd4          Controller 1, drive 0, autodetect
 110                129 = /dev/fd5          Controller 1, drive 1, autodetect
 111                130 = /dev/fd6          Controller 1, drive 2, autodetect
 112                131 = /dev/fd7          Controller 1, drive 3, autodetect
 113
 114                To specify format, add to the autodetect device number:
 115                  0 = /dev/fd?          Autodetect format
 116                  4 = /dev/fd?d360      5.25"  360K in a 360K  drive(1)
 117                 20 = /dev/fd?h360      5.25"  360K in a 1200K drive(1)
 118                 48 = /dev/fd?h410      5.25"  410K in a 1200K drive
 119                 64 = /dev/fd?h420      5.25"  420K in a 1200K drive
 120                 24 = /dev/fd?h720      5.25"  720K in a 1200K drive
 121                 80 = /dev/fd?h880      5.25"  880K in a 1200K drive(1)
 122                  8 = /dev/fd?h1200     5.25" 1200K in a 1200K drive(1)
 123                 40 = /dev/fd?h1440     5.25" 1440K in a 1200K drive(1)
 124                 56 = /dev/fd?h1476     5.25" 1476K in a 1200K drive
 125                 72 = /dev/fd?h1494     5.25" 1494K in a 1200K drive
 126                 92 = /dev/fd?h1600     5.25" 1600K in a 1200K drive(1)
 127
 128                 12 = /dev/fd?u360      3.5"   360K Double Density(2)
 129                 16 = /dev/fd?u720      3.5"   720K Double Density(1)
 130                120 = /dev/fd?u800      3.5"   800K Double Density(2)
 131                 52 = /dev/fd?u820      3.5"   820K Double Density
 132                 68 = /dev/fd?u830      3.5"   830K Double Density
 133                 84 = /dev/fd?u1040     3.5"  1040K Double Density(1)
 134                 88 = /dev/fd?u1120     3.5"  1120K Double Density(1)
 135                 28 = /dev/fd?u1440     3.5"  1440K High Density(1)
 136                124 = /dev/fd?u1600     3.5"  1600K High Density(1)
 137                 44 = /dev/fd?u1680     3.5"  1680K High Density(3)
 138                 60 = /dev/fd?u1722     3.5"  1722K High Density
 139                 76 = /dev/fd?u1743     3.5"  1743K High Density
 140                 96 = /dev/fd?u1760     3.5"  1760K High Density
 141                116 = /dev/fd?u1840     3.5"  1840K High Density(3)
 142                100 = /dev/fd?u1920     3.5"  1920K High Density(1)
 143                 32 = /dev/fd?u2880     3.5"  2880K Extra Density(1)
 144                104 = /dev/fd?u3200     3.5"  3200K Extra Density
 145                108 = /dev/fd?u3520     3.5"  3520K Extra Density
 146                112 = /dev/fd?u3840     3.5"  3840K Extra Density(1)
 147
 148                 36 = /dev/fd?CompaQ    Compaq 2880K drive; obsolete?
 149
 150                (1) Autodetectable format
 151                (2) Autodetectable format in a Double Density (720K) drive only
 152                (3) Autodetectable format in a High Density (1440K) drive only
 153
 154                NOTE: The letter in the device name (d, q, h or u)
 155                signifies the type of drive: 5.25" Double Density (d),
 156                5.25" Quad Density (q), 5.25" High Density (h) or 3.5"
 157                (any model, u).  The use of the capital letters D, H
 158                and E for the 3.5" models have been deprecated, since
 159                the drive type is insignificant for these devices.
 160
 161  3 char        Pseudo-TTY slaves
 162                  0 = /dev/ttyp0        First PTY slave
 163                  1 = /dev/ttyp1        Second PTY slave
 164                    ...
 165                255 = /dev/ttyef        256th PTY slave
 166
 167                These are the old-style (BSD) PTY devices; Unix98
 168                devices are on major 136 and above.
 169
 170  3 block       First MFM, RLL and IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
 171                  0 = /dev/hda          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 172                 64 = /dev/hdb          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 173
 174                For partitions, add to the whole disk device number:
 175                  0 = /dev/hd?          Whole disk
 176                  1 = /dev/hd?1         First partition
 177                  2 = /dev/hd?2         Second partition
 178                    ...
 179                 63 = /dev/hd?63        63rd partition
 180
 181                For Linux/i386, partitions 1-4 are the primary
 182                partitions, and 5 and above are logical partitions.
 183                Other versions of Linux use partitioning schemes
 184                appropriate to their respective architectures.
 185
 186  4 char        TTY devices
 187                  0 = /dev/tty0         Current virtual console
 188
 189                  1 = /dev/tty1         First virtual console
 190                    ...
 191                 63 = /dev/tty63        63rd virtual console
 192                 64 = /dev/ttyS0        First UART serial port
 193                    ...
 194                255 = /dev/ttyS191      192nd UART serial port
 195
 196                UART serial ports refer to 8250/16450/16550 series devices.
 197
 198                Older versions of the Linux kernel used this major
 199                number for BSD PTY devices.  As of Linux 2.1.115, this
 200                is no longer supported.  Use major numbers 2 and 3.
 201
 202  4 block       Aliases for dynamically allocated major devices to be used
 203                when its not possible to create the real device nodes
 204                because the root filesystem is mounted read-only.
 205
 206                  0 = /dev/root
 207
 208  5 char        Alternate TTY devices
 209                  0 = /dev/tty          Current TTY device
 210                  1 = /dev/console      System console
 211                  2 = /dev/ptmx         PTY master multiplex
 212                  3 = /dev/ttyprintk    User messages via printk TTY device
 213                 64 = /dev/cua0         Callout device for ttyS0
 214                    ...
 215                255 = /dev/cua191       Callout device for ttyS191
 216
 217                (5,1) is /dev/console starting with Linux 2.1.71.  See
 218                the section on terminal devices for more information
 219                on /dev/console.
 220
 221  6 char        Parallel printer devices
 222                  0 = /dev/lp0          Parallel printer on parport0
 223                  1 = /dev/lp1          Parallel printer on parport1
 224                    ...
 225
 226                Current Linux kernels no longer have a fixed mapping
 227                between parallel ports and I/O addresses.  Instead,
 228                they are redirected through the parport multiplex layer.
 229
 230  7 char        Virtual console capture devices
 231                  0 = /dev/vcs          Current vc text contents
 232                  1 = /dev/vcs1         tty1 text contents
 233                    ...
 234                 63 = /dev/vcs63        tty63 text contents
 235                128 = /dev/vcsa         Current vc text/attribute contents
 236                129 = /dev/vcsa1        tty1 text/attribute contents
 237                    ...
 238                191 = /dev/vcsa63       tty63 text/attribute contents
 239
 240                NOTE: These devices permit both read and write access.
 241
 242  7 block       Loopback devices
 243                  0 = /dev/loop0        First loop device
 244                  1 = /dev/loop1        Second loop device
 245                    ...
 246
 247                The loop devices are used to mount filesystems not
 248                associated with block devices.  The binding to the
 249                loop devices is handled by mount(8) or losetup(8).
 250
 251  8 block       SCSI disk devices (0-15)
 252                  0 = /dev/sda          First SCSI disk whole disk
 253                 16 = /dev/sdb          Second SCSI disk whole disk
 254                 32 = /dev/sdc          Third SCSI disk whole disk
 255                    ...
 256                240 = /dev/sdp          Sixteenth SCSI disk whole disk
 257
 258                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
 259                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
 260                partitions is 15.
 261
 262  9 char        SCSI tape devices
 263                  0 = /dev/st0          First SCSI tape, mode 0
 264                  1 = /dev/st1          Second SCSI tape, mode 0
 265                    ...
 266                 32 = /dev/st0l         First SCSI tape, mode 1
 267                 33 = /dev/st1l         Second SCSI tape, mode 1
 268                    ...
 269                 64 = /dev/st0m         First SCSI tape, mode 2
 270                 65 = /dev/st1m         Second SCSI tape, mode 2
 271                    ...
 272                 96 = /dev/st0a         First SCSI tape, mode 3
 273                 97 = /dev/st1a         Second SCSI tape, mode 3
 274                      ...
 275                128 = /dev/nst0         First SCSI tape, mode 0, no rewind
 276                129 = /dev/nst1         Second SCSI tape, mode 0, no rewind
 277                    ...
 278                160 = /dev/nst0l        First SCSI tape, mode 1, no rewind
 279                161 = /dev/nst1l        Second SCSI tape, mode 1, no rewind
 280                    ...
 281                192 = /dev/nst0m        First SCSI tape, mode 2, no rewind
 282                193 = /dev/nst1m        Second SCSI tape, mode 2, no rewind
 283                    ...
 284                224 = /dev/nst0a        First SCSI tape, mode 3, no rewind
 285                225 = /dev/nst1a        Second SCSI tape, mode 3, no rewind
 286                    ...
 287
 288                "No rewind" refers to the omission of the default
 289                automatic rewind on device close.  The MTREW or MTOFFL
 290                ioctl()'s can be used to rewind the tape regardless of
 291                the device used to access it.
 292
 293  9 block       Metadisk (RAID) devices
 294                  0 = /dev/md0          First metadisk group
 295                  1 = /dev/md1          Second metadisk group
 296                    ...
 297
 298                The metadisk driver is used to span a
 299                filesystem across multiple physical disks.
 300
 301 10 char        Non-serial mice, misc features
 302                  0 = /dev/logibm       Logitech bus mouse
 303                  1 = /dev/psaux        PS/2-style mouse port
 304                  2 = /dev/inportbm     Microsoft Inport bus mouse
 305                  3 = /dev/atibm        ATI XL bus mouse
 306                  4 = /dev/jbm          J-mouse
 307                  4 = /dev/amigamouse   Amiga mouse (68k/Amiga)
 308                  5 = /dev/atarimouse   Atari mouse
 309                  6 = /dev/sunmouse     Sun mouse
 310                  7 = /dev/amigamouse1  Second Amiga mouse
 311                  8 = /dev/smouse       Simple serial mouse driver
 312                  9 = /dev/pc110pad     IBM PC-110 digitizer pad
 313                 10 = /dev/adbmouse     Apple Desktop Bus mouse
 314                 11 = /dev/vrtpanel     Vr41xx embedded touch panel
 315                 13 = /dev/vpcmouse     Connectix Virtual PC Mouse
 316                 14 = /dev/touchscreen/ucb1x00  UCB 1x00 touchscreen
 317                 15 = /dev/touchscreen/mk712    MK712 touchscreen
 318                128 = /dev/beep         Fancy beep device
 319                129 =
 320                130 = /dev/watchdog     Watchdog timer port
 321                131 = /dev/temperature  Machine internal temperature
 322                132 = /dev/hwtrap       Hardware fault trap
 323                133 = /dev/exttrp       External device trap
 324                134 = /dev/apm_bios     Advanced Power Management BIOS
 325                135 = /dev/rtc          Real Time Clock
 326                137 = /dev/vhci         Bluetooth virtual HCI driver
 327                139 = /dev/openprom     SPARC OpenBoot PROM
 328                140 = /dev/relay8       Berkshire Products Octal relay card
 329                141 = /dev/relay16      Berkshire Products ISO-16 relay card
 330                142 =
 331                143 = /dev/pciconf      PCI configuration space
 332                144 = /dev/nvram        Non-volatile configuration RAM
 333                145 = /dev/hfmodem      Soundcard shortwave modem control
 334                146 = /dev/graphics     Linux/SGI graphics device
 335                147 = /dev/opengl       Linux/SGI OpenGL pipe
 336                148 = /dev/gfx          Linux/SGI graphics effects device
 337                149 = /dev/input/mouse  Linux/SGI Irix emulation mouse
 338                150 = /dev/input/keyboard Linux/SGI Irix emulation keyboard
 339                151 = /dev/led          Front panel LEDs
 340                152 = /dev/kpoll        Kernel Poll Driver
 341                153 = /dev/mergemem     Memory merge device
 342                154 = /dev/pmu          Macintosh PowerBook power manager
 343                155 = /dev/isictl       MultiTech ISICom serial control
 344                156 = /dev/lcd          Front panel LCD display
 345                157 = /dev/ac           Applicom Intl Profibus card
 346                158 = /dev/nwbutton     Netwinder external button
 347                159 = /dev/nwdebug      Netwinder debug interface
 348                160 = /dev/nwflash      Netwinder flash memory
 349                161 = /dev/userdma      User-space DMA access
 350                162 = /dev/smbus        System Management Bus
 351                163 = /dev/lik          Logitech Internet Keyboard
 352                164 = /dev/ipmo         Intel Intelligent Platform Management
 353                165 = /dev/vmmon        VMware virtual machine monitor
 354                166 = /dev/i2o/ctl      I2O configuration manager
 355                167 = /dev/specialix_sxctl Specialix serial control
 356                168 = /dev/tcldrv       Technology Concepts serial control
 357                169 = /dev/specialix_rioctl Specialix RIO serial control
 358                170 = /dev/thinkpad/thinkpad    IBM Thinkpad devices
 359                171 = /dev/srripc       QNX4 API IPC manager
 360                172 = /dev/usemaclone   Semaphore clone device
 361                173 = /dev/ipmikcs      Intelligent Platform Management
 362                174 = /dev/uctrl        SPARCbook 3 microcontroller
 363                175 = /dev/agpgart      AGP Graphics Address Remapping Table
 364                176 = /dev/gtrsc        Gorgy Timing radio clock
 365                177 = /dev/cbm          Serial CBM bus
 366                178 = /dev/jsflash      JavaStation OS flash SIMM
 367                179 = /dev/xsvc         High-speed shared-mem/semaphore service
 368                180 = /dev/vrbuttons    Vr41xx button input device
 369                181 = /dev/toshiba      Toshiba laptop SMM support
 370                182 = /dev/perfctr      Performance-monitoring counters
 371                183 = /dev/hwrng        Generic random number generator
 372                184 = /dev/cpu/microcode CPU microcode update interface
 373                186 = /dev/atomicps     Atomic shapshot of process state data
 374                187 = /dev/irnet        IrNET device
 375                188 = /dev/smbusbios    SMBus BIOS
 376                189 = /dev/ussp_ctl     User space serial port control
 377                190 = /dev/crash        Mission Critical Linux crash dump facility
 378                191 = /dev/pcl181       <information missing>
 379                192 = /dev/nas_xbus     NAS xbus LCD/buttons access
 380                193 = /dev/d7s          SPARC 7-segment display
 381                194 = /dev/zkshim       Zero-Knowledge network shim control
 382                195 = /dev/elographics/e2201    Elographics touchscreen E271-2201
 383                196 = /dev/vfio/vfio    VFIO userspace driver interface
 384                197 = /dev/pxa3xx-gcu   PXA3xx graphics controller unit driver
 385                198 = /dev/sexec        Signed executable interface
 386                199 = /dev/scanners/cuecat :CueCat barcode scanner
 387                200 = /dev/net/tun      TAP/TUN network device
 388                201 = /dev/button/gulpb Transmeta GULP-B buttons
 389                202 = /dev/emd/ctl      Enhanced Metadisk RAID (EMD) control
 390                203 = /dev/cuse         Cuse (character device in user-space)
 391                204 = /dev/video/em8300         EM8300 DVD decoder control
 392                205 = /dev/video/em8300_mv      EM8300 DVD decoder video
 393                206 = /dev/video/em8300_ma      EM8300 DVD decoder audio
 394                207 = /dev/video/em8300_sp      EM8300 DVD decoder subpicture
 395                208 = /dev/compaq/cpqphpc       Compaq PCI Hot Plug Controller
 396                209 = /dev/compaq/cpqrid        Compaq Remote Insight Driver
 397                210 = /dev/impi/bt      IMPI coprocessor block transfer
 398                211 = /dev/impi/smic    IMPI coprocessor stream interface
 399                212 = /dev/watchdogs/0  First watchdog device
 400                213 = /dev/watchdogs/1  Second watchdog device
 401                214 = /dev/watchdogs/2  Third watchdog device
 402                215 = /dev/watchdogs/3  Fourth watchdog device
 403                216 = /dev/fujitsu/apanel       Fujitsu/Siemens application panel
 404                217 = /dev/ni/natmotn           National Instruments Motion
 405                218 = /dev/kchuid       Inter-process chuid control
 406                219 = /dev/modems/mwave MWave modem firmware upload
 407                220 = /dev/mptctl       Message passing technology (MPT) control
 408                221 = /dev/mvista/hssdsi        Montavista PICMG hot swap system driver
 409                222 = /dev/mvista/hasi          Montavista PICMG high availability
 410                223 = /dev/input/uinput         User level driver support for input
 411                224 = /dev/tpm          TCPA TPM driver
 412                225 = /dev/pps          Pulse Per Second driver
 413                226 = /dev/systrace     Systrace device
 414                227 = /dev/mcelog       X86_64 Machine Check Exception driver
 415                228 = /dev/hpet         HPET driver
 416                229 = /dev/fuse         Fuse (virtual filesystem in user-space)
 417                230 = /dev/midishare    MidiShare driver
 418                231 = /dev/snapshot     System memory snapshot device
 419                232 = /dev/kvm          Kernel-based virtual machine (hardware virtualization extensions)
 420                233 = /dev/kmview       View-OS A process with a view
 421                234 = /dev/btrfs-control        Btrfs control device
 422                235 = /dev/autofs       Autofs control device
 423                236 = /dev/mapper/control       Device-Mapper control device
 424                237 = /dev/loop-control Loopback control device
 425                238 = /dev/vhost-net    Host kernel accelerator for virtio net
 426                239 = /dev/uhid         User-space I/O driver support for HID subsystem
 427
 428                240-254                 Reserved for local use
 429                255                     Reserved for MISC_DYNAMIC_MINOR
 430
 431 11 char        Raw keyboard device     (Linux/SPARC only)
 432                  0 = /dev/kbd          Raw keyboard device
 433
 434 11 char        Serial Mux device       (Linux/PA-RISC only)
 435                  0 = /dev/ttyB0        First mux port
 436                  1 = /dev/ttyB1        Second mux port
 437                    ...
