linux-old/Documentation/devices.txt
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   1                       LINUX ALLOCATED DEVICES
   2             Maintained by H. Peter Anvin <device@lanana.org>
   3
   4                   Last revised: December 29, 2000
   5
   6This list is the Linux Device List, the official registry of allocated
   7device numbers and /dev directory nodes for the Linux operating
   8system.
   9
  10The latest version of this list is included with the Linux kernel
  11sources.  It is also available separately from 
  12http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/docs/device-list/ or
  13ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/docs/device-list/.  The LaTeX version
  14of this document is no longer maintained.
  15
  16This document is included by reference into the Filesystem Hierarchy
  17Standard (FHS).  The FHS is available from http://www.pathname.com/fhs/.
  18
  19Allocations marked (68k/Amiga) apply to Linux/68k on the Amiga
  20platform only.  Allocations marked (68k/Atari) apply to Linux/68k on
  21the Atari platform only.
  22
  23The symbol {2.6} means the allocation is obsolete and scheduled for
  24removal once kernel version 2.6 (or equivalent) is released.
  25
  26This document is in the public domain.  The author requests, however,
  27that semantically altered versions are not distributed without
  28permission of the author, assuming the author can be contacted without
  29an unreasonable effort.
  30
  31In particular, please don't sent patches for this list to Linus, at
  32least not without contacting me first.
  33
  34I do not have any information about these devices beyond what appears
  35on this list.  Any such information requests will be deleted without
  36reply.
  37
  38
  39          **** DEVICE DRIVERS AUTHORS PLEASE READ THIS ****
  40
  41To have a major number allocated, or a minor number in situations
  42where that applies (e.g. busmice), please contact me with the
  43appropriate device information.  Also, if you have additional
  44information regarding any of the devices listed below, or if I have
  45made a mistake, I would greatly appreciate a note.
  46
  47I do, however, make a few requests about the nature of your report.
  48This is necessary for me to be able to keep this list up to date and
  49correct in a timely manner.  First of all, *please* send it to the
  50correct address... <device@lanana.org>.  I receive hundreds of email
  51messages a day, so mail sent to other addresses may very well get lost
  52in the avalanche.  Please put in a descriptive subject, so I can find
  53your mail again should I need to.  Too many people send me email
  54saying just "device number request" in the subject.
  55
  56Second, please include a description of the device *in the same format
  57as this list*.  The reason for this is that it is the only way I have
  58found to ensure I have all the requisite information to publish your
  59device and avoid conflicts.
  60
  61Third, please don't assume that the distributed version of the list is
  62up to date.  Due to the number of registrations I have to maintain it
  63in "batch mode", so there is likely additional registrations that
  64haven't been listed yet.
  65
  66Finally, sometimes I have to play "namespace police."  Please don't be
  67offended.  I often get submissions for /dev names that would be bound
  68to cause conflicts down the road.  I am trying to avoid getting in a
  69situation where we would have to suffer an incompatible forward
  70change.  Therefore, please consult with me *before* you make your
  71device names and numbers in any way public, at least to the point
  72where it would be at all difficult to get them changed.
  73
  74Your cooperation is appreciated.
  75
  76
  77  0             Unnamed devices (e.g. non-device mounts)
  78                  0 = reserved as null device number
  79
  80  1 char        Memory devices
  81                  1 = /dev/mem          Physical memory access
  82                  2 = /dev/kmem         Kernel virtual memory access
  83                  3 = /dev/null         Null device
  84                  4 = /dev/port         I/O port access
  85                  5 = /dev/zero         Null byte source
  86                  6 = /dev/core         OBSOLETE - replaced by /proc/kcore
  87                  7 = /dev/full         Returns ENOSPC on write
  88                  8 = /dev/random       Nondeterministic random number gen.
  89                  9 = /dev/urandom      Faster, less secure random number gen.