 438
 439 11 block       SCSI CD-ROM devices
 440                  0 = /dev/scd0         First SCSI CD-ROM
 441                  1 = /dev/scd1         Second SCSI CD-ROM
 442                    ...
 443
 444                The prefix /dev/sr (instead of /dev/scd) has been deprecated.
 445
 446 12 char        QIC-02 tape
 447                  2 = /dev/ntpqic11     QIC-11, no rewind-on-close
 448                  3 = /dev/tpqic11      QIC-11, rewind-on-close
 449                  4 = /dev/ntpqic24     QIC-24, no rewind-on-close
 450                  5 = /dev/tpqic24      QIC-24, rewind-on-close
 451                  6 = /dev/ntpqic120    QIC-120, no rewind-on-close
 452                  7 = /dev/tpqic120     QIC-120, rewind-on-close
 453                  8 = /dev/ntpqic150    QIC-150, no rewind-on-close
 454                  9 = /dev/tpqic150     QIC-150, rewind-on-close
 455
 456                The device names specified are proposed -- if there
 457                are "standard" names for these devices, please let me know.
 458
 459 12 block
 460
 461 13 char        Input core
 462                  0 = /dev/input/js0    First joystick
 463                  1 = /dev/input/js1    Second joystick
 464                    ...
 465                 32 = /dev/input/mouse0 First mouse
 466                 33 = /dev/input/mouse1 Second mouse
 467                    ...
 468                 63 = /dev/input/mice   Unified mouse
 469                 64 = /dev/input/event0 First event queue
 470                 65 = /dev/input/event1 Second event queue
 471                    ...
 472
 473                Each device type has 5 bits (32 minors).
 474
 475 13 block       Previously used for the XT disk (/dev/xdN)
 476                Deleted in kernel v3.9.
 477
 478 14 char        Open Sound System (OSS)
 479                  0 = /dev/mixer        Mixer control
 480                  1 = /dev/sequencer    Audio sequencer
 481                  2 = /dev/midi00       First MIDI port
 482                  3 = /dev/dsp          Digital audio
 483                  4 = /dev/audio        Sun-compatible digital audio
 484                  6 =
 485                  7 = /dev/audioctl     SPARC audio control device
 486                  8 = /dev/sequencer2   Sequencer -- alternate device
 487                 16 = /dev/mixer1       Second soundcard mixer control
 488                 17 = /dev/patmgr0      Sequencer patch manager
 489                 18 = /dev/midi01       Second MIDI port
 490                 19 = /dev/dsp1         Second soundcard digital audio
 491                 20 = /dev/audio1       Second soundcard Sun digital audio
 492                 33 = /dev/patmgr1      Sequencer patch manager
 493                 34 = /dev/midi02       Third MIDI port
 494                 50 = /dev/midi03       Fourth MIDI port
 495
 496 14 block
 497
 498 15 char        Joystick
 499                  0 = /dev/js0          First analog joystick
 500                  1 = /dev/js1          Second analog joystick
 501                    ...
 502                128 = /dev/djs0         First digital joystick
 503                129 = /dev/djs1         Second digital joystick
 504                    ...
 505 15 block       Sony CDU-31A/CDU-33A CD-ROM
 506                  0 = /dev/sonycd       Sony CDU-31a CD-ROM
 507
 508 16 char        Non-SCSI scanners
 509                  0 = /dev/gs4500       Genius 4500 handheld scanner
 510
 511 16 block       GoldStar CD-ROM
 512                  0 = /dev/gscd         GoldStar CD-ROM
 513
 514 17 char        OBSOLETE (was Chase serial card)
 515                  0 = /dev/ttyH0        First Chase port
 516                  1 = /dev/ttyH1        Second Chase port
 517                    ...
 518 17 block       Optics Storage CD-ROM
 519                  0 = /dev/optcd        Optics Storage CD-ROM
 520
 521 18 char        OBSOLETE (was Chase serial card - alternate devices)
 522                  0 = /dev/cuh0         Callout device for ttyH0
 523                  1 = /dev/cuh1         Callout device for ttyH1
 524                    ...
 525 18 block       Sanyo CD-ROM
 526                  0 = /dev/sjcd         Sanyo CD-ROM
 527
 528 19 char        Cyclades serial card
 529                  0 = /dev/ttyC0        First Cyclades port
 530                    ...
 531                 31 = /dev/ttyC31       32nd Cyclades port
 532
 533 19 block       "Double" compressed disk
 534                  0 = /dev/double0      First compressed disk
 535                    ...
 536                  7 = /dev/double7      Eighth compressed disk
 537                128 = /dev/cdouble0     Mirror of first compressed disk
 538                    ...
 539                135 = /dev/cdouble7     Mirror of eighth compressed disk
 540
 541                See the Double documentation for the meaning of the
 542                mirror devices.
 543
 544 20 char        Cyclades serial card - alternate devices
 545                  0 = /dev/cub0         Callout device for ttyC0
 546                    ...
 547                 31 = /dev/cub31        Callout device for ttyC31
 548
 549 20 block       Hitachi CD-ROM (under development)
 550                  0 = /dev/hitcd        Hitachi CD-ROM
 551
 552 21 char        Generic SCSI access
 553                  0 = /dev/sg0          First generic SCSI device
 554                  1 = /dev/sg1          Second generic SCSI device
 555                    ...
 556
 557                Most distributions name these /dev/sga, /dev/sgb...;
 558                this sets an unnecessary limit of 26 SCSI devices in
 559                the system and is counter to standard Linux
 560                device-naming practice.
 561
 562 21 block       Acorn MFM hard drive interface
 563                  0 = /dev/mfma         First MFM drive whole disk
 564                 64 = /dev/mfmb         Second MFM drive whole disk
 565
 566                This device is used on the ARM-based Acorn RiscPC.
 567                Partitions are handled the same way as for IDE disks
 568                (see major number 3).
 569
 570 22 char        Digiboard serial card
 571                  0 = /dev/ttyD0        First Digiboard port
 572                  1 = /dev/ttyD1        Second Digiboard port
 573                    ...
 574 22 block       Second IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
 575                  0 = /dev/hdc          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 576                 64 = /dev/hdd          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 577
 578                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
 579                interface (see major number 3).
 580
 581 23 char        Digiboard serial card - alternate devices
 582                  0 = /dev/cud0         Callout device for ttyD0
 583                  1 = /dev/cud1         Callout device for ttyD1
 584                      ...
 585 23 block       Mitsumi proprietary CD-ROM
 586                  0 = /dev/mcd          Mitsumi CD-ROM
 587
 588 24 char        Stallion serial card
 589                  0 = /dev/ttyE0        Stallion port 0 card 0
 590                  1 = /dev/ttyE1        Stallion port 1 card 0
 591                    ...
 592                 64 = /dev/ttyE64       Stallion port 0 card 1
 593                 65 = /dev/ttyE65       Stallion port 1 card 1
 594                      ...
 595                128 = /dev/ttyE128      Stallion port 0 card 2
 596                129 = /dev/ttyE129      Stallion port 1 card 2
 597                    ...
 598                192 = /dev/ttyE192      Stallion port 0 card 3
 599                193 = /dev/ttyE193      Stallion port 1 card 3
 600                    ...
 601 24 block       Sony CDU-535 CD-ROM
 602                  0 = /dev/cdu535       Sony CDU-535 CD-ROM
 603
 604 25 char        Stallion serial card - alternate devices
 605                  0 = /dev/cue0         Callout device for ttyE0
 606                  1 = /dev/cue1         Callout device for ttyE1
 607                    ...
 608                 64 = /dev/cue64        Callout device for ttyE64
 609                 65 = /dev/cue65        Callout device for ttyE65
 610                    ...
 611                128 = /dev/cue128       Callout device for ttyE128
 612                129 = /dev/cue129       Callout device for ttyE129
 613                    ...
 614                192 = /dev/cue192       Callout device for ttyE192
 615                193 = /dev/cue193       Callout device for ttyE193
 616                      ...
 617 25 block       First Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM
 618                  0 = /dev/sbpcd0       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 0 unit 0
 619                  1 = /dev/sbpcd1       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 0 unit 1
 620                  2 = /dev/sbpcd2       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 0 unit 2
 621                  3 = /dev/sbpcd3       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 0 unit 3
 622
 623 26 char
 624
 625 26 block       Second Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM
 626                  0 = /dev/sbpcd4       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 1 unit 0
 627                  1 = /dev/sbpcd5       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 1 unit 1
 628                  2 = /dev/sbpcd6       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 1 unit 2
 629                  3 = /dev/sbpcd7       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 1 unit 3
 630
 631 27 char        QIC-117 tape
 632                  0 = /dev/qft0         Unit 0, rewind-on-close
 633                  1 = /dev/qft1         Unit 1, rewind-on-close
 634                  2 = /dev/qft2         Unit 2, rewind-on-close
 635                  3 = /dev/qft3         Unit 3, rewind-on-close
 636                  4 = /dev/nqft0        Unit 0, no rewind-on-close
 637                  5 = /dev/nqft1        Unit 1, no rewind-on-close
 638                  6 = /dev/nqft2        Unit 2, no rewind-on-close
 639                  7 = /dev/nqft3        Unit 3, no rewind-on-close
 640                 16 = /dev/zqft0        Unit 0, rewind-on-close, compression
 641                 17 = /dev/zqft1        Unit 1, rewind-on-close, compression
 642                 18 = /dev/zqft2        Unit 2, rewind-on-close, compression
 643                 19 = /dev/zqft3        Unit 3, rewind-on-close, compression
 644                 20 = /dev/nzqft0       Unit 0, no rewind-on-close, compression
 645                 21 = /dev/nzqft1       Unit 1, no rewind-on-close, compression
 646                 22 = /dev/nzqft2       Unit 2, no rewind-on-close, compression
 647                 23 = /dev/nzqft3       Unit 3, no rewind-on-close, compression
 648                 32 = /dev/rawqft0      Unit 0, rewind-on-close, no file marks
 649                 33 = /dev/rawqft1      Unit 1, rewind-on-close, no file marks
 650                 34 = /dev/rawqft2      Unit 2, rewind-on-close, no file marks
 651                 35 = /dev/rawqft3      Unit 3, rewind-on-close, no file marks
 652                 36 = /dev/nrawqft0     Unit 0, no rewind-on-close, no file marks
 653                 37 = /dev/nrawqft1     Unit 1, no rewind-on-close, no file marks
 654                 38 = /dev/nrawqft2     Unit 2, no rewind-on-close, no file marks
 655                 39 = /dev/nrawqft3     Unit 3, no rewind-on-close, no file marks
 656
 657 27 block       Third Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM
 658                  0 = /dev/sbpcd8       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 2 unit 0
 659                  1 = /dev/sbpcd9       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 2 unit 1
 660                  2 = /dev/sbpcd10      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 2 unit 2
 661                  3 = /dev/sbpcd11      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 2 unit 3
 662
 663 28 char        Stallion serial card - card programming
 664                  0 = /dev/staliomem0   First Stallion card I/O memory
 665                  1 = /dev/staliomem1   Second Stallion card I/O memory
 666                  2 = /dev/staliomem2   Third Stallion card I/O memory
 667                  3 = /dev/staliomem3   Fourth Stallion card I/O memory
 668
 669 28 char        Atari SLM ACSI laser printer (68k/Atari)
 670                  0 = /dev/slm0         First SLM laser printer
 671                  1 = /dev/slm1         Second SLM laser printer
 672                    ...
 673 28 block       Fourth Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM
 674                  0 = /dev/sbpcd12      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 3 unit 0
 675                  1 = /dev/sbpcd13      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 3 unit 1
 676                  2 = /dev/sbpcd14      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 3 unit 2
 677                  3 = /dev/sbpcd15      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 3 unit 3
 678
 679 28 block       ACSI disk (68k/Atari)
 680                  0 = /dev/ada          First ACSI disk whole disk
 681                 16 = /dev/adb          Second ACSI disk whole disk
 682                 32 = /dev/adc          Third ACSI disk whole disk
 683                    ...
 684                240 = /dev/adp          16th ACSI disk whole disk
 685
 686                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
 687                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
 688                partitions is 15, like SCSI.
 689
 690 29 char        Universal frame buffer
 691                  0 = /dev/fb0          First frame buffer
 692                  1 = /dev/fb1          Second frame buffer
 693                    ...
 694                 31 = /dev/fb31         32nd frame buffer
 695
 696 29 block       Aztech/Orchid/Okano/Wearnes CD-ROM
 697                  0 = /dev/aztcd        Aztech CD-ROM
 698
 699 30 char        iBCS-2 compatibility devices
 700                  0 = /dev/socksys      Socket access
 701                  1 = /dev/spx          SVR3 local X interface
 702                 32 = /dev/inet/ip      Network access
 703                 33 = /dev/inet/icmp
 704                 34 = /dev/inet/ggp
 705                 35 = /dev/inet/ipip
 706                 36 = /dev/inet/tcp
 707                 37 = /dev/inet/egp
 708                 38 = /dev/inet/pup
 709                 39 = /dev/inet/udp
 710                 40 = /dev/inet/idp
 711                 41 = /dev/inet/rawip
 712
 713                Additionally, iBCS-2 requires the following links:
 714
 715                /dev/ip -> /dev/inet/ip
 716                /dev/icmp -> /dev/inet/icmp
 717                /dev/ggp -> /dev/inet/ggp
 718                /dev/ipip -> /dev/inet/ipip
 719                /dev/tcp -> /dev/inet/tcp
 720                /dev/egp -> /dev/inet/egp
 721                /dev/pup -> /dev/inet/pup
 722                /dev/udp -> /dev/inet/udp
 723                /dev/idp -> /dev/inet/idp
 724                /dev/rawip -> /dev/inet/rawip
 725                /dev/inet/arp -> /dev/inet/udp
 726                /dev/inet/rip -> /dev/inet/udp
 727                /dev/nfsd -> /dev/socksys
 728                /dev/X0R -> /dev/null (? apparently not required ?)
 729
 730 30 block       Philips LMS CM-205 CD-ROM
 731                  0 = /dev/cm205cd      Philips LMS CM-205 CD-ROM
 732
 733                /dev/lmscd is an older name for this device.  This
 734                driver does not work with the CM-205MS CD-ROM.
 735
 736 31 char        MPU-401 MIDI
 737                  0 = /dev/mpu401data   MPU-401 data port
 738                  1 = /dev/mpu401stat   MPU-401 status port
 739
 740 31 block       ROM/flash memory card
 741                  0 = /dev/rom0         First ROM card (rw)
 742                      ...
 743                  7 = /dev/rom7         Eighth ROM card (rw)
 744                  8 = /dev/rrom0        First ROM card (ro)
 745                    ...
 746                 15 = /dev/rrom7        Eighth ROM card (ro)
 747                 16 = /dev/flash0       First flash memory card (rw)
 748                    ...
 749                 23 = /dev/flash7       Eighth flash memory card (rw)
 750                 24 = /dev/rflash0      First flash memory card (ro)
 751                    ...
 752                 31 = /dev/rflash7      Eighth flash memory card (ro)
 753
 754                The read-write (rw) devices support back-caching
 755                written data in RAM, as well as writing to flash RAM
 756                devices.  The read-only devices (ro) support reading
 757                only.
 758
 759 32 char        Specialix serial card
 760                  0 = /dev/ttyX0        First Specialix port
 761                  1 = /dev/ttyX1        Second Specialix port
 762                    ...
 763 32 block       Philips LMS CM-206 CD-ROM
 764                  0 = /dev/cm206cd      Philips LMS CM-206 CD-ROM
 765
 766 33 char        Specialix serial card - alternate devices
 767                  0 = /dev/cux0         Callout device for ttyX0
 768                  1 = /dev/cux1         Callout device for ttyX1
 769                    ...
 770 33 block       Third IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
 771                  0 = /dev/hde          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 772                 64 = /dev/hdf          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 773
 774                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
 775                interface (see major number 3).
 776
 777 34 char        Z8530 HDLC driver
 778                  0 = /dev/scc0         First Z8530, first port
 779                  1 = /dev/scc1         First Z8530, second port
 780                  2 = /dev/scc2         Second Z8530, first port
 781                  3 = /dev/scc3         Second Z8530, second port
 782                    ...
 783
 784                In a previous version these devices were named
 785                /dev/sc1 for /dev/scc0, /dev/sc2 for /dev/scc1, and so
 786                on.
 787
 788 34 block       Fourth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
 789                  0 = /dev/hdg          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 790                 64 = /dev/hdh          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 791
 792                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
 793                interface (see major number 3).
 794
 795 35 char        tclmidi MIDI driver
 796                  0 = /dev/midi0        First MIDI port, kernel timed
 797                  1 = /dev/midi1        Second MIDI port, kernel timed
 798                  2 = /dev/midi2        Third MIDI port, kernel timed
 799                  3 = /dev/midi3        Fourth MIDI port, kernel timed
 800                 64 = /dev/rmidi0       First MIDI port, untimed
 801                 65 = /dev/rmidi1       Second MIDI port, untimed
 802                 66 = /dev/rmidi2       Third MIDI port, untimed
 803                 67 = /dev/rmidi3       Fourth MIDI port, untimed
 804                128 = /dev/smpte0       First MIDI port, SMPTE timed
 805                129 = /dev/smpte1       Second MIDI port, SMPTE timed
 806                130 = /dev/smpte2       Third MIDI port, SMPTE timed
 807                131 = /dev/smpte3       Fourth MIDI port, SMPTE timed
 808
 809 35 block       Slow memory ramdisk
 810                  0 = /dev/slram        Slow memory ramdisk
 811
 812 36 char        Netlink support
 813                  0 = /dev/route        Routing, device updates, kernel to user
 814                  1 = /dev/skip         enSKIP security cache control
 815                  3 = /dev/fwmonitor    Firewall packet copies
 816                 16 = /dev/tap0         First Ethertap device
 817                    ...
 818                 31 = /dev/tap15        16th Ethertap device
 819
 820 36 block       OBSOLETE (was MCA ESDI hard disk)
 821
 822 37 char        IDE tape
 823                  0 = /dev/ht0          First IDE tape
 824                  1 = /dev/ht1          Second IDE tape
 825                    ...
 826                128 = /dev/nht0         First IDE tape, no rewind-on-close
 827                129 = /dev/nht1         Second IDE tape, no rewind-on-close
 828                    ...
 829
 830                Currently, only one IDE tape drive is supported.
 831
 832 37 block       Zorro II ramdisk
 833                  0 = /dev/z2ram        Zorro II ramdisk
 834
 835 38 char        Myricom PCI Myrinet board
 836                  0 = /dev/mlanai0      First Myrinet board
 837                  1 = /dev/mlanai1      Second Myrinet board
 838                    ...
 839
 840                This device is used for status query, board control
 841                and "user level packet I/O."  This board is also
 842                accessible as a standard networking "eth" device.
 843
 844 38 block       OBSOLETE (was Linux/AP+)
 845
 846 39 char        ML-16P experimental I/O board
 847                  0 = /dev/ml16pa-a0    First card, first analog channel
 848                  1 = /dev/ml16pa-a1    First card, second analog channel
 849                    ...
 850                 15 = /dev/ml16pa-a15   First card, 16th analog channel
 851                 16 = /dev/ml16pa-d     First card, digital lines
 852                 17 = /dev/ml16pa-c0    First card, first counter/timer
 853                 18 = /dev/ml16pa-c1    First card, second counter/timer
 854                 19 = /dev/ml16pa-c2    First card, third counter/timer
 855                 32 = /dev/ml16pb-a0    Second card, first analog channel
 856                 33 = /dev/ml16pb-a1    Second card, second analog channel
 857                    ...
 858                 47 = /dev/ml16pb-a15   Second card, 16th analog channel
 859                 48 = /dev/ml16pb-d     Second card, digital lines
 860                 49 = /dev/ml16pb-c0    Second card, first counter/timer
 861                 50 = /dev/ml16pb-c1    Second card, second counter/timer
 862                 51 = /dev/ml16pb-c2    Second card, third counter/timer
 863                      ...
 864 39 block
 865
 866 40 char
 867
 868 40 block
 869
 870 41 char        Yet Another Micro Monitor
 871                  0 = /dev/yamm         Yet Another Micro Monitor
 872
 873 41 block
 874
 875 42 char        Demo/sample use
 876
 877 42 block       Demo/sample use
 878
 879                This number is intended for use in sample code, as
 880                well as a general "example" device number.  It
 881                should never be used for a device driver that is being
 882                distributed; either obtain an official number or use
 883                the local/experimental range.  The sudden addition or
 884                removal of a driver with this number should not cause
 885                ill effects to the system (bugs excepted.)
 886
 887                IN PARTICULAR, ANY DISTRIBUTION WHICH CONTAINS A
 888                DEVICE DRIVER USING MAJOR NUMBER 42 IS NONCOMPLIANT.
 889
 890 43 char        isdn4linux virtual modem
 891                  0 = /dev/ttyI0        First virtual modem
 892                    ...
 893                 63 = /dev/ttyI63       64th virtual modem
 894
 895 43 block       Network block devices
 896                  0 = /dev/nb0          First network block device
 897                  1 = /dev/nb1          Second network block device
 898                    ...
 899
 900                Network Block Device is somehow similar to loopback
 901                devices: If you read from it, it sends packet across
 902                network asking server for data. If you write to it, it
 903                sends packet telling server to write. It could be used
 904                to mounting filesystems over the net, swapping over
 905                the net, implementing block device in userland etc.
 906
 907 44 char        isdn4linux virtual modem - alternate devices
 908                  0 = /dev/cui0         Callout device for ttyI0
 909                    ...
 910                 63 = /dev/cui63        Callout device for ttyI63
 911
 912 44 block       Flash Translation Layer (FTL) filesystems
 913                  0 = /dev/ftla         FTL on first Memory Technology Device
 914                 16 = /dev/ftlb         FTL on second Memory Technology Device
 915                 32 = /dev/ftlc         FTL on third Memory Technology Device
 916                    ...
 917                240 = /dev/ftlp         FTL on 16th Memory Technology Device
 918
 919                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
 920                disks (see major number 3) except that the partition
 921                limit is 15 rather than 63 per disk (same as SCSI.)
 922
 923 45 char        isdn4linux ISDN BRI driver
 924                  0 = /dev/isdn0        First virtual B channel raw data
 925                    ...
 926                 63 = /dev/isdn63       64th virtual B channel raw data
 927                 64 = /dev/isdnctrl0    First channel control/debug
 928                    ...
 929                127 = /dev/isdnctrl63   64th channel control/debug
 930
 931                128 = /dev/ippp0        First SyncPPP device
 932                    ...
 933                191 = /dev/ippp63       64th SyncPPP device
 934
 935                255 = /dev/isdninfo     ISDN monitor interface
 936
 937 45 block       Parallel port IDE disk devices
 938                  0 = /dev/pda          First parallel port IDE disk
 939                 16 = /dev/pdb          Second parallel port IDE disk
 940                 32 = /dev/pdc          Third parallel port IDE disk
 941                 48 = /dev/pdd          Fourth parallel port IDE disk
 942
 943                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
 944                disks (see major number 3) except that the partition
 945                limit is 15 rather than 63 per disk.
 946
 947 46 char        Comtrol Rocketport serial card
 948                  0 = /dev/ttyR0        First Rocketport port
 949                  1 = /dev/ttyR1        Second Rocketport port
 950                    ...
 951 46 block       Parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM devices
 952                  0 = /dev/pcd0         First parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM
 953                  1 = /dev/pcd1         Second parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM
 954                  2 = /dev/pcd2         Third parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM
 955                  3 = /dev/pcd3         Fourth parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM
 956
 957 47 char        Comtrol Rocketport serial card - alternate devices
 958                  0 = /dev/cur0         Callout device for ttyR0
 959                  1 = /dev/cur1         Callout device for ttyR1
 960                    ...
 961 47 block       Parallel port ATAPI disk devices
 962                  0 = /dev/pf0          First parallel port ATAPI disk
 963                  1 = /dev/pf1          Second parallel port ATAPI disk
 964                  2 = /dev/pf2          Third parallel port ATAPI disk
 965                  3 = /dev/pf3          Fourth parallel port ATAPI disk
 966
 967                This driver is intended for floppy disks and similar
 968                devices and hence does not support partitioning.
 969
 970 48 char        SDL RISCom serial card
 971                  0 = /dev/ttyL0        First RISCom port
 972                  1 = /dev/ttyL1        Second RISCom port
 973                    ...
 974 48 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; first controller
 975                  0 = /dev/rd/c0d0      First disk, whole disk
 976                  8 = /dev/rd/c0d1      Second disk, whole disk
 977                    ...
 978                248 = /dev/rd/c0d31     32nd disk, whole disk
 979
 980                For partitions add:
 981                  0 = /dev/rd/c?d?      Whole disk
 982                  1 = /dev/rd/c?d?p1    First partition
 983                    ...
 984                  7 = /dev/rd/c?d?p7    Seventh partition
 985
 986 49 char        SDL RISCom serial card - alternate devices
 987                  0 = /dev/cul0         Callout device for ttyL0
 988                  1 = /dev/cul1         Callout device for ttyL1
 989                    ...
 990 49 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; second controller
 991                  0 = /dev/rd/c1d0      First disk, whole disk
 992                  8 = /dev/rd/c1d1      Second disk, whole disk
 993                    ...
 994                248 = /dev/rd/c1d31     32nd disk, whole disk
 995
 996                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
 997
 998 50 char        Reserved for GLINT
 999
1000 50 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; third controller
1001                  0 = /dev/rd/c2d0      First disk, whole disk
1002                  8 = /dev/rd/c2d1      Second disk, whole disk
1003                    ...
1004                248 = /dev/rd/c2d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1005
1006 51 char        Baycom radio modem OR Radio Tech BIM-XXX-RS232 radio modem
1007                  0 = /dev/bc0          First Baycom radio modem
1008                  1 = /dev/bc1          Second Baycom radio modem
1009                    ...
1010 51 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; fourth controller
1011                  0 = /dev/rd/c3d0      First disk, whole disk
1012                  8 = /dev/rd/c3d1      Second disk, whole disk
1013                    ...
1014                248 = /dev/rd/c3d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1015
1016                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1017
1018 52 char        Spellcaster DataComm/BRI ISDN card
1019                  0 = /dev/dcbri0       First DataComm card
1020                  1 = /dev/dcbri1       Second DataComm card
1021                  2 = /dev/dcbri2       Third DataComm card
1022                  3 = /dev/dcbri3       Fourth DataComm card
1023
1024 52 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; fifth controller
1025                  0 = /dev/rd/c4d0      First disk, whole disk
1026                  8 = /dev/rd/c4d1      Second disk, whole disk
1027                    ...
1028                248 = /dev/rd/c4d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1029
1030                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1031
1032 53 char        BDM interface for remote debugging MC683xx microcontrollers
1033                  0 = /dev/pd_bdm0      PD BDM interface on lp0
1034                  1 = /dev/pd_bdm1      PD BDM interface on lp1
1035                  2 = /dev/pd_bdm2      PD BDM interface on lp2
1036                  4 = /dev/icd_bdm0     ICD BDM interface on lp0
1037                  5 = /dev/icd_bdm1     ICD BDM interface on lp1
1038                  6 = /dev/icd_bdm2     ICD BDM interface on lp2
1039
1040                This device is used for the interfacing to the MC683xx
1041                microcontrollers via Background Debug Mode by use of a
1042                Parallel Port interface. PD is the Motorola Public
1043                Domain Interface and ICD is the commercial interface
1044                by P&E.
1045
1046 53 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; sixth controller
1047                  0 = /dev/rd/c5d0      First disk, whole disk
1048                  8 = /dev/rd/c5d1      Second disk, whole disk
1049                    ...
1050                248 = /dev/rd/c5d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1051
1052                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1053
1054 54 char        Electrocardiognosis Holter serial card
1055                  0 = /dev/holter0      First Holter port
1056                  1 = /dev/holter1      Second Holter port
1057                  2 = /dev/holter2      Third Holter port
1058
1059                A custom serial card used by Electrocardiognosis SRL
1060                <mseritan@ottonel.pub.ro> to transfer data from Holter
1061                24-hour heart monitoring equipment.
1062
1063 54 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; seventh controller
1064                  0 = /dev/rd/c6d0      First disk, whole disk
1065                  8 = /dev/rd/c6d1      Second disk, whole disk
1066                    ...
1067                248 = /dev/rd/c6d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1068
1069                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1070
1071 55 char        DSP56001 digital signal processor
1072                  0 = /dev/dsp56k       First DSP56001
1073
1074 55 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; eighth controller
1075                  0 = /dev/rd/c7d0      First disk, whole disk
1076                  8 = /dev/rd/c7d1      Second disk, whole disk
1077                    ...
1078                248 = /dev/rd/c7d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1079
1080                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1081
1082 56 char        Apple Desktop Bus
1083                  0 = /dev/adb          ADB bus control
1084
1085                Additional devices will be added to this number, all
1086                starting with /dev/adb.
1087
1088 56 block       Fifth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1089                  0 = /dev/hdi          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1090                 64 = /dev/hdj          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1091
1092                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1093                interface (see major number 3).
1094
1095 57 char        Hayes ESP serial card
1096                  0 = /dev/ttyP0        First ESP port
1097                  1 = /dev/ttyP1        Second ESP port
1098                    ...
1099
1100 57 block       Sixth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1101                  0 = /dev/hdk          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1102                 64 = /dev/hdl          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1103
1104                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1105                interface (see major number 3).
1106
1107 58 char        Hayes ESP serial card - alternate devices
1108                  0 = /dev/cup0         Callout device for ttyP0
1109                  1 = /dev/cup1         Callout device for ttyP1
1110                    ...
1111
1112 58 block       Reserved for logical volume manager
1113
1114 59 char        sf firewall package
1115                  0 = /dev/firewall     Communication with sf kernel module
1116
1117 59 block       Generic PDA filesystem device
1118                  0 = /dev/pda0         First PDA device
1119                  1 = /dev/pda1         Second PDA device
1120                    ...
1121
1122                The pda devices are used to mount filesystems on
1123                remote pda's (basically slow handheld machines with
1124                proprietary OS's and limited memory and storage
1125                running small fs translation drivers) through serial /
1126                IRDA / parallel links.
1127
1128                NAMING CONFLICT -- PROPOSED REVISED NAME /dev/rpda0 etc
1129
1130 60-63 char     LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
1131
1132 60-63 block    LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
1133                Allocated for local/experimental use.  For devices not
1134                assigned official numbers, these ranges should be
1135                used in order to avoid conflicting with future assignments.
1136
1137 64 char        ENskip kernel encryption package
1138                  0 = /dev/enskip       Communication with ENskip kernel module
1139
1140 64 block       Scramdisk/DriveCrypt encrypted devices
1141                  0 = /dev/scramdisk/master    Master node for ioctls
1142                  1 = /dev/scramdisk/1         First encrypted device
1143                  2 = /dev/scramdisk/2         Second encrypted device
1144                  ...
1145                255 = /dev/scramdisk/255       255th encrypted device
1146
1147                The filename of the encrypted container and the passwords
1148                are sent via ioctls (using the sdmount tool) to the master
1149                node which then activates them via one of the
1150                /dev/scramdisk/x nodes for loop mounting (all handled
1151                through the sdmount tool).
1152
1153                Requested by: andy@scramdisklinux.org
1154
1155 65 char        Sundance "plink" Transputer boards (obsolete, unused)
1156                  0 = /dev/plink0       First plink device
1157                  1 = /dev/plink1       Second plink device
1158                  2 = /dev/plink2       Third plink device
1159                  3 = /dev/plink3       Fourth plink device
1160                 64 = /dev/rplink0      First plink device, raw
1161                 65 = /dev/rplink1      Second plink device, raw
1162                 66 = /dev/rplink2      Third plink device, raw
1163                 67 = /dev/rplink3      Fourth plink device, raw
1164                128 = /dev/plink0d      First plink device, debug
1165                129 = /dev/plink1d      Second plink device, debug
1166                130 = /dev/plink2d      Third plink device, debug
1167                131 = /dev/plink3d      Fourth plink device, debug
1168                192 = /dev/rplink0d     First plink device, raw, debug
1169                193 = /dev/rplink1d     Second plink device, raw, debug
1170                194 = /dev/rplink2d     Third plink device, raw, debug
1171                195 = /dev/rplink3d     Fourth plink device, raw, debug
1172
1173                This is a commercial driver; contact James Howes
1174                <jth@prosig.demon.co.uk> for information.
1175
1176 65 block       SCSI disk devices (16-31)
1177                  0 = /dev/sdq          17th SCSI disk whole disk
1178                 16 = /dev/sdr          18th SCSI disk whole disk
1179                 32 = /dev/sds          19th SCSI disk whole disk
1180                    ...
1181                240 = /dev/sdaf         32nd SCSI disk whole disk
1182
1183                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1184                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1185                partitions is 15.
1186
1187 66 char        YARC PowerPC PCI coprocessor card
1188                  0 = /dev/yppcpci0     First YARC card
1189                  1 = /dev/yppcpci1     Second YARC card
1190                    ...
1191
1192 66 block       SCSI disk devices (32-47)
1193                  0 = /dev/sdag         33th SCSI disk whole disk
1194                 16 = /dev/sdah         34th SCSI disk whole disk
1195                 32 = /dev/sdai         35th SCSI disk whole disk
1196                    ...
1197                240 = /dev/sdav         48nd SCSI disk whole disk
1198
1199                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1200                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1201                partitions is 15.
1202
1203 67 char        Coda network file system
1204                  0 = /dev/cfs0         Coda cache manager
1205
1206                See http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu for information about Coda.
1207
1208 67 block       SCSI disk devices (48-63)
1209                  0 = /dev/sdaw         49th SCSI disk whole disk
1210                 16 = /dev/sdax         50th SCSI disk whole disk
1211                 32 = /dev/sday         51st SCSI disk whole disk
1212                    ...
1213                240 = /dev/sdbl         64th SCSI disk whole disk
1214
1215                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1216                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1217                partitions is 15.
1218
1219 68 char        CAPI 2.0 interface
1220                  0 = /dev/capi20       Control device
1221                  1 = /dev/capi20.00    First CAPI 2.0 application
1222                  2 = /dev/capi20.01    Second CAPI 2.0 application
1223                    ...
1224                 20 = /dev/capi20.19    19th CAPI 2.0 application
1225
1226                ISDN CAPI 2.0 driver for use with CAPI 2.0
1227                applications; currently supports the AVM B1 card.
1228
1229 68 block       SCSI disk devices (64-79)
1230                  0 = /dev/sdbm         65th SCSI disk whole disk
1231                 16 = /dev/sdbn         66th SCSI disk whole disk
1232                 32 = /dev/sdbo         67th SCSI disk whole disk
1233                    ...