  90                 10 = /dev/aio          Asyncronous I/O notification interface
  91    block       RAM disk
  92                  0 = /dev/ram0         First RAM disk
  93                  1 = /dev/ram1         Second RAM disk
  94                    ...
  95                250 = /dev/initrd       Initial RAM disk {2.6}
  96
  97                Older kernels had /dev/ramdisk (1, 1) here.
  98                /dev/initrd refers to a RAM disk which was preloaded
  99                by the boot loader; newer kernels use /dev/ram0 for
 100                the initrd.
 101
 102  2 char        Pseudo-TTY masters
 103                  0 = /dev/ptyp0        First PTY master
 104                  1 = /dev/ptyp1        Second PTY master
 105                    ...
 106                255 = /dev/ptyef        256th PTY master
 107
 108                Pseudo-tty's are named as follows:
 109                * Masters are "pty", slaves are "tty";
 110                * the fourth letter is one of pqrstuvwxyzabcde indicating
 111                  the 1st through 16th series of 16 pseudo-ttys each, and
 112                * the fifth letter is one of 0123456789abcdef indicating
 113                  the position within the series.
 114
 115                These are the old-style (BSD) PTY devices; Unix98
 116                devices are on major 128 and above and use the PTY
 117                master multiplex (/dev/ptmx) to acquire a PTY on
 118                demand.
 119  
 120    block       Floppy disks
 121                  0 = /dev/fd0          Controller 0, drive 0, autodetect
 122                  1 = /dev/fd1          Controller 0, drive 1, autodetect
 123                  2 = /dev/fd2          Controller 0, drive 2, autodetect
 124                  3 = /dev/fd3          Controller 0, drive 3, autodetect
 125                128 = /dev/fd4          Controller 1, drive 0, autodetect
 126                129 = /dev/fd5          Controller 1, drive 1, autodetect
 127                130 = /dev/fd6          Controller 1, drive 2, autodetect
 128                131 = /dev/fd7          Controller 1, drive 3, autodetect
 129
 130                To specify format, add to the autodetect device number:
 131                  0 = /dev/fd?          Autodetect format
 132                  4 = /dev/fd?d360      5.25"  360K in a 360K  drive(1)
 133                 20 = /dev/fd?h360      5.25"  360K in a 1200K drive(1)
 134                 48 = /dev/fd?h410      5.25"  410K in a 1200K drive
 135                 64 = /dev/fd?h420      5.25"  420K in a 1200K drive
 136                 24 = /dev/fd?h720      5.25"  720K in a 1200K drive
 137                 80 = /dev/fd?h880      5.25"  880K in a 1200K drive(1)
 138                  8 = /dev/fd?h1200     5.25" 1200K in a 1200K drive(1)
 139                 40 = /dev/fd?h1440     5.25" 1440K in a 1200K drive(1)
 140                 56 = /dev/fd?h1476     5.25" 1476K in a 1200K drive
 141                 72 = /dev/fd?h1494     5.25" 1494K in a 1200K drive
 142                 92 = /dev/fd?h1600     5.25" 1600K in a 1200K drive(1)
 143
 144                 12 = /dev/fd?u360      3.5"   360K Double Density(2)
 145                 16 = /dev/fd?u720      3.5"   720K Double Density(1)
 146                120 = /dev/fd?u800      3.5"   800K Double Density(2)
 147                 52 = /dev/fd?u820      3.5"   820K Double Density
 148                 68 = /dev/fd?u830      3.5"   830K Double Density
 149                 84 = /dev/fd?u1040     3.5"  1040K Double Density(1)
 150                 88 = /dev/fd?u1120     3.5"  1120K Double Density(1)
 151                 28 = /dev/fd?u1440     3.5"  1440K High Density(1)
 152                124 = /dev/fd?u1600     3.5"  1600K High Density(1)
 153                 44 = /dev/fd?u1680     3.5"  1680K High Density(3)
 154                 60 = /dev/fd?u1722     3.5"  1722K High Density
 155                 76 = /dev/fd?u1743     3.5"  1743K High Density
 156                 96 = /dev/fd?u1760     3.5"  1760K High Density
 157                116 = /dev/fd?u1840     3.5"  1840K High Density(3)
 158                100 = /dev/fd?u1920     3.5"  1920K High Density(1)
 159                 32 = /dev/fd?u2880     3.5"  2880K Extra Density(1)
 160                104 = /dev/fd?u3200     3.5"  3200K Extra Density
 161                108 = /dev/fd?u3520     3.5"  3520K Extra Density
 162                112 = /dev/fd?u3840     3.5"  3840K Extra Density(1)
 163
 164                 36 = /dev/fd?CompaQ    Compaq 2880K drive; obsolete?