1234                240 = /dev/sdcb         80th SCSI disk whole disk
1235
1236                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1237                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1238                partitions is 15.
1239
1240 69 char        MA16 numeric accelerator card
1241                  0 = /dev/ma16         Board memory access
1242
1243 69 block       SCSI disk devices (80-95)
1244                  0 = /dev/sdcc         81st SCSI disk whole disk
1245                 16 = /dev/sdcd         82nd SCSI disk whole disk
1246                 32 = /dev/sdce         83th SCSI disk whole disk
1247                    ...
1248                240 = /dev/sdcr         96th SCSI disk whole disk
1249
1250                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1251                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1252                partitions is 15.
1253
1254 70 char        SpellCaster Protocol Services Interface
1255                  0 = /dev/apscfg       Configuration interface
1256                  1 = /dev/apsauth      Authentication interface
1257                  2 = /dev/apslog       Logging interface
1258                  3 = /dev/apsdbg       Debugging interface
1259                 64 = /dev/apsisdn      ISDN command interface
1260                 65 = /dev/apsasync     Async command interface
1261                128 = /dev/apsmon       Monitor interface
1262
1263 70 block       SCSI disk devices (96-111)
1264                  0 = /dev/sdcs         97th SCSI disk whole disk
1265                 16 = /dev/sdct         98th SCSI disk whole disk
1266                 32 = /dev/sdcu         99th SCSI disk whole disk
1267                    ...
1268                240 = /dev/sddh         112nd SCSI disk whole disk
1269
1270                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1271                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1272                partitions is 15.
1273
1274 71 char        Computone IntelliPort II serial card
1275                  0 = /dev/ttyF0        IntelliPort II board 0, port 0
1276                  1 = /dev/ttyF1        IntelliPort II board 0, port 1
1277                    ...
1278                 63 = /dev/ttyF63       IntelliPort II board 0, port 63
1279                 64 = /dev/ttyF64       IntelliPort II board 1, port 0
1280                 65 = /dev/ttyF65       IntelliPort II board 1, port 1
1281                    ...
1282                127 = /dev/ttyF127      IntelliPort II board 1, port 63
1283                128 = /dev/ttyF128      IntelliPort II board 2, port 0
1284                129 = /dev/ttyF129      IntelliPort II board 2, port 1
1285                    ...
1286                191 = /dev/ttyF191      IntelliPort II board 2, port 63
1287                192 = /dev/ttyF192      IntelliPort II board 3, port 0
1288                193 = /dev/ttyF193      IntelliPort II board 3, port 1
1289                    ...
1290                255 = /dev/ttyF255      IntelliPort II board 3, port 63
1291
1292 71 block       SCSI disk devices (112-127)
1293                  0 = /dev/sddi         113th SCSI disk whole disk
1294                 16 = /dev/sddj         114th SCSI disk whole disk
1295                 32 = /dev/sddk         115th SCSI disk whole disk
1296                    ...
1297                240 = /dev/sddx         128th SCSI disk whole disk
1298
1299                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1300                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1301                partitions is 15.
1302
1303 72 char        Computone IntelliPort II serial card - alternate devices
1304                  0 = /dev/cuf0         Callout device for ttyF0
1305                  1 = /dev/cuf1         Callout device for ttyF1
1306                    ...
1307                 63 = /dev/cuf63        Callout device for ttyF63
1308                 64 = /dev/cuf64        Callout device for ttyF64
1309                 65 = /dev/cuf65        Callout device for ttyF65
1310                    ...
1311                127 = /dev/cuf127       Callout device for ttyF127
1312                128 = /dev/cuf128       Callout device for ttyF128
1313                129 = /dev/cuf129       Callout device for ttyF129
1314                    ...
1315                191 = /dev/cuf191       Callout device for ttyF191
1316                192 = /dev/cuf192       Callout device for ttyF192
1317                193 = /dev/cuf193       Callout device for ttyF193
1318                    ...
1319                255 = /dev/cuf255       Callout device for ttyF255
1320
1321 72 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, first controller
1322                  0 = /dev/ida/c0d0     First logical drive whole disk
1323                 16 = /dev/ida/c0d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1324                    ...
1325                240 = /dev/ida/c0d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1326
1327                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1328                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1329                partitions is 15.
1330
1331 73 char        Computone IntelliPort II serial card - control devices
1332                  0 = /dev/ip2ipl0      Loadware device for board 0
1333                  1 = /dev/ip2stat0     Status device for board 0
1334                  4 = /dev/ip2ipl1      Loadware device for board 1
1335                  5 = /dev/ip2stat1     Status device for board 1
1336                  8 = /dev/ip2ipl2      Loadware device for board 2
1337                  9 = /dev/ip2stat2     Status device for board 2
1338                 12 = /dev/ip2ipl3      Loadware device for board 3
1339                 13 = /dev/ip2stat3     Status device for board 3
1340
1341 73 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, second controller
1342                  0 = /dev/ida/c1d0     First logical drive whole disk
1343                 16 = /dev/ida/c1d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1344                    ...
1345                240 = /dev/ida/c1d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1346
1347                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1348                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1349                partitions is 15.
1350
1351 74 char        SCI bridge
1352                  0 = /dev/SCI/0        SCI device 0
1353                  1 = /dev/SCI/1        SCI device 1
1354                    ...
1355
1356                Currently for Dolphin Interconnect Solutions' PCI-SCI
1357                bridge.
1358
1359 74 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, third controller
1360                  0 = /dev/ida/c2d0     First logical drive whole disk
1361                 16 = /dev/ida/c2d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1362                    ...
1363                240 = /dev/ida/c2d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1364
1365                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1366                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1367                partitions is 15.
1368
1369 75 char        Specialix IO8+ serial card
1370                  0 = /dev/ttyW0        First IO8+ port, first card
1371                  1 = /dev/ttyW1        Second IO8+ port, first card
1372                    ...
1373                  8 = /dev/ttyW8        First IO8+ port, second card
1374                    ...
1375
1376 75 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, fourth controller
1377                  0 = /dev/ida/c3d0     First logical drive whole disk
1378                 16 = /dev/ida/c3d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1379                    ...
1380                240 = /dev/ida/c3d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1381
1382                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1383                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1384                partitions is 15.
1385
1386 76 char        Specialix IO8+ serial card - alternate devices
1387                  0 = /dev/cuw0         Callout device for ttyW0
1388                  1 = /dev/cuw1         Callout device for ttyW1
1389                    ...
1390                  8 = /dev/cuw8         Callout device for ttyW8
1391                    ...
1392
1393 76 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, fifth controller
1394                  0 = /dev/ida/c4d0     First logical drive whole disk
1395                 16 = /dev/ida/c4d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1396                    ...
1397                240 = /dev/ida/c4d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1398
1399                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1400                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1401                partitions is 15.
1402
1403
1404 77 char        ComScire Quantum Noise Generator
1405                  0 = /dev/qng          ComScire Quantum Noise Generator
1406
1407 77 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, sixth controller
1408                  0 = /dev/ida/c5d0     First logical drive whole disk
1409                 16 = /dev/ida/c5d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1410                    ...
1411                240 = /dev/ida/c5d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1412
1413                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1414                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1415                partitions is 15.
1416
1417 78 char        PAM Software's multimodem boards
1418                  0 = /dev/ttyM0        First PAM modem
1419                  1 = /dev/ttyM1        Second PAM modem
1420                    ...
1421
1422 78 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, seventh controller
1423                  0 = /dev/ida/c6d0     First logical drive whole disk
1424                 16 = /dev/ida/c6d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1425                    ...
1426                240 = /dev/ida/c6d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1427
1428                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1429                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1430                partitions is 15.
1431
1432 79 char        PAM Software's multimodem boards - alternate devices
1433                  0 = /dev/cum0         Callout device for ttyM0
1434                  1 = /dev/cum1         Callout device for ttyM1
1435                    ...
1436
1437 79 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, eighth controller
1438                  0 = /dev/ida/c7d0     First logical drive whole disk
1439                 16 = /dev/ida/c7d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1440                    ...
1441                240 = /dev/ida/c715     16th logical drive whole disk
1442
1443                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1444                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1445                partitions is 15.
1446
1447 80 char        Photometrics AT200 CCD camera
1448                  0 = /dev/at200        Photometrics AT200 CCD camera
1449
1450 80 block       I2O hard disk
1451                  0 = /dev/i2o/hda      First I2O hard disk, whole disk
1452                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdb      Second I2O hard disk, whole disk
1453                    ...
1454                240 = /dev/i2o/hdp      16th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1455
1456                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1457                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1458                partitions is 15.
1459
1460 81 char        video4linux
1461                  0 = /dev/video0       Video capture/overlay device
1462                    ...
1463                 63 = /dev/video63      Video capture/overlay device
1464                 64 = /dev/radio0       Radio device
1465                    ...
1466                127 = /dev/radio63      Radio device
1467                128 = /dev/swradio0     Software Defined Radio device
1468                    ...
1469                191 = /dev/swradio63    Software Defined Radio device
1470                224 = /dev/vbi0         Vertical blank interrupt
1471                    ...
1472                255 = /dev/vbi31        Vertical blank interrupt
1473
1474                Minor numbers are allocated dynamically unless
1475                CONFIG_VIDEO_FIXED_MINOR_RANGES (default n)
1476                configuration option is set.
1477
1478 81 block       I2O hard disk
1479                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdq      17th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1480                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdr      18th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1481                    ...
1482                240 = /dev/i2o/hdaf     32nd I2O hard disk, whole disk
1483
1484                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1485                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1486                partitions is 15.
1487
1488 82 char        WiNRADiO communications receiver card
1489                  0 = /dev/winradio0    First WiNRADiO card
1490                  1 = /dev/winradio1    Second WiNRADiO card
1491                    ...
1492
1493                The driver and documentation may be obtained from
1494                http://www.winradio.com/
1495
1496 82 block       I2O hard disk
1497                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdag     33rd I2O hard disk, whole disk
1498                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdah     34th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1499                    ...
1500                240 = /dev/i2o/hdav     48th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1501
1502                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1503                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1504                partitions is 15.
1505
1506 83 char        Matrox mga_vid video driver
1507                 0 = /dev/mga_vid0      1st video card
1508                 1 = /dev/mga_vid1      2nd video card
1509                 2 = /dev/mga_vid2      3rd video card
1510                  ...
1511                15 = /dev/mga_vid15     16th video card
1512
1513 83 block       I2O hard disk
1514                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdaw     49th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1515                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdax     50th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1516                    ...
1517                240 = /dev/i2o/hdbl     64th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1518
1519                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1520                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1521                partitions is 15.
1522
1523 84 char        Ikon 1011[57] Versatec Greensheet Interface
1524                  0 = /dev/ihcp0        First Greensheet port
1525                  1 = /dev/ihcp1        Second Greensheet port
1526
1527 84 block       I2O hard disk
1528                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdbm     65th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1529                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdbn     66th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1530                    ...
1531                240 = /dev/i2o/hdcb     80th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1532
1533                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1534                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1535                partitions is 15.
1536
1537 85 char        Linux/SGI shared memory input queue
1538                  0 = /dev/shmiq        Master shared input queue
1539                  1 = /dev/qcntl0       First device pushed
1540                  2 = /dev/qcntl1       Second device pushed
1541                    ...
1542
1543 85 block       I2O hard disk
1544                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdcc     81st I2O hard disk, whole disk
1545                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdcd     82nd I2O hard disk, whole disk
1546                    ...
1547                240 = /dev/i2o/hdcr     96th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1548
1549                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1550                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1551                partitions is 15.
1552
1553 86 char        SCSI media changer
1554                  0 = /dev/sch0         First SCSI media changer
1555                  1 = /dev/sch1         Second SCSI media changer
1556                    ...
1557
1558 86 block       I2O hard disk
1559                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdcs     97th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1560                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdct     98th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1561                    ...
1562                240 = /dev/i2o/hddh     112th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1563
1564                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1565                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1566                partitions is 15.
1567
1568 87 char        Sony Control-A1 stereo control bus
1569                  0 = /dev/controla0    First device on chain
1570                  1 = /dev/controla1    Second device on chain
1571                    ...
1572
1573 87 block       I2O hard disk
1574                  0 = /dev/i2o/hddi     113rd I2O hard disk, whole disk
1575                 16 = /dev/i2o/hddj     114th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1576                    ...
1577                240 = /dev/i2o/hddx     128th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1578
1579                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1580                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1581                partitions is 15.
1582
1583 88 char        COMX synchronous serial card
1584                  0 = /dev/comx0        COMX channel 0
1585                  1 = /dev/comx1        COMX channel 1
1586                    ...
1587
1588 88 block       Seventh IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1589                  0 = /dev/hdm          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1590                 64 = /dev/hdn          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1591
1592                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1593                interface (see major number 3).
1594
1595 89 char        I2C bus interface
1596                  0 = /dev/i2c-0        First I2C adapter
1597                  1 = /dev/i2c-1        Second I2C adapter
1598                    ...
1599
1600 89 block       Eighth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1601                  0 = /dev/hdo          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1602                 64 = /dev/hdp          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1603
1604                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1605                interface (see major number 3).
1606
1607 90 char        Memory Technology Device (RAM, ROM, Flash)
1608                  0 = /dev/mtd0         First MTD (rw)
1609                  1 = /dev/mtdr0        First MTD (ro)
1610                    ...
1611                 30 = /dev/mtd15        16th MTD (rw)
1612                 31 = /dev/mtdr15       16th MTD (ro)
1613
1614 90 block       Ninth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1615                  0 = /dev/hdq          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1616                 64 = /dev/hdr          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1617
1618                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1619                interface (see major number 3).
1620
1621 91 char        CAN-Bus devices
1622                  0 = /dev/can0         First CAN-Bus controller
1623                  1 = /dev/can1         Second CAN-Bus controller
1624                    ...
1625
1626 91 block       Tenth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1627                  0 = /dev/hds          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1628                 64 = /dev/hdt          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1629
1630                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1631                interface (see major number 3).
1632
1633 92 char        Reserved for ith Kommunikationstechnik MIC ISDN card
1634
1635 92 block       PPDD encrypted disk driver
1636                  0 = /dev/ppdd0        First encrypted disk
1637                  1 = /dev/ppdd1        Second encrypted disk
1638                    ...
1639
1640                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1641                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1642                partitions is 15.
1643
1644 93 char
1645
1646 93 block       NAND Flash Translation Layer filesystem
1647                  0 = /dev/nftla        First NFTL layer
1648                 16 = /dev/nftlb        Second NFTL layer
1649                    ...
1650                240 = /dev/nftlp        16th NTFL layer
1651
1652 94 char
1653
1654 94 block       IBM S/390 DASD block storage
1655                  0 = /dev/dasda First DASD device, major
1656                  1 = /dev/dasda1 First DASD device, block 1
1657                  2 = /dev/dasda2 First DASD device, block 2
1658                  3 = /dev/dasda3 First DASD device, block 3
1659                  4 = /dev/dasdb Second DASD device, major
1660                  5 = /dev/dasdb1 Second DASD device, block 1
1661                  6 = /dev/dasdb2 Second DASD device, block 2
1662                  7 = /dev/dasdb3 Second DASD device, block 3
1663                    ...
1664
1665 95 char        IP filter
1666                  0 = /dev/ipl          Filter control device/log file
1667                  1 = /dev/ipnat        NAT control device/log file
1668                  2 = /dev/ipstate      State information log file
1669                  3 = /dev/ipauth       Authentication control device/log file
1670                    ...
1671
1672 96 char        Parallel port ATAPI tape devices
1673                  0 = /dev/pt0          First parallel port ATAPI tape
1674                  1 = /dev/pt1          Second parallel port ATAPI tape
1675                    ...
1676                128 = /dev/npt0         First p.p. ATAPI tape, no rewind
1677                129 = /dev/npt1         Second p.p. ATAPI tape, no rewind
1678                    ...
1679
1680 96 block       Inverse NAND Flash Translation Layer
1681                  0 = /dev/inftla First INFTL layer
1682                 16 = /dev/inftlb Second INFTL layer
1683                    ...
1684                240 = /dev/inftlp       16th INTFL layer
1685
1686 97 char        Parallel port generic ATAPI interface
1687                  0 = /dev/pg0          First parallel port ATAPI device
1688                  1 = /dev/pg1          Second parallel port ATAPI device
1689                  2 = /dev/pg2          Third parallel port ATAPI device
1690                  3 = /dev/pg3          Fourth parallel port ATAPI device
1691
1692                These devices support the same API as the generic SCSI
1693                devices.
1694
1695 98 char        Control and Measurement Device (comedi)
1696                  0 = /dev/comedi0      First comedi device
1697                  1 = /dev/comedi1      Second comedi device
1698                    ...
1699
1700                See http://stm.lbl.gov/comedi.
1701
1702 98 block       User-mode virtual block device
1703                  0 = /dev/ubda         First user-mode block device
1704                 16 = /dev/udbb         Second user-mode block device
1705                    ...
1706
1707                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1708                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1709                partitions is 15.
1710
1711                This device is used by the user-mode virtual kernel port.
1712
1713 99 char        Raw parallel ports
1714                  0 = /dev/parport0     First parallel port
1715                  1 = /dev/parport1     Second parallel port
1716                    ...
1717
1718 99 block       JavaStation flash disk
1719                  0 = /dev/jsfd         JavaStation flash disk
1720
1721100 char        Telephony for Linux
1722                  0 = /dev/phone0       First telephony device
1723                  1 = /dev/phone1       Second telephony device
1724                    ...