 165
 166                (1) Autodetectable format
 167                (2) Autodetectable format in a Double Density (720K) drive only
 168                (3) Autodetectable format in a High Density (1440K) drive only
 169
 170                NOTE: The letter in the device name (d, q, h or u)
 171                signifies the type of drive: 5.25" Double Density (d),
 172                5.25" Quad Density (q), 5.25" High Density (h) or 3.5"
 173                (any model, u).  The use of the capital letters D, H
 174                and E for the 3.5" models have been deprecated, since
 175                the drive type is insignificant for these devices.
 176
 177  3 char        Pseudo-TTY slaves
 178                  0 = /dev/ttyp0        First PTY slave
 179                  1 = /dev/ttyp1        Second PTY slave
 180                    ...
 181                255 = /dev/ttyef        256th PTY slave
 182
 183                These are the old-style (BSD) PTY devices; Unix98
 184                devices are on major 136 and above.
 185
 186    block       First MFM, RLL and IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
 187                  0 = /dev/hda          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 188                 64 = /dev/hdb          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 189
 190                For partitions, add to the whole disk device number:
 191                  0 = /dev/hd?          Whole disk
 192                  1 = /dev/hd?1         First partition
 193                  2 = /dev/hd?2         Second partition
 194                    ...
 195                 63 = /dev/hd?63        63rd partition
 196
 197                For Linux/i386, partitions 1-4 are the primary
 198                partitions, and 5 and above are logical partitions.
 199                Other versions of Linux use partitioning schemes
 200                appropriate to their respective architectures.
 201
 202  4 char        TTY devices
 203                  0 = /dev/tty0         Current virtual console
 204
 205                  1 = /dev/tty1         First virtual console
 206                    ...
 207                 63 = /dev/tty63        63rd virtual console
 208                 64 = /dev/ttyS0        First UART serial port
 209                    ...
 210                255 = /dev/ttyS191      192nd UART serial port
 211
 212                UART serial ports refer to 8250/16450/16550 series devices.
 213
 214                Older versions of the Linux kernel used this major
 215                number for BSD PTY devices.  As of Linux 2.1.115, this
 216                is no longer supported.  Use major numbers 2 and 3.
 217
 218  5 char        Alternate TTY devices
 219                  0 = /dev/tty          Current TTY device
 220                  1 = /dev/console      System console
 221                  2 = /dev/ptmx         PTY master multiplex
 222                 64 = /dev/cua0         Callout device for ttyS0
 223                    ...
 224                255 = /dev/cua191       Callout device for ttyS191
 225
 226                (5,1) is /dev/console starting with Linux 2.1.71.  See
 227                the section on terminal devices for more information
 228                on /dev/console.
 229
 230  6 char        Parallel printer devices
 231                  0 = /dev/lp0          Parallel printer on parport0
 232                  1 = /dev/lp1          Parallel printer on parport1
 233                    ...
 234
 235                Current Linux kernels no longer have a fixed mapping
 236                between parallel ports and I/O addresses.  Instead,
 237                they are redirected through the parport multiplex layer.
 238
 239  7 char        Virtual console capture devices
 240                  0 = /dev/vcs          Current vc text contents
 241                  1 = /dev/vcs1         tty1 text contents
 242                    ...