1725
1726101 char        Motorola DSP 56xxx board
1727                  0 = /dev/mdspstat     Status information
1728                  1 = /dev/mdsp1        First DSP board I/O controls
1729                    ...
1730                 16 = /dev/mdsp16       16th DSP board I/O controls
1731
1732101 block       AMI HyperDisk RAID controller
1733                  0 = /dev/amiraid/ar0  First array whole disk
1734                 16 = /dev/amiraid/ar1  Second array whole disk
1735                    ...
1736                240 = /dev/amiraid/ar15 16th array whole disk
1737
1738                For each device, partitions are added as:
1739                  0 = /dev/amiraid/ar?    Whole disk
1740                  1 = /dev/amiraid/ar?p1  First partition
1741                  2 = /dev/amiraid/ar?p2  Second partition
1742                    ...
1743                 15 = /dev/amiraid/ar?p15 15th partition
1744
1745102 char
1746
1747102 block       Compressed block device
1748                  0 = /dev/cbd/a        First compressed block device, whole device
1749                 16 = /dev/cbd/b        Second compressed block device, whole device
1750                    ...
1751                240 = /dev/cbd/p        16th compressed block device, whole device
1752
1753                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1754                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1755                partitions is 15.
1756
1757103 char        Arla network file system
1758                  0 = /dev/nnpfs0       First NNPFS device
1759                  1 = /dev/nnpfs1       Second NNPFS device
1760
1761                Arla is a free clone of the Andrew File System, AFS.
1762                The NNPFS device gives user mode filesystem
1763                implementations a kernel presence for caching and easy
1764                mounting.  For more information about the project,
1765                write to <arla-drinkers@stacken.kth.se> or see
1766                http://www.stacken.kth.se/project/arla/
1767
1768103 block       Audit device
1769                  0 = /dev/audit        Audit device
1770
1771104 char        Flash BIOS support
1772
1773104 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, first controller
1774                  0 = /dev/cciss/c0d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1775                 16 = /dev/cciss/c0d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1776                    ...
1777                240 = /dev/cciss/c0d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1778
1779                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1780                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1781                partitions is 15.
1782
1783105 char        Comtrol VS-1000 serial controller
1784                  0 = /dev/ttyV0        First VS-1000 port
1785                  1 = /dev/ttyV1        Second VS-1000 port
1786                    ...
1787
1788105 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, second controller
1789                  0 = /dev/cciss/c1d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1790                 16 = /dev/cciss/c1d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1791                    ...
1792                240 = /dev/cciss/c1d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1793
1794                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1795                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1796                partitions is 15.
1797
1798106 char        Comtrol VS-1000 serial controller - alternate devices
1799                  0 = /dev/cuv0         First VS-1000 port
1800                  1 = /dev/cuv1         Second VS-1000 port
1801                    ...
1802
1803106 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, third controller
1804                  0 = /dev/cciss/c2d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1805                 16 = /dev/cciss/c2d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1806                    ...
1807                240 = /dev/cciss/c2d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1808
1809                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1810                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1811                partitions is 15.
1812
1813107 char        3Dfx Voodoo Graphics device
1814                  0 = /dev/3dfx         Primary 3Dfx graphics device
1815
1816107 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, fourth controller
1817                  0 = /dev/cciss/c3d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1818                 16 = /dev/cciss/c3d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1819                    ...
1820                240 = /dev/cciss/c3d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1821
1822                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1823                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1824                partitions is 15.
1825
1826108 char        Device independent PPP interface
1827                  0 = /dev/ppp          Device independent PPP interface
1828
1829108 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, fifth controller
1830                  0 = /dev/cciss/c4d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1831                 16 = /dev/cciss/c4d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1832                    ...
1833                240 = /dev/cciss/c4d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1834
1835                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1836                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1837                partitions is 15.
1838
1839109 char        Reserved for logical volume manager
1840
1841109 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, sixth controller
1842                  0 = /dev/cciss/c5d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1843                 16 = /dev/cciss/c5d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1844                    ...
1845                240 = /dev/cciss/c5d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1846
1847                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1848                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1849                partitions is 15.
1850
1851110 char        miroMEDIA Surround board
1852                  0 = /dev/srnd0        First miroMEDIA Surround board
1853                  1 = /dev/srnd1        Second miroMEDIA Surround board
1854                    ...
1855
1856110 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, seventh controller
1857                  0 = /dev/cciss/c6d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1858                 16 = /dev/cciss/c6d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1859                    ...
1860                240 = /dev/cciss/c6d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1861
1862                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1863                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1864                partitions is 15.
1865
1866111 char
1867
1868111 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, eighth controller
1869                  0 = /dev/cciss/c7d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1870                 16 = /dev/cciss/c7d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1871                    ...
1872                240 = /dev/cciss/c7d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1873
1874                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1875                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1876                partitions is 15.
1877
1878112 char        ISI serial card
1879                  0 = /dev/ttyM0        First ISI port
1880                  1 = /dev/ttyM1        Second ISI port
1881                    ...
1882
1883                There is currently a device-naming conflict between
1884                these and PAM multimodems (major 78).
1885
1886112 block       IBM iSeries virtual disk
1887                  0 = /dev/iseries/vda  First virtual disk, whole disk
1888                  8 = /dev/iseries/vdb  Second virtual disk, whole disk
1889                    ...
1890                200 = /dev/iseries/vdz  26th virtual disk, whole disk
1891                208 = /dev/iseries/vdaa 27th virtual disk, whole disk
1892                    ...
1893                248 = /dev/iseries/vdaf 32nd virtual disk, whole disk
1894
1895                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1896                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1897                partitions is 7.
1898
1899113 char        ISI serial card - alternate devices
1900                  0 = /dev/cum0         Callout device for ttyM0
1901                  1 = /dev/cum1         Callout device for ttyM1
1902                    ...
1903
1904113 block       IBM iSeries virtual CD-ROM
1905                  0 = /dev/iseries/vcda First virtual CD-ROM
1906                  1 = /dev/iseries/vcdb Second virtual CD-ROM
1907                    ...
1908
1909114 char        Picture Elements ISE board
1910                  0 = /dev/ise0         First ISE board
1911                  1 = /dev/ise1         Second ISE board
1912                    ...
1913                128 = /dev/isex0        Control node for first ISE board
1914                129 = /dev/isex1        Control node for second ISE board
1915                    ...
1916
1917                The ISE board is an embedded computer, optimized for
1918                image processing. The /dev/iseN nodes are the general
1919                I/O access to the board, the /dev/isex0 nodes command
1920                nodes used to control the board.
1921
1922114 block       IDE BIOS powered software RAID interfaces such as the
1923                Promise Fastrak
1924
1925                  0 = /dev/ataraid/d0
1926                  1 = /dev/ataraid/d0p1
1927                  2 = /dev/ataraid/d0p2
1928                  ...
1929                 16 = /dev/ataraid/d1
1930                 17 = /dev/ataraid/d1p1
1931                 18 = /dev/ataraid/d1p2
1932                  ...
1933                255 = /dev/ataraid/d15p15
1934
1935                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1936                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1937                partitions is 15.
1938
1939115 char        TI link cable devices (115 was formerly the console driver speaker)
1940                  0 = /dev/tipar0    Parallel cable on first parallel port
1941                  ...
1942                  7 = /dev/tipar7    Parallel cable on seventh parallel port
1943
1944                  8 = /dev/tiser0    Serial cable on first serial port
1945                  ...
1946                 15 = /dev/tiser7    Serial cable on seventh serial port
1947
1948                 16 = /dev/tiusb0    First USB cable
1949                  ...
1950                 47 = /dev/tiusb31   32nd USB cable
1951
1952115 block       NetWare (NWFS) Devices (0-255)
1953
1954                The NWFS (NetWare) devices are used to present a
1955                collection of NetWare Mirror Groups or NetWare
1956                Partitions as a logical storage segment for
1957                use in mounting NetWare volumes.  A maximum of
1958                256 NetWare volumes can be supported in a single
1959                machine.
1960
1961                http://cgfa.telepac.pt/ftp2/kernel.org/linux/kernel/people/jmerkey/nwfs/
1962
1963                0 = /dev/nwfs/v0    First NetWare (NWFS) Logical Volume
1964                1 = /dev/nwfs/v1    Second NetWare (NWFS) Logical Volume
1965                2 = /dev/nwfs/v2    Third NetWare (NWFS) Logical Volume
1966                      ...
1967                255 = /dev/nwfs/v255    Last NetWare (NWFS) Logical Volume
1968
1969116 char        Advanced Linux Sound Driver (ALSA)
1970
1971116 block       MicroMemory battery backed RAM adapter (NVRAM)
1972                Supports 16 boards, 15 partitions each.
1973                Requested by neilb at cse.unsw.edu.au.
1974
1975                 0 = /dev/umem/d0      Whole of first board
1976                 1 = /dev/umem/d0p1    First partition of first board
1977                 2 = /dev/umem/d0p2    Second partition of first board
1978                15 = /dev/umem/d0p15   15th partition of first board
1979
1980                16 = /dev/umem/d1      Whole of second board
1981                17 = /dev/umem/d1p1    First partition of second board
1982                    ...
1983                255= /dev/umem/d15p15  15th partition of 16th board.
1984
1985117 char        COSA/SRP synchronous serial card
1986                  0 = /dev/cosa0c0      1st board, 1st channel
1987                  1 = /dev/cosa0c1      1st board, 2nd channel
1988                    ...
1989                 16 = /dev/cosa1c0      2nd board, 1st channel
1990                 17 = /dev/cosa1c1      2nd board, 2nd channel
1991                    ...
1992
1993117 block       Enterprise Volume Management System (EVMS)
1994
1995                The EVMS driver uses a layered, plug-in model to provide
1996                unparalleled flexibility and extensibility in managing
1997                storage.  This allows for easy expansion or customization
1998                of various levels of volume management.  Requested by
1999                Mark Peloquin (peloquin at us.ibm.com).
2000
2001                Note: EVMS populates and manages all the devnodes in
2002                /dev/evms.
2003
2004                http://sf.net/projects/evms
2005
2006                  0 = /dev/evms/block_device   EVMS block device
2007                  1 = /dev/evms/legacyname1    First EVMS legacy device
2008                  2 = /dev/evms/legacyname2    Second EVMS legacy device
2009                    ...
2010                    Both ranges can grow (down or up) until they meet.
2011                    ...
2012                254 = /dev/evms/EVMSname2      Second EVMS native device
2013                255 = /dev/evms/EVMSname1      First EVMS native device
2014
2015                Note: legacyname(s) are derived from the normal legacy
2016                device names.  For example, /dev/hda5 would become
2017                /dev/evms/hda5.
2018
2019118 char        IBM Cryptographic Accelerator
2020                  0 = /dev/ica  Virtual interface to all IBM Crypto Accelerators
2021                  1 = /dev/ica0 IBMCA Device 0
2022                  2 = /dev/ica1 IBMCA Device 1
2023                    ...
2024
2025119 char        VMware virtual network control
2026                  0 = /dev/vnet0        1st virtual network
2027                  1 = /dev/vnet1        2nd virtual network
2028                    ...
2029
2030120-127 char    LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
2031
2032120-127 block   LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
2033                Allocated for local/experimental use.  For devices not
2034                assigned official numbers, these ranges should be
2035                used in order to avoid conflicting with future assignments.
2036
2037128-135 char    Unix98 PTY masters
2038
2039                These devices should not have corresponding device
2040                nodes; instead they should be accessed through the
2041                /dev/ptmx cloning interface.
2042
2043128 block       SCSI disk devices (128-143)
2044                  0 = /dev/sddy         129th SCSI disk whole disk
2045                 16 = /dev/sddz         130th SCSI disk whole disk
2046                 32 = /dev/sdea         131th SCSI disk whole disk
2047                    ...
2048                240 = /dev/sden         144th SCSI disk whole disk
2049
2050                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2051                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2052                partitions is 15.
2053
2054129 block       SCSI disk devices (144-159)
2055                  0 = /dev/sdeo         145th SCSI disk whole disk
2056                 16 = /dev/sdep         146th SCSI disk whole disk
2057                 32 = /dev/sdeq         147th SCSI disk whole disk
2058                    ...
2059                240 = /dev/sdfd         160th SCSI disk whole disk
2060
2061                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2062                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2063                partitions is 15.
2064
2065130 char        (Misc devices)
2066
2067130 block       SCSI disk devices (160-175)
2068                  0 = /dev/sdfe         161st SCSI disk whole disk
2069                 16 = /dev/sdff         162nd SCSI disk whole disk
2070                 32 = /dev/sdfg         163rd SCSI disk whole disk
2071                    ...
2072                240 = /dev/sdft         176th SCSI disk whole disk
2073
2074                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2075                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2076                partitions is 15.
2077
2078131 block       SCSI disk devices (176-191)
2079                  0 = /dev/sdfu         177th SCSI disk whole disk
2080                 16 = /dev/sdfv         178th SCSI disk whole disk
2081                 32 = /dev/sdfw         179th SCSI disk whole disk
2082                    ...
2083                240 = /dev/sdgj         192nd SCSI disk whole disk
2084
2085                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2086                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2087                partitions is 15.
2088
2089132 block       SCSI disk devices (192-207)
2090                  0 = /dev/sdgk         193rd SCSI disk whole disk
2091                 16 = /dev/sdgl         194th SCSI disk whole disk
2092                 32 = /dev/sdgm         195th SCSI disk whole disk
2093                    ...
2094                240 = /dev/sdgz         208th SCSI disk whole disk
2095
2096                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2097                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2098                partitions is 15.
2099
2100133 block       SCSI disk devices (208-223)
2101                  0 = /dev/sdha         209th SCSI disk whole disk
2102                 16 = /dev/sdhb         210th SCSI disk whole disk
2103                 32 = /dev/sdhc         211th SCSI disk whole disk
2104                    ...
2105                240 = /dev/sdhp         224th SCSI disk whole disk
2106
2107                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2108                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2109                partitions is 15.
2110
2111134 block       SCSI disk devices (224-239)
2112                  0 = /dev/sdhq         225th SCSI disk whole disk
2113                 16 = /dev/sdhr         226th SCSI disk whole disk
2114                 32 = /dev/sdhs         227th SCSI disk whole disk
2115                    ...
2116                240 = /dev/sdif         240th SCSI disk whole disk
2117
2118                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2119                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2120                partitions is 15.
2121
2122135 block       SCSI disk devices (240-255)
2123                  0 = /dev/sdig         241st SCSI disk whole disk
2124                 16 = /dev/sdih         242nd SCSI disk whole disk
2125                 32 = /dev/sdih         243rd SCSI disk whole disk
2126                    ...
2127                240 = /dev/sdiv         256th SCSI disk whole disk
2128
2129                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2130                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2131                partitions is 15.
2132
2133136-143 char    Unix98 PTY slaves
2134                  0 = /dev/pts/0        First Unix98 pseudo-TTY
2135                  1 = /dev/pts/1        Second Unix98 pseudo-TTY
2136                    ...
2137
2138                These device nodes are automatically generated with
2139                the proper permissions and modes by mounting the
2140                devpts filesystem onto /dev/pts with the appropriate
2141                mount options (distribution dependent, however, on
2142                *most* distributions the appropriate options are
2143                "mode=0620,gid=<gid of the "tty" group>".)
2144
2145136 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; ninth controller
2146                  0 = /dev/rd/c8d0      First disk, whole disk
2147                  8 = /dev/rd/c8d1      Second disk, whole disk
2148                    ...
2149                248 = /dev/rd/c8d31     32nd disk, whole disk
2150
2151                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2152
2153137 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; tenth controller
2154                  0 = /dev/rd/c9d0      First disk, whole disk
2155                  8 = /dev/rd/c9d1      Second disk, whole disk
2156                    ...
2157                248 = /dev/rd/c9d31     32nd disk, whole disk
2158
2159                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2160
2161138 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; eleventh controller
2162                  0 = /dev/rd/c10d0     First disk, whole disk
2163                  8 = /dev/rd/c10d1     Second disk, whole disk
2164                    ...
2165                248 = /dev/rd/c10d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2166
2167                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2168
2169139 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; twelfth controller
2170                  0 = /dev/rd/c11d0     First disk, whole disk
2171                  8 = /dev/rd/c11d1     Second disk, whole disk
2172                    ...
2173                248 = /dev/rd/c11d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2174
2175                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2176
2177140 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; thirteenth controller
2178                  0 = /dev/rd/c12d0     First disk, whole disk
2179                  8 = /dev/rd/c12d1     Second disk, whole disk
2180                    ...
2181                248 = /dev/rd/c12d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2182
2183                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2184
2185141 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; fourteenth controller
2186                  0 = /dev/rd/c13d0     First disk, whole disk
2187                  8 = /dev/rd/c13d1     Second disk, whole disk
2188                    ...
2189                248 = /dev/rd/c13d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2190
2191                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2192
2193142 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; fifteenth controller
2194                  0 = /dev/rd/c14d0     First disk, whole disk
2195                  8 = /dev/rd/c14d1     Second disk, whole disk
2196                    ...
2197                248 = /dev/rd/c14d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2198
2199                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2200
2201143 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; sixteenth controller
2202                  0 = /dev/rd/c15d0     First disk, whole disk
2203                  8 = /dev/rd/c15d1     Second disk, whole disk
2204                    ...
2205                248 = /dev/rd/c15d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2206
2207                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2208
2209144 char        Encapsulated PPP
2210                  0 = /dev/pppox0       First PPP over Ethernet
2211                    ...
2212                 63 = /dev/pppox63      64th PPP over Ethernet
2213
2214                This is primarily used for ADSL.
2215
2216                The SST 5136-DN DeviceNet interface driver has been
2217                relocated to major 183 due to an unfortunate conflict.
2218
2219144 block       Expansion Area #1 for more non-device (e.g. NFS) mounts
2220                  0 = mounted device 256
2221                255 = mounted device 511
2222
2223145 char        SAM9407-based soundcard
2224                  0 = /dev/sam0_mixer
2225                  1 = /dev/sam0_sequencer
2226                  2 = /dev/sam0_midi00
2227                  3 = /dev/sam0_dsp
2228                  4 = /dev/sam0_audio
2229                  6 = /dev/sam0_sndstat
2230                 18 = /dev/sam0_midi01
2231                 34 = /dev/sam0_midi02
2232                 50 = /dev/sam0_midi03
2233                 64 = /dev/sam1_mixer
2234                    ...
2235                128 = /dev/sam2_mixer
2236                    ...
2237                192 = /dev/sam3_mixer
2238                    ...
2239
2240                Device functions match OSS, but offer a number of
2241                addons, which are sam9407 specific.  OSS can be
2242                operated simultaneously, taking care of the codec.
2243
2244145 block       Expansion Area #2 for more non-device (e.g. NFS) mounts
2245                  0 = mounted device 512
2246                255 = mounted device 767
2247
2248146 char        SYSTRAM SCRAMNet mirrored-memory network
2249                  0 = /dev/scramnet0    First SCRAMNet device
2250                  1 = /dev/scramnet1    Second SCRAMNet device
2251                    ...
2252
2253146 block       Expansion Area #3 for more non-device (e.g. NFS) mounts
2254                  0 = mounted device 768
2255                255 = mounted device 1023
2256
2257147 char        Aureal Semiconductor Vortex Audio device
2258                  0 = /dev/aureal0      First Aureal Vortex
2259                  1 = /dev/aureal1      Second Aureal Vortex
2260                    ...
2261
2262147 block       Distributed Replicated Block Device (DRBD)
2263                  0 = /dev/drbd0        First DRBD device
2264                  1 = /dev/drbd1        Second DRBD device
2265                    ...
2266
2267148 char        Technology Concepts serial card
2268                  0 = /dev/ttyT0        First TCL port
2269                  1 = /dev/ttyT1        Second TCL port
2270                    ...
2271
2272149 char        Technology Concepts serial card - alternate devices
2273                  0 = /dev/cut0         Callout device for ttyT0
2274                  1 = /dev/cut0         Callout device for ttyT1
2275                    ...
2276
2277150 char        Real-Time Linux FIFOs
2278                  0 = /dev/rtf0         First RTLinux FIFO
2279                  1 = /dev/rtf1         Second RTLinux FIFO
2280                    ...
2281
2282151 char        DPT I2O SmartRaid V controller
2283                  0 = /dev/dpti0        First DPT I2O adapter
2284                  1 = /dev/dpti1        Second DPT I2O adapter
2285                    ...
2286
2287152 char        EtherDrive Control Device
2288                  0 = /dev/etherd/ctl   Connect/Disconnect an EtherDrive
2289                  1 = /dev/etherd/err   Monitor errors
2290                  2 = /dev/etherd/raw   Raw AoE packet monitor
2291
2292152 block       EtherDrive Block Devices
2293                  0 = /dev/etherd/0     EtherDrive 0
2294                    ...
2295                255 = /dev/etherd/255   EtherDrive 255
2296
2297153 char        SPI Bus Interface (sometimes referred to as MicroWire)
2298                  0 = /dev/spi0         First SPI device on the bus
2299                  1 = /dev/spi1         Second SPI device on the bus
2300                    ...
2301                 15 = /dev/spi15        Sixteenth SPI device on the bus
2302
2303153 block       Enhanced Metadisk RAID (EMD) storage units
2304                  0 = /dev/emd/0        First unit
2305                  1 = /dev/emd/0p1      Partition 1 on First unit
2306                  2 = /dev/emd/0p2      Partition 2 on First unit
2307                    ...
2308                 15 = /dev/emd/0p15     Partition 15 on First unit
2309
2310                 16 = /dev/emd/1        Second unit
2311                 32 = /dev/emd/2        Third unit
2312                    ...
2313                240 = /dev/emd/15       Sixteenth unit
2314
2315                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2316                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2317                partitions is 15.
2318
2319154 char        Specialix RIO serial card
2320                  0 = /dev/ttySR0       First RIO port
2321                    ...
2322                255 = /dev/ttySR255     256th RIO port
2323
2324155 char        Specialix RIO serial card - alternate devices
2325                  0 = /dev/cusr0        Callout device for ttySR0
2326                    ...
2327                255 = /dev/cusr255      Callout device for ttySR255
2328
2329156 char        Specialix RIO serial card
2330                  0 = /dev/ttySR256     257th RIO port
2331                    ...
2332                255 = /dev/ttySR511     512th RIO port
2333
2334157 char        Specialix RIO serial card - alternate devices
2335                  0 = /dev/cusr256      Callout device for ttySR256
2336                    ...
2337                255 = /dev/cusr511      Callout device for ttySR511
2338
2339158 char        Dialogic GammaLink fax driver
2340                  0 = /dev/gfax0        GammaLink channel 0
2341                  1 = /dev/gfax1        GammaLink channel 1
2342                    ...
2343
2344159 char        RESERVED
2345
2346159 block       RESERVED
2347
2348160 char        General Purpose Instrument Bus (GPIB)
2349                  0 = /dev/gpib0        First GPIB bus
2350                  1 = /dev/gpib1        Second GPIB bus
2351                    ...
2352
2353160 block       Carmel 8-port SATA Disks on First Controller
2354                  0 = /dev/carmel/0     SATA disk 0 whole disk
2355                  1 = /dev/carmel/0p1   SATA disk 0 partition 1
2356                    ...
2357                 31 = /dev/carmel/0p31  SATA disk 0 partition 31
2358
2359                 32 = /dev/carmel/1     SATA disk 1 whole disk
2360                 64 = /dev/carmel/2     SATA disk 2 whole disk
2361                    ...
2362                224 = /dev/carmel/7     SATA disk 7 whole disk
2363
2364                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2365                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2366                partitions is 31.
2367
2368161 char        IrCOMM devices (IrDA serial/parallel emulation)
2369                  0 = /dev/ircomm0      First IrCOMM device
2370                  1 = /dev/ircomm1      Second IrCOMM device
2371                    ...
2372                 16 = /dev/irlpt0       First IrLPT device
2373                 17 = /dev/irlpt1       Second IrLPT device
2374                    ...
2375
2376161 block       Carmel 8-port SATA Disks on Second Controller
2377                  0 = /dev/carmel/8     SATA disk 8 whole disk
2378                  1 = /dev/carmel/8p1   SATA disk 8 partition 1
2379                    ...
2380                 31 = /dev/carmel/8p31  SATA disk 8 partition 31
2381
2382                 32 = /dev/carmel/9     SATA disk 9 whole disk
2383                 64 = /dev/carmel/10    SATA disk 10 whole disk
2384                    ...
2385                224 = /dev/carmel/15    SATA disk 15 whole disk
2386
2387                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2388                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2389                partitions is 31.
2390
2391162 char        Raw block device interface
2392                  0 = /dev/rawctl       Raw I/O control device
2393                  1 = /dev/raw/raw1     First raw I/O device
2394                  2 = /dev/raw/raw2     Second raw I/O device
2395                    ...
2396                 max minor number of raw device is set by kernel config
2397                 MAX_RAW_DEVS or raw module parameter 'max_raw_devs'
2398
2399163 char
2400
2401164 char        Chase Research AT/PCI-Fast serial card
2402                  0 = /dev/ttyCH0       AT/PCI-Fast board 0, port 0
2403                    ...
2404                 15 = /dev/ttyCH15      AT/PCI-Fast board 0, port 15
2405                 16 = /dev/ttyCH16      AT/PCI-Fast board 1, port 0
2406                    ...
2407                 31 = /dev/ttyCH31      AT/PCI-Fast board 1, port 15
2408                 32 = /dev/ttyCH32      AT/PCI-Fast board 2, port 0
2409                    ...
2410                 47 = /dev/ttyCH47      AT/PCI-Fast board 2, port 15
2411                 48 = /dev/ttyCH48      AT/PCI-Fast board 3, port 0
2412                    ...
2413                 63 = /dev/ttyCH63      AT/PCI-Fast board 3, port 15
2414
2415165 char        Chase Research AT/PCI-Fast serial card - alternate devices
2416                  0 = /dev/cuch0        Callout device for ttyCH0
2417                    ...
2418                 63 = /dev/cuch63       Callout device for ttyCH63
2419
2420166 char        ACM USB modems
2421                  0 = /dev/ttyACM0      First ACM modem
2422                  1 = /dev/ttyACM1      Second ACM modem
2423                    ...
2424
2425167 char        ACM USB modems - alternate devices
2426                  0 = /dev/cuacm0       Callout device for ttyACM0
2427                  1 = /dev/cuacm1       Callout device for ttyACM1
2428                    ...
2429
2430168 char        Eracom CSA7000 PCI encryption adaptor
2431                  0 = /dev/ecsa0        First CSA7000
2432                  1 = /dev/ecsa1        Second CSA7000
2433                    ...
2434
2435169 char        Eracom CSA8000 PCI encryption adaptor
2436                  0 = /dev/ecsa8-0      First CSA8000
2437                  1 = /dev/ecsa8-1      Second CSA8000
2438                    ...
2439
2440170 char        AMI MegaRAC remote access controller
2441                  0 = /dev/megarac0     First MegaRAC card
2442                  1 = /dev/megarac1     Second MegaRAC card
2443                    ...
2444
2445171 char        Reserved for IEEE 1394 (Firewire)
2446
2447172 char        Moxa Intellio serial card
2448                  0 = /dev/ttyMX0       First Moxa port
2449                  1 = /dev/ttyMX1       Second Moxa port
2450                    ...
2451                127 = /dev/ttyMX127     128th Moxa port
2452                128 = /dev/moxactl      Moxa control port
2453
2454173 char        Moxa Intellio serial card - alternate devices
2455                  0 = /dev/cumx0        Callout device for ttyMX0
2456                  1 = /dev/cumx1        Callout device for ttyMX1
2457                    ...
2458                127 = /dev/cumx127      Callout device for ttyMX127
2459
2460174 char        SmartIO serial card
2461                  0 = /dev/ttySI0       First SmartIO port
2462                  1 = /dev/ttySI1       Second SmartIO port
2463                    ...
2464
2465175 char        SmartIO serial card - alternate devices
2466                  0 = /dev/cusi0        Callout device for ttySI0
2467                  1 = /dev/cusi1        Callout device for ttySI1
2468                    ...
2469
2470176 char        nCipher nFast PCI crypto accelerator
2471                  0 = /dev/nfastpci0    First nFast PCI device
2472                  1 = /dev/nfastpci1    First nFast PCI device
2473                    ...
2474
2475177 char        TI PCILynx memory spaces
2476                  0 = /dev/pcilynx/aux0  AUX space of first PCILynx card
2477                    ...
2478                 15 = /dev/pcilynx/aux15 AUX space of 16th PCILynx card
2479                 16 = /dev/pcilynx/rom0  ROM space of first PCILynx card
2480                    ...
2481                 31 = /dev/pcilynx/rom15 ROM space of 16th PCILynx card
2482                 32 = /dev/pcilynx/ram0  RAM space of first PCILynx card
2483                    ...
2484                 47 = /dev/pcilynx/ram15 RAM space of 16th PCILynx card
2485
2486178 char        Giganet cLAN1xxx virtual interface adapter
2487                  0 = /dev/clanvi0      First cLAN adapter
2488                  1 = /dev/clanvi1      Second cLAN adapter
2489                    ...
2490
2491179 block       MMC block devices
2492                  0 = /dev/mmcblk0      First SD/MMC card
2493                  1 = /dev/mmcblk0p1    First partition on first MMC card
2494                  8 = /dev/mmcblk1      Second SD/MMC card
2495                    ...
2496
2497                The start of next SD/MMC card can be configured with
2498                CONFIG_MMC_BLOCK_MINORS, or overridden at boot/modprobe
2499                time using the mmcblk.perdev_minors option. That would
2500                bump the offset between each card to be the configured
2501                value instead of the default 8.
2502
2503179 char        CCube DVXChip-based PCI products
2504                  0 = /dev/dvxirq0      First DVX device
2505                  1 = /dev/dvxirq1      Second DVX device
2506                    ...
2507
2508180 char        USB devices
2509                  0 = /dev/usb/lp0      First USB printer
2510                    ...
2511                 15 = /dev/usb/lp15     16th USB printer
2512                 48 = /dev/usb/scanner0 First USB scanner
2513                    ...
2514                 63 = /dev/usb/scanner15 16th USB scanner
2515                 64 = /dev/usb/rio500   Diamond Rio 500
2516                 65 = /dev/usb/usblcd   USBLCD Interface (info@usblcd.de)
2517                 66 = /dev/usb/cpad0    Synaptics cPad (mouse/LCD)
2518                 96 = /dev/usb/hiddev0  1st USB HID device
2519                    ...
2520                111 = /dev/usb/hiddev15 16th USB HID device
2521                112 = /dev/usb/auer0    1st auerswald ISDN device
2522                    ...
2523                127 = /dev/usb/auer15   16th auerswald ISDN device
2524                128 = /dev/usb/brlvgr0  First Braille Voyager device
2525                    ...
2526                131 = /dev/usb/brlvgr3  Fourth Braille Voyager device
2527                132 = /dev/usb/idmouse  ID Mouse (fingerprint scanner) device
2528                133 = /dev/usb/sisusbvga1       First SiSUSB VGA device
2529                    ...
2530                140 = /dev/usb/sisusbvga8       Eighth SISUSB VGA device
2531                144 = /dev/usb/lcd      USB LCD device
2532                160 = /dev/usb/legousbtower0    1st USB Legotower device
2533                    ...
2534                175 = /dev/usb/legousbtower15   16th USB Legotower device
2535                176 = /dev/usb/usbtmc1  First USB TMC device
2536                   ...
2537                191 = /dev/usb/usbtmc16 16th USB TMC device
2538                192 = /dev/usb/yurex1   First USB Yurex device
2539                   ...
2540                209 = /dev/usb/yurex16  16th USB Yurex device
2541
2542180 block       USB block devices
2543                  0 = /dev/uba          First USB block device
2544                  8 = /dev/ubb          Second USB block device
2545                 16 = /dev/ubc          Third USB block device
2546                    ...
2547
2548181 char        Conrad Electronic parallel port radio clocks
2549                  0 = /dev/pcfclock0    First Conrad radio clock
2550                  1 = /dev/pcfclock1    Second Conrad radio clock
2551                    ...
2552
2553182 char        Picture Elements THR2 binarizer
2554                  0 = /dev/pethr0       First THR2 board
2555                  1 = /dev/pethr1       Second THR2 board
2556                    ...
2557
2558183 char        SST 5136-DN DeviceNet interface
2559                  0 = /dev/ss5136dn0    First DeviceNet interface
2560                  1 = /dev/ss5136dn1    Second DeviceNet interface
2561                    ...
2562
2563                This device used to be assigned to major number 144.
2564                It had to be moved due to an unfortunate conflict.
2565
2566184 char        Picture Elements' video simulator/sender
2567                  0 = /dev/pevss0       First sender board
2568                  1 = /dev/pevss1       Second sender board
2569                    ...
2570
2571185 char        InterMezzo high availability file system
2572                  0 = /dev/intermezzo0  First cache manager
2573                  1 = /dev/intermezzo1  Second cache manager
2574                    ...
2575
2576                See http://web.archive.org/web/20080115195241/
2577                http://inter-mezzo.org/index.html
2578
2579186 char        Object-based storage control device
2580                  0 = /dev/obd0         First obd control device
2581                  1 = /dev/obd1         Second obd control device
2582                    ...
2583
2584                See ftp://ftp.lustre.org/pub/obd for code and information.
2585
2586187 char        DESkey hardware encryption device
2587                  0 = /dev/deskey0      First DES key
2588                  1 = /dev/deskey1      Second DES key
2589                    ...
2590
2591188 char        USB serial converters
2592                  0 = /dev/ttyUSB0      First USB serial converter
2593                  1 = /dev/ttyUSB1      Second USB serial converter
2594                    ...
2595
2596189 char        USB serial converters - alternate devices
2597                  0 = /dev/cuusb0       Callout device for ttyUSB0
2598                  1 = /dev/cuusb1       Callout device for ttyUSB1
2599                    ...
2600
2601190 char        Kansas City tracker/tuner card
2602                  0 = /dev/kctt0        First KCT/T card
2603                  1 = /dev/kctt1        Second KCT/T card
2604                    ...
2605
2606191 char        Reserved for PCMCIA
2607
2608192 char        Kernel profiling interface
2609                  0 = /dev/profile      Profiling control device
2610                  1 = /dev/profile0     Profiling device for CPU 0
2611                  2 = /dev/profile1     Profiling device for CPU 1
2612                    ...
2613
2614193 char        Kernel event-tracing interface
2615                  0 = /dev/trace        Tracing control device
2616                  1 = /dev/trace0       Tracing device for CPU 0
2617                  2 = /dev/trace1       Tracing device for CPU 1
2618                    ...
2619
2620194 char        linVideoStreams (LINVS)
2621                  0 = /dev/mvideo/status0       Video compression status
2622                  1 = /dev/mvideo/stream0       Video stream
2623                  2 = /dev/mvideo/frame0        Single compressed frame
2624                  3 = /dev/mvideo/rawframe0     Raw uncompressed frame
2625                  4 = /dev/mvideo/codec0        Direct codec access
2626                  5 = /dev/mvideo/video4linux0  Video4Linux compatibility
2627
2628                 16 = /dev/mvideo/status1       Second device
2629                    ...