 243                 63 = /dev/vcs63        tty63 text contents
 244                128 = /dev/vcsa         Current vc text/attribute contents
 245                129 = /dev/vcsa1        tty1 text/attribute contents
 246                    ...
 247                191 = /dev/vcsa63       tty63 text/attribute contents
 248        
 249                NOTE: These devices permit both read and write access.
 250
 251    block       Loopback devices
 252                  0 = /dev/loop0        First loopback device
 253                  1 = /dev/loop1        Second loopback device
 254                    ...
 255
 256                The loopback devices are used to mount filesystems not
 257                associated with block devices.  The binding to the
 258                loopback devices is handled by mount(8) or losetup(8).
 259
 260  8 block       SCSI disk devices (0-15)
 261                  0 = /dev/sda          First SCSI disk whole disk
 262                 16 = /dev/sdb          Second SCSI disk whole disk
 263                 32 = /dev/sdc          Third SCSI disk whole disk
 264                    ...
 265                240 = /dev/sdp          Sixteenth SCSI disk whole disk
 266
 267                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
 268                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
 269                partitions is 15.
 270
 271  9 char        SCSI tape devices
 272                  0 = /dev/st0          First SCSI tape, mode 0
 273                  1 = /dev/st1          Second SCSI tape, mode 0
 274                    ...
 275                 32 = /dev/st0l         First SCSI tape, mode 1
 276                 33 = /dev/st1l         Second SCSI tape, mode 1
 277                    ...
 278                 64 = /dev/st0m         First SCSI tape, mode 2
 279                 65 = /dev/st1m         Second SCSI tape, mode 2
 280                    ...
 281                 96 = /dev/st0a         First SCSI tape, mode 3
 282                 97 = /dev/st1a         Second SCSI tape, mode 3
 283                      ...
 284                128 = /dev/nst0         First SCSI tape, mode 0, no rewind
 285                129 = /dev/nst1         Second SCSI tape, mode 0, no rewind
 286                    ...
 287                160 = /dev/nst0l        First SCSI tape, mode 1, no rewind
 288                161 = /dev/nst1l        Second SCSI tape, mode 1, no rewind
 289                    ...
 290                192 = /dev/nst0m        First SCSI tape, mode 2, no rewind
 291                193 = /dev/nst1m        Second SCSI tape, mode 2, no rewind
 292                    ...
 293                224 = /dev/nst0a        First SCSI tape, mode 3, no rewind
 294                225 = /dev/nst1a        Second SCSI tape, mode 3, no rewind
 295                    ...
 296
 297                "No rewind" refers to the omission of the default
 298                automatic rewind on device close.  The MTREW or MTOFFL
 299                ioctl()'s can be used to rewind the tape regardless of
 300                the device used to access it.
 301
 302    block       Metadisk (RAID) devices
 303                  0 = /dev/md0          First metadisk group
 304                  1 = /dev/md1          Second metadisk group
 305                    ...
 306
 307                The metadisk driver is used to span a
 308                filesystem across multiple physical disks.