2630                 32 = /dev/mvideo/status2       Third device
2631                    ...
2632                    ...
2633                240 = /dev/mvideo/status15      16th device
2634                    ...
2635
2636195 char        Nvidia graphics devices
2637                  0 = /dev/nvidia0              First Nvidia card
2638                  1 = /dev/nvidia1              Second Nvidia card
2639                    ...
2640                255 = /dev/nvidiactl            Nvidia card control device
2641
2642196 char        Tormenta T1 card
2643                  0 = /dev/tor/0                Master control channel for all cards
2644                  1 = /dev/tor/1                First DS0
2645                  2 = /dev/tor/2                Second DS0
2646                    ...
2647                 48 = /dev/tor/48               48th DS0
2648                 49 = /dev/tor/49               First pseudo-channel
2649                 50 = /dev/tor/50               Second pseudo-channel
2650                    ...
2651
2652197 char        OpenTNF tracing facility
2653                  0 = /dev/tnf/t0               Trace 0 data extraction
2654                  1 = /dev/tnf/t1               Trace 1 data extraction
2655                    ...
2656                128 = /dev/tnf/status           Tracing facility status
2657                130 = /dev/tnf/trace            Tracing device
2658
2659198 char        Total Impact TPMP2 quad coprocessor PCI card
2660                  0 = /dev/tpmp2/0              First card
2661                  1 = /dev/tpmp2/1              Second card
2662                    ...
2663
2664199 char        Veritas volume manager (VxVM) volumes
2665                  0 = /dev/vx/rdsk/*/*          First volume
2666                  1 = /dev/vx/rdsk/*/*          Second volume
2667                    ...
2668
2669199 block       Veritas volume manager (VxVM) volumes
2670                  0 = /dev/vx/dsk/*/*           First volume
2671                  1 = /dev/vx/dsk/*/*           Second volume
2672                    ...
2673
2674                The namespace in these directories is maintained by
2675                the user space VxVM software.
2676
2677200 char        Veritas VxVM configuration interface
2678                  0 = /dev/vx/config            Configuration access node
2679                  1 = /dev/vx/trace             Volume i/o trace access node
2680                  2 = /dev/vx/iod               Volume i/o daemon access node
2681                  3 = /dev/vx/info              Volume information access node
2682                  4 = /dev/vx/task              Volume tasks access node
2683                  5 = /dev/vx/taskmon           Volume tasks monitor daemon
2684
2685201 char        Veritas VxVM dynamic multipathing driver
2686                  0 = /dev/vx/rdmp/*            First multipath device
2687                  1 = /dev/vx/rdmp/*            Second multipath device
2688                    ...
2689201 block       Veritas VxVM dynamic multipathing driver
2690                  0 = /dev/vx/dmp/*             First multipath device
2691                  1 = /dev/vx/dmp/*             Second multipath device
2692                    ...
2693
2694                The namespace in these directories is maintained by
2695                the user space VxVM software.
2696
2697202 char        CPU model-specific registers
2698                  0 = /dev/cpu/0/msr            MSRs on CPU 0
2699                  1 = /dev/cpu/1/msr            MSRs on CPU 1
2700                    ...
2701
2702202 block       Xen Virtual Block Device
2703                  0 = /dev/xvda       First Xen VBD whole disk
2704                  16 = /dev/xvdb      Second Xen VBD whole disk
2705                  32 = /dev/xvdc      Third Xen VBD whole disk
2706                    ...
2707                  240 = /dev/xvdp     Sixteenth Xen VBD whole disk
2708
2709                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2710                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2711                partitions is 15.
2712
2713203 char        CPU CPUID information
2714                  0 = /dev/cpu/0/cpuid          CPUID on CPU 0
2715                  1 = /dev/cpu/1/cpuid          CPUID on CPU 1
2716                    ...
2717
2718204 char        Low-density serial ports
2719                  0 = /dev/ttyLU0               LinkUp Systems L72xx UART - port 0
2720                  1 = /dev/ttyLU1               LinkUp Systems L72xx UART - port 1
2721                  2 = /dev/ttyLU2               LinkUp Systems L72xx UART - port 2
2722                  3 = /dev/ttyLU3               LinkUp Systems L72xx UART - port 3
2723                  4 = /dev/ttyFB0               Intel Footbridge (ARM)
2724                  5 = /dev/ttySA0               StrongARM builtin serial port 0
2725                  6 = /dev/ttySA1               StrongARM builtin serial port 1
2726                  7 = /dev/ttySA2               StrongARM builtin serial port 2
2727                  8 = /dev/ttySC0               SCI serial port (SuperH) - port 0
2728                  9 = /dev/ttySC1               SCI serial port (SuperH) - port 1
2729                 10 = /dev/ttySC2               SCI serial port (SuperH) - port 2
2730                 11 = /dev/ttySC3               SCI serial port (SuperH) - port 3
2731                 12 = /dev/ttyFW0               Firmware console - port 0
2732                 13 = /dev/ttyFW1               Firmware console - port 1
2733                 14 = /dev/ttyFW2               Firmware console - port 2
2734                 15 = /dev/ttyFW3               Firmware console - port 3
2735                 16 = /dev/ttyAM0               ARM "AMBA" serial port 0
2736                    ...
2737                 31 = /dev/ttyAM15              ARM "AMBA" serial port 15
2738                 32 = /dev/ttyDB0               DataBooster serial port 0
2739                    ...
2740                 39 = /dev/ttyDB7               DataBooster serial port 7
2741                 40 = /dev/ttySG0               SGI Altix console port
2742                 41 = /dev/ttySMX0              Motorola i.MX - port 0
2743                 42 = /dev/ttySMX1              Motorola i.MX - port 1
2744                 43 = /dev/ttySMX2              Motorola i.MX - port 2
2745                 44 = /dev/ttyMM0               Marvell MPSC - port 0
2746                 45 = /dev/ttyMM1               Marvell MPSC - port 1
2747                 46 = /dev/ttyCPM0              PPC CPM (SCC or SMC) - port 0
2748                    ...
2749                 47 = /dev/ttyCPM5              PPC CPM (SCC or SMC) - port 5
2750                 50 = /dev/ttyIOC0              Altix serial card
2751                    ...
2752                 81 = /dev/ttyIOC31             Altix serial card
2753                 82 = /dev/ttyVR0               NEC VR4100 series SIU
2754                 83 = /dev/ttyVR1               NEC VR4100 series DSIU
2755                 84 = /dev/ttyIOC84             Altix ioc4 serial card
2756                    ...
2757                 115 = /dev/ttyIOC115           Altix ioc4 serial card
2758                 116 = /dev/ttySIOC0            Altix ioc3 serial card
2759                    ...
2760                 147 = /dev/ttySIOC31           Altix ioc3 serial card
2761                 148 = /dev/ttyPSC0             PPC PSC - port 0
2762                    ...
2763                 153 = /dev/ttyPSC5             PPC PSC - port 5
2764                 154 = /dev/ttyAT0              ATMEL serial port 0
2765                    ...
2766                 169 = /dev/ttyAT15             ATMEL serial port 15
2767                 170 = /dev/ttyNX0              Hilscher netX serial port 0
2768                    ...
2769                 185 = /dev/ttyNX15             Hilscher netX serial port 15
2770                 186 = /dev/ttyJ0               JTAG1 DCC protocol based serial port emulation
2771                 187 = /dev/ttyUL0              Xilinx uartlite - port 0
2772                    ...
2773                 190 = /dev/ttyUL3              Xilinx uartlite - port 3
2774                 191 = /dev/xvc0                Xen virtual console - port 0
2775                 192 = /dev/ttyPZ0              pmac_zilog - port 0
2776                    ...
2777                 195 = /dev/ttyPZ3              pmac_zilog - port 3
2778                 196 = /dev/ttyTX0              TX39/49 serial port 0
2779                    ...
2780                 204 = /dev/ttyTX7              TX39/49 serial port 7
2781                 205 = /dev/ttySC0              SC26xx serial port 0
2782                 206 = /dev/ttySC1              SC26xx serial port 1
2783                 207 = /dev/ttySC2              SC26xx serial port 2
2784                 208 = /dev/ttySC3              SC26xx serial port 3
2785                 209 = /dev/ttyMAX0             MAX3100 serial port 0
2786                 210 = /dev/ttyMAX1             MAX3100 serial port 1
2787                 211 = /dev/ttyMAX2             MAX3100 serial port 2
2788                 212 = /dev/ttyMAX3             MAX3100 serial port 3
2789
2790205 char        Low-density serial ports (alternate device)
2791                  0 = /dev/culu0                Callout device for ttyLU0
2792                  1 = /dev/culu1                Callout device for ttyLU1
2793                  2 = /dev/culu2                Callout device for ttyLU2
2794                  3 = /dev/culu3                Callout device for ttyLU3
2795                  4 = /dev/cufb0                Callout device for ttyFB0
2796                  5 = /dev/cusa0                Callout device for ttySA0
2797                  6 = /dev/cusa1                Callout device for ttySA1
2798                  7 = /dev/cusa2                Callout device for ttySA2
2799                  8 = /dev/cusc0                Callout device for ttySC0
2800                  9 = /dev/cusc1                Callout device for ttySC1
2801                 10 = /dev/cusc2                Callout device for ttySC2
2802                 11 = /dev/cusc3                Callout device for ttySC3
2803                 12 = /dev/cufw0                Callout device for ttyFW0
2804                 13 = /dev/cufw1                Callout device for ttyFW1
2805                 14 = /dev/cufw2                Callout device for ttyFW2
2806                 15 = /dev/cufw3                Callout device for ttyFW3
2807                 16 = /dev/cuam0                Callout device for ttyAM0
2808                    ...
2809                 31 = /dev/cuam15               Callout device for ttyAM15
2810                 32 = /dev/cudb0                Callout device for ttyDB0
2811                    ...
2812                 39 = /dev/cudb7                Callout device for ttyDB7
2813                 40 = /dev/cusg0                Callout device for ttySG0
2814                 41 = /dev/ttycusmx0            Callout device for ttySMX0
2815                 42 = /dev/ttycusmx1            Callout device for ttySMX1
2816                 43 = /dev/ttycusmx2            Callout device for ttySMX2
2817                 46 = /dev/cucpm0               Callout device for ttyCPM0
2818                    ...
2819                 49 = /dev/cucpm5               Callout device for ttyCPM5
2820                 50 = /dev/cuioc40              Callout device for ttyIOC40
2821                    ...
2822                 81 = /dev/cuioc431             Callout device for ttyIOC431
2823                 82 = /dev/cuvr0                Callout device for ttyVR0
2824                 83 = /dev/cuvr1                Callout device for ttyVR1
2825
2826206 char        OnStream SC-x0 tape devices
2827                  0 = /dev/osst0                First OnStream SCSI tape, mode 0
2828                  1 = /dev/osst1                Second OnStream SCSI tape, mode 0
2829                    ...
2830                 32 = /dev/osst0l               First OnStream SCSI tape, mode 1
2831                 33 = /dev/osst1l               Second OnStream SCSI tape, mode 1
2832                    ...
2833                 64 = /dev/osst0m               First OnStream SCSI tape, mode 2
2834                 65 = /dev/osst1m               Second OnStream SCSI tape, mode 2
2835                    ...
2836                 96 = /dev/osst0a               First OnStream SCSI tape, mode 3
2837                 97 = /dev/osst1a               Second OnStream SCSI tape, mode 3
2838                    ...
2839                128 = /dev/nosst0               No rewind version of /dev/osst0
2840                129 = /dev/nosst1               No rewind version of /dev/osst1
2841                    ...
2842                160 = /dev/nosst0l              No rewind version of /dev/osst0l
2843                161 = /dev/nosst1l              No rewind version of /dev/osst1l
2844                    ...
2845                192 = /dev/nosst0m              No rewind version of /dev/osst0m
2846                193 = /dev/nosst1m              No rewind version of /dev/osst1m
2847                    ...
2848                224 = /dev/nosst0a              No rewind version of /dev/osst0a
2849                225 = /dev/nosst1a              No rewind version of /dev/osst1a
2850                    ...
2851
2852                The OnStream SC-x0 SCSI tapes do not support the
2853                standard SCSI SASD command set and therefore need
2854                their own driver "osst". Note that the IDE, USB (and
2855                maybe ParPort) versions may be driven via ide-scsi or
2856                usb-storage SCSI emulation and this osst device and
2857                driver as well.  The ADR-x0 drives are QIC-157
2858                compliant and don't need osst.
2859
2860207 char        Compaq ProLiant health feature indicate
2861                  0 = /dev/cpqhealth/cpqw       Redirector interface
2862                  1 = /dev/cpqhealth/crom       EISA CROM
2863                  2 = /dev/cpqhealth/cdt        Data Table
2864                  3 = /dev/cpqhealth/cevt       Event Log
2865                  4 = /dev/cpqhealth/casr       Automatic Server Recovery
2866                  5 = /dev/cpqhealth/cecc       ECC Memory
2867                  6 = /dev/cpqhealth/cmca       Machine Check Architecture
2868                  7 = /dev/cpqhealth/ccsm       Deprecated CDT
2869                  8 = /dev/cpqhealth/cnmi       NMI Handling
2870                  9 = /dev/cpqhealth/css        Sideshow Management
2871                 10 = /dev/cpqhealth/cram       CMOS interface
2872                 11 = /dev/cpqhealth/cpci       PCI IRQ interface
2873
2874208 char        User space serial ports
2875                  0 = /dev/ttyU0                First user space serial port
2876                  1 = /dev/ttyU1                Second user space serial port
2877                    ...
2878
2879209 char        User space serial ports (alternate devices)
2880                  0 = /dev/cuu0                 Callout device for ttyU0
2881                  1 = /dev/cuu1                 Callout device for ttyU1
2882                    ...
2883
2884210 char        SBE, Inc. sync/async serial card
2885                  0 = /dev/sbei/wxcfg0          Configuration device for board 0
2886                  1 = /dev/sbei/dld0            Download device for board 0
2887                  2 = /dev/sbei/wan00           WAN device, port 0, board 0
2888                  3 = /dev/sbei/wan01           WAN device, port 1, board 0
2889                  4 = /dev/sbei/wan02           WAN device, port 2, board 0
2890                  5 = /dev/sbei/wan03           WAN device, port 3, board 0
2891                  6 = /dev/sbei/wanc00          WAN clone device, port 0, board 0
2892                  7 = /dev/sbei/wanc01          WAN clone device, port 1, board 0
2893                  8 = /dev/sbei/wanc02          WAN clone device, port 2, board 0
2894                  9 = /dev/sbei/wanc03          WAN clone device, port 3, board 0
2895                 10 = /dev/sbei/wxcfg1          Configuration device for board 1
2896                 11 = /dev/sbei/dld1            Download device for board 1
2897                 12 = /dev/sbei/wan10           WAN device, port 0, board 1
2898                 13 = /dev/sbei/wan11           WAN device, port 1, board 1
2899                 14 = /dev/sbei/wan12           WAN device, port 2, board 1
2900                 15 = /dev/sbei/wan13           WAN device, port 3, board 1
2901                 16 = /dev/sbei/wanc10          WAN clone device, port 0, board 1
2902                 17 = /dev/sbei/wanc11          WAN clone device, port 1, board 1
2903                 18 = /dev/sbei/wanc12          WAN clone device, port 2, board 1
2904                 19 = /dev/sbei/wanc13          WAN clone device, port 3, board 1
2905                    ...
2906
2907                Yes, each board is really spaced 10 (decimal) apart.
2908
2909211 char        Addinum CPCI1500 digital I/O card
2910                  0 = /dev/addinum/cpci1500/0   First CPCI1500 card
2911                  1 = /dev/addinum/cpci1500/1   Second CPCI1500 card
2912                    ...
2913
2914212 char        LinuxTV.org DVB driver subsystem
2915                  0 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/video0    first video decoder of first card
2916                  1 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/audio0    first audio decoder of first card
2917                  2 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/sec0      (obsolete/unused)
2918                  3 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/frontend0 first frontend device of first card
2919                  4 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/demux0    first demux device of first card
2920                  5 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/dvr0      first digital video recoder device of first card
2921                  6 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/ca0       first common access port of first card
2922                  7 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/net0      first network device of first card
2923                  8 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/osd0      first on-screen-display device of first card
2924                  9 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/video1    second video decoder of first card
2925                    ...
2926                 64 = /dev/dvb/adapter1/video0    first video decoder of second card
2927                    ...
2928                128 = /dev/dvb/adapter2/video0    first video decoder of third card
2929                    ...
2930                196 = /dev/dvb/adapter3/video0    first video decoder of fourth card
2931
2932216 char        Bluetooth RFCOMM TTY devices
2933                  0 = /dev/rfcomm0              First Bluetooth RFCOMM TTY device
2934                  1 = /dev/rfcomm1              Second Bluetooth RFCOMM TTY device
2935                    ...
2936
2937217 char        Bluetooth RFCOMM TTY devices (alternate devices)
2938                  0 = /dev/curf0                Callout device for rfcomm0
2939                  1 = /dev/curf1                Callout device for rfcomm1
2940                    ...
2941
2942218 char        The Logical Company bus Unibus/Qbus adapters
2943                  0 = /dev/logicalco/bci/0      First bus adapter
2944                  1 = /dev/logicalco/bci/1      First bus adapter
2945                    ...
2946
2947219 char        The Logical Company DCI-1300 digital I/O card
2948                  0 = /dev/logicalco/dci1300/0  First DCI-1300 card
2949                  1 = /dev/logicalco/dci1300/1  Second DCI-1300 card
2950                    ...
2951
2952220 char        Myricom Myrinet "GM" board
2953                  0 = /dev/myricom/gm0          First Myrinet GM board
2954                  1 = /dev/myricom/gmp0         First board "root access"
2955                  2 = /dev/myricom/gm1          Second Myrinet GM board
2956                  3 = /dev/myricom/gmp1         Second board "root access"
2957                    ...
2958
2959221 char        VME bus
2960                  0 = /dev/bus/vme/m0           First master image
2961                  1 = /dev/bus/vme/m1           Second master image
2962                  2 = /dev/bus/vme/m2           Third master image
2963                  3 = /dev/bus/vme/m3           Fourth master image
2964                  4 = /dev/bus/vme/s0           First slave image
2965                  5 = /dev/bus/vme/s1           Second slave image
2966                  6 = /dev/bus/vme/s2           Third slave image
2967                  7 = /dev/bus/vme/s3           Fourth slave image
2968                  8 = /dev/bus/vme/ctl          Control
2969
2970                It is expected that all VME bus drivers will use the
2971                same interface.  For interface documentation see
2972                http://www.vmelinux.org/.
2973
2974224 char        A2232 serial card
2975                  0 = /dev/ttyY0                First A2232 port
2976                  1 = /dev/ttyY1                Second A2232 port
2977                    ...
2978
2979225 char        A2232 serial card (alternate devices)
2980                  0 = /dev/cuy0                 Callout device for ttyY0
2981                  1 = /dev/cuy1                 Callout device for ttyY1
2982                    ...
2983
2984226 char        Direct Rendering Infrastructure (DRI)
2985                  0 = /dev/dri/card0            First graphics card
2986                  1 = /dev/dri/card1            Second graphics card
2987                    ...
2988
2989227 char        IBM 3270 terminal Unix tty access
2990                  1 = /dev/3270/tty1            First 3270 terminal
2991                  2 = /dev/3270/tty2            Seconds 3270 terminal
2992                    ...
2993
2994228 char        IBM 3270 terminal block-mode access
2995                  0 = /dev/3270/tub             Controlling interface
2996                  1 = /dev/3270/tub1            First 3270 terminal
2997                  2 = /dev/3270/tub2            Second 3270 terminal
2998                    ...
2999
3000229 char        IBM iSeries/pSeries virtual console
3001                  0 = /dev/hvc0                 First console port
3002                  1 = /dev/hvc1                 Second console port
3003                    ...
3004
3005230 char        IBM iSeries virtual tape
3006                  0 = /dev/iseries/vt0          First virtual tape, mode 0
3007                  1 = /dev/iseries/vt1          Second virtual tape, mode 0
3008                    ...
3009                 32 = /dev/iseries/vt0l         First virtual tape, mode 1
3010                 33 = /dev/iseries/vt1l         Second virtual tape, mode 1
3011                    ...
3012                 64 = /dev/iseries/vt0m         First virtual tape, mode 2
3013                 65 = /dev/iseries/vt1m         Second virtual tape, mode 2
3014                    ...
3015                 96 = /dev/iseries/vt0a         First virtual tape, mode 3
3016                 97 = /dev/iseries/vt1a         Second virtual tape, mode 3
3017                      ...
3018                128 = /dev/iseries/nvt0         First virtual tape, mode 0, no rewind
3019                129 = /dev/iseries/nvt1         Second virtual tape, mode 0, no rewind
3020                    ...
3021                160 = /dev/iseries/nvt0l        First virtual tape, mode 1, no rewind
3022                161 = /dev/iseries/nvt1l        Second virtual tape, mode 1, no rewind
3023                    ...
3024                192 = /dev/iseries/nvt0m        First virtual tape, mode 2, no rewind
3025                193 = /dev/iseries/nvt1m        Second virtual tape, mode 2, no rewind
3026                    ...
3027                224 = /dev/iseries/nvt0a        First virtual tape, mode 3, no rewind
3028                225 = /dev/iseries/nvt1a        Second virtual tape, mode 3, no rewind
3029                    ...
3030
3031                "No rewind" refers to the omission of the default
3032                automatic rewind on device close.  The MTREW or MTOFFL
3033                ioctl()'s can be used to rewind the tape regardless of
3034                the device used to access it.
3035
3036231 char        InfiniBand
3037                0 = /dev/infiniband/umad0
3038                1 = /dev/infiniband/umad1
3039                  ...
3040                63 = /dev/infiniband/umad63    63rd InfiniBandMad device
3041                64 = /dev/infiniband/issm0     First InfiniBand IsSM device
3042                65 = /dev/infiniband/issm1     Second InfiniBand IsSM device
3043                  ...
3044                127 = /dev/infiniband/issm63    63rd InfiniBand IsSM device
3045                128 = /dev/infiniband/uverbs0   First InfiniBand verbs device
3046                129 = /dev/infiniband/uverbs1   Second InfiniBand verbs device
3047                  ...
3048                159 = /dev/infiniband/uverbs31  31st InfiniBand verbs device
3049
3050232 char        Biometric Devices
3051                0 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/fingerprint  first fingerprint sensor on first device
3052                1 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/iris         first iris sensor on first device
3053                2 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/retina       first retina sensor on first device
3054                3 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/voiceprint   first voiceprint sensor on first device
3055                4 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/facial       first facial sensor on first device
3056                5 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/hand         first hand sensor on first device
3057                  ...
3058                10 = /dev/biometric/sensor1/fingerprint first fingerprint sensor on second device
3059                  ...
3060                20 = /dev/biometric/sensor2/fingerprint first fingerprint sensor on third device
3061                  ...
3062
3063233 char        PathScale InfiniPath interconnect
3064                0 = /dev/ipath        Primary device for programs (any unit)
3065                1 = /dev/ipath0       Access specifically to unit 0
3066                2 = /dev/ipath1       Access specifically to unit 1
3067                  ...
3068                4 = /dev/ipath3       Access specifically to unit 3
3069                129 = /dev/ipath_sma    Device used by Subnet Management Agent
3070                130 = /dev/ipath_diag   Device used by diagnostics programs
3071
3072234-254 char    RESERVED FOR DYNAMIC ASSIGNMENT
3073                Character devices that request a dynamic allocation of major number will
3074                take numbers starting from 254 and downward.
3075
3076240-254 block   LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
3077                Allocated for local/experimental use.  For devices not
3078                assigned official numbers, these ranges should be
3079                used in order to avoid conflicting with future assignments.
3080
3081255 char        RESERVED
3082
3083255 block       RESERVED
3084
3085                This major is reserved to assist the expansion to a
3086                larger number space.  No device nodes with this major
3087                should ever be created on the filesystem.
3088                (This is probably not true anymore, but I'll leave it
3089                for now /Torben)
3090
3091---LARGE MAJORS!!!!!---
3092
3093256 char        Equinox SST multi-port serial boards
3094                   0 = /dev/ttyEQ0      First serial port on first Equinox SST board
3095                 127 = /dev/ttyEQ127    Last serial port on first Equinox SST board
3096                 128 = /dev/ttyEQ128    First serial port on second Equinox SST board
3097                  ...
3098                1027 = /dev/ttyEQ1027   Last serial port on eighth Equinox SST board
3099
3100256 block       Resident Flash Disk Flash Translation Layer
3101                  0 = /dev/rfda         First RFD FTL layer
3102                 16 = /dev/rfdb         Second RFD FTL layer
3103                  ...
3104                240 = /dev/rfdp         16th RFD FTL layer
3105
3106257 char        Phoenix Technologies Cryptographic Services Driver
3107                  0 = /dev/ptlsec       Crypto Services Driver
3108
3109257 block       SSFDC Flash Translation Layer filesystem
3110                  0 = /dev/ssfdca       First SSFDC layer
3111                  8 = /dev/ssfdcb       Second SSFDC layer
3112                 16 = /dev/ssfdcc       Third SSFDC layer
3113                 24 = /dev/ssfdcd       4th SSFDC layer
3114                 32 = /dev/ssfdce       5th SSFDC layer
3115                 40 = /dev/ssfdcf       6th SSFDC layer
3116                 48 = /dev/ssfdcg       7th SSFDC layer
3117                 56 = /dev/ssfdch       8th SSFDC layer
3118
3119258 block       ROM/Flash read-only translation layer
3120                  0 = /dev/blockrom0    First ROM card's translation layer interface
3121                  1 = /dev/blockrom1    Second ROM card's translation layer interface
3122                  ...
3123
3124259 block       Block Extended Major
3125                  Used dynamically to hold additional partition minor
3126                  numbers and allow large numbers of partitions per device
3127
3128259 char        FPGA configuration interfaces
3129                  0 = /dev/icap0        First Xilinx internal configuration
3130                  1 = /dev/icap1        Second Xilinx internal configuration
3131
3132260 char        OSD (Object-based-device) SCSI Device
3133                  0 = /dev/osd0         First OSD Device
3134                  1 = /dev/osd1         Second OSD Device
3135                  ...
3136                  255 = /dev/osd255     256th OSD Device
3137
3138 ****   ADDITIONAL /dev DIRECTORY ENTRIES
3139
3140This section details additional entries that should or may exist in
3141the /dev directory.  It is preferred that symbolic links use the same
3142form (absolute or relative) as is indicated here.  Links are
3143classified as "hard" or "symbolic" depending on the preferred type of
3144link; if possible, the indicated type of link should be used.
3145
3146
3147        Compulsory links
3148
3149These links should exist on all systems:
3150
3151/dev/fd         /proc/self/fd   symbolic        File descriptors
3152/dev/stdin      fd/0            symbolic        stdin file descriptor
3153/dev/stdout     fd/1            symbolic        stdout file descriptor
3154/dev/stderr     fd/2            symbolic        stderr file descriptor
3155/dev/nfsd       socksys         symbolic        Required by iBCS-2
3156/dev/X0R        null            symbolic        Required by iBCS-2
3157
3158Note: /dev/X0R is <letter X>-<digit 0>-<letter R>.
3159
3160        Recommended links
3161
3162It is recommended that these links exist on all systems:
3163
3164/dev/core       /proc/kcore     symbolic        Backward compatibility
3165/dev/ramdisk    ram0            symbolic        Backward compatibility
3166/dev/ftape      qft0            symbolic        Backward compatibility
3167/dev/bttv0      video0          symbolic        Backward compatibility
3168/dev/radio      radio0          symbolic        Backward compatibility
3169/dev/i2o*       /dev/i2o/*      symbolic        Backward compatibility
3170/dev/scd?       sr?             hard            Alternate SCSI CD-ROM name
3171
3172        Locally defined links
3173
3174The following links may be established locally to conform to the
3175configuration of the system.  This is merely a tabulation of existing
3176practice, and does not constitute a recommendation.  However, if they
3177exist, they should have the following uses.
3178
3179/dev/mouse      mouse port      symbolic        Current mouse device
3180/dev/tape       tape device     symbolic        Current tape device
3181/dev/cdrom      CD-ROM device   symbolic        Current CD-ROM device
3182/dev/cdwriter   CD-writer       symbolic        Current CD-writer device
3183/dev/scanner    scanner         symbolic        Current scanner device
3184/dev/modem      modem port      symbolic        Current dialout device
3185/dev/root       root device     symbolic        Current root filesystem
3186/dev/swap       swap device     symbolic        Current swap device
3187
3188/dev/modem should not be used for a modem which supports dialin as
3189well as dialout, as it tends to cause lock file problems.  If it
3190exists, /dev/modem should point to the appropriate primary TTY device
3191(the use of the alternate callout devices is deprecated).
3192
3193For SCSI devices, /dev/tape and /dev/cdrom should point to the
3194``cooked'' devices (/dev/st* and /dev/sr*, respectively), whereas
3195/dev/cdwriter and /dev/scanner should point to the appropriate generic
3196SCSI devices (/dev/sg*).
3197
3198/dev/mouse may point to a primary serial TTY device, a hardware mouse
3199device, or a socket for a mouse driver program (e.g. /dev/gpmdata).
3200
3201        Sockets and pipes
3202
3203Non-transient sockets and named pipes may exist in /dev.  Common entries are:
3204
3205/dev/printer    socket          lpd local socket
3206/dev/log        socket          syslog local socket
3207/dev/gpmdata    socket          gpm mouse multiplexer
3208
3209        Mount points
3210
3211The following names are reserved for mounting special filesystems
3212under /dev.  These special filesystems provide kernel interfaces that
3213cannot be provided with standard device nodes.
3214
3215/dev/pts        devpts          PTY slave filesystem
3216/dev/shm        tmpfs           POSIX shared memory maintenance access
3217
3218 ****   TERMINAL DEVICES
3219
3220Terminal, or TTY devices are a special class of character devices.  A
3221terminal device is any device that could act as a controlling terminal
3222for a session; this includes virtual consoles, serial ports, and
3223pseudoterminals (PTYs).
3224
3225All terminal devices share a common set of capabilities known as line
3226disciplines; these include the common terminal line discipline as well
3227as SLIP and PPP modes.
3228
3229All terminal devices are named similarly; this section explains the
3230naming and use of the various types of TTYs.  Note that the naming
3231conventions include several historical warts; some of these are
3232Linux-specific, some were inherited from other systems, and some
3233reflect Linux outgrowing a borrowed convention.
3234
3235A hash mark (#) in a device name is used here to indicate a decimal
3236number without leading zeroes.
3237
3238        Virtual consoles and the console device
3239
3240Virtual consoles are full-screen terminal displays on the system video
3241monitor.  Virtual consoles are named /dev/tty#, with numbering
3242starting at /dev/tty1; /dev/tty0 is the current virtual console.
3243/dev/tty0 is the device that should be used to access the system video
3244card on those architectures for which the frame buffer devices
3245(/dev/fb*) are not applicable.  Do not use /dev/console
3246for this purpose.
3247
3248The console device, /dev/console, is the device to which system
3249messages should be sent, and on which logins should be permitted in
3250single-user mode.  Starting with Linux 2.1.71, /dev/console is managed
3251by the kernel; for previous versions it should be a symbolic link to
3252either /dev/tty0, a specific virtual console such as /dev/tty1, or to
3253a serial port primary (tty*, not cu*) device, depending on the
3254configuration of the system.
3255
3256        Serial ports
3257
3258Serial ports are RS-232 serial ports and any device which simulates
3259one, either in hardware (such as internal modems) or in software (such
3260as the ISDN driver.)  Under Linux, each serial ports has two device
3261names, the primary or callin device and the alternate or callout one.
3262Each kind of device is indicated by a different letter.  For any
3263letter X, the names of the devices are /dev/ttyX# and /dev/cux#,
3264respectively; for historical reasons, /dev/ttyS# and /dev/ttyC#
3265correspond to /dev/cua# and /dev/cub#.  In the future, it should be
3266expected that multiple letters will be used; all letters will be upper
3267case for the "tty" device (e.g. /dev/ttyDP#) and lower case for the
3268"cu" device (e.g. /dev/cudp#).
3269
3270The names /dev/ttyQ# and /dev/cuq# are reserved for local use.
3271
3272The alternate devices provide for kernel-based exclusion and somewhat
3273different defaults than the primary devices.  Their main purpose is to
3274allow the use of serial ports with programs with no inherent or broken
3275support for serial ports.  Their use is deprecated, and they may be
3276removed from a future version of Linux.
3277
3278Arbitration of serial ports is provided by the use of lock files with
3279the names /var/lock/LCK..ttyX#.  The contents of the lock file should
3280be the PID of the locking process as an ASCII number.
3281
3282It is common practice to install links such as /dev/modem
3283which point to serial ports.  In order to ensure proper locking in the
3284presence of these links, it is recommended that software chase
3285symlinks and lock all possible names; additionally, it is recommended
3286that a lock file be installed with the corresponding alternate
3287device.  In order to avoid deadlocks, it is recommended that the locks
3288are acquired in the following order, and released in the reverse:
3289
3290        1. The symbolic link name, if any (/var/lock/LCK..modem)
3291        2. The "tty" name (/var/lock/LCK..ttyS2)
3292        3. The alternate device name (/var/lock/LCK..cua2)
3293
3294In the case of nested symbolic links, the lock files should be
3295installed in the order the symlinks are resolved.
3296
3297Under no circumstances should an application hold a lock while waiting
3298for another to be released.  In addition, applications which attempt
3299to create lock files for the corresponding alternate device names
3300should take into account the possibility of being used on a non-serial
3301port TTY, for which no alternate device would exist.
3302
3303        Pseudoterminals (PTYs)
3304
3305Pseudoterminals, or PTYs, are used to create login sessions or provide
3306other capabilities requiring a TTY line discipline (including SLIP or
3307PPP capability) to arbitrary data-generation processes.  Each PTY has
3308a master side, named /dev/pty[p-za-e][0-9a-f], and a slave side, named
3309/dev/tty[p-za-e][0-9a-f].  The kernel arbitrates the use of PTYs by
3310allowing each master side to be opened only once.
3311
3312Once the master side has been opened, the corresponding slave device
3313can be used in the same manner as any TTY device.  The master and
3314slave devices are connected by the kernel, generating the equivalent
3315of a bidirectional pipe with TTY capabilities.
3316
3317Recent versions of the Linux kernels and GNU libc contain support for
3318the System V/Unix98 naming scheme for PTYs, which assigns a common
3319device, /dev/ptmx, to all the masters (opening it will automatically
3320give you a previously unassigned PTY) and a subdirectory, /dev/pts,
3321for the slaves; the slaves are named with decimal integers (/dev/pts/#
3322in our notation).  This removes the problem of exhausting the
3323namespace and enables the kernel to automatically create the device
3324nodes for the slaves on demand using the "devpts" filesystem.
3325
3326
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