 309
 310 10 char        Non-serial mice, misc features
 311                  0 = /dev/logibm       Logitech bus mouse
 312                  1 = /dev/psaux        PS/2-style mouse port
 313                  2 = /dev/inportbm     Microsoft Inport bus mouse
 314                  3 = /dev/atibm        ATI XL bus mouse
 315                  4 = /dev/jbm          J-mouse
 316                  4 = /dev/amigamouse   Amiga mouse (68k/Amiga)
 317                  5 = /dev/atarimouse   Atari mouse
 318                  6 = /dev/sunmouse     Sun mouse
 319                  7 = /dev/amigamouse1  Second Amiga mouse
 320                  8 = /dev/smouse       Simple serial mouse driver
 321                  9 = /dev/pc110pad     IBM PC-110 digitizer pad
 322                 10 = /dev/adbmouse     Apple Desktop Bus mouse
 323                 11 = /dev/vrtpanel     Vr41xx embedded touch panel
 324                 13 = /dev/vpcmouse     Connectix Virtual PC Mouse
 325                 14 = /dev/touchscreen/ucb1x00  UCB 1x00 touchscreen
 326                 15 = /dev/touchscreen/mk712    MK712 touchscreen
 327                128 = /dev/beep         Fancy beep device
 328                129 = /dev/modreq       Kernel module load request {2.6}
 329                130 = /dev/watchdog     Watchdog timer port
 330                131 = /dev/temperature  Machine internal temperature
 331                132 = /dev/hwtrap       Hardware fault trap
 332                133 = /dev/exttrp       External device trap
 333                134 = /dev/apm_bios     Advanced Power Management BIOS
 334                135 = /dev/rtc          Real Time Clock
 335                139 = /dev/openprom     SPARC OpenBoot PROM
 336                140 = /dev/relay8       Berkshire Products Octal relay card
 337                141 = /dev/relay16      Berkshire Products ISO-16 relay card
 338                142 = /dev/msr          x86 model-specific registers {2.6}
 339                143 = /dev/pciconf      PCI configuration space
 340                144 = /dev/nvram        Non-volatile configuration RAM
 341                145 = /dev/hfmodem      Soundcard shortwave modem control {2.6}
 342                146 = /dev/graphics     Linux/SGI graphics device
 343                147 = /dev/opengl       Linux/SGI OpenGL pipe
 344                148 = /dev/gfx          Linux/SGI graphics effects device
 345                149 = /dev/input/mouse  Linux/SGI Irix emulation mouse
 346                150 = /dev/input/keyboard Linux/SGI Irix emulation keyboard
 347                151 = /dev/led          Front panel LEDs
 348                153 = /dev/mergemem     Memory merge device
 349                154 = /dev/pmu          Macintosh PowerBook power manager
 350                155 = /dev/isictl       MultiTech ISICom serial control
 351                156 = /dev/lcd          Front panel LCD display
 352                157 = /dev/ac           Applicom Intl Profibus card
 353                158 = /dev/nwbutton     Netwinder external button
 354                159 = /dev/nwdebug      Netwinder debug interface
 355                160 = /dev/nwflash      Netwinder flash memory
 356                161 = /dev/userdma      User-space DMA access
 357                162 = /dev/smbus        System Management Bus
 358                163 = /dev/lik          Logitech Internet Keyboard
 359                164 = /dev/ipmo         Intel Intelligent Platform Management
 360                165 = /dev/vmmon        VMWare virtual machine monitor
 361                166 = /dev/i2o/ctl      I2O configuration manager
 362                167 = /dev/specialix_sxctl Specialix serial control
 363                168 = /dev/tcldrv       Technology Concepts serial control
 364                169 = /dev/specialix_rioctl Specialix RIO serial control
 365                170 = /dev/smapi        IBM Thinkpad SMAPI
 366                171 = /dev/srripc       QNX4 API IPC manager
 367                172 = /dev/usemaclone   Semaphore clone device
 368                173 = /dev/ipmikcs      Intelligent Platform Management
 369                174 = /dev/uctrl        SPARCbook 3 microcontroller
 370                175 = /dev/agpgart      AGP Graphics Address Remapping Table
 371                176 = /dev/gtrsc        Gorgy Timing radio clock
 372                177 = /dev/cbm          Serial CBM bus
 373                178 = /dev/jsflash      JavaStation OS flash SIMM
 374                179 = /dev/xsvc         High-speed shared-mem/semaphore service
 375                180 = /dev/vrbuttons    Vr41xx button input device
 376                181 = /dev/toshiba      Toshiba laptop SMM support
 377                182 = /dev/perfctr      Performance-monitoring counters
 378                183 = /dev/intel_rng    Intel i8x0 random number generator
 379                184 = /dev/cpu/microcode CPU microcode update interface
 380                186 = /dev/atomicps     Atomic shapshot of process state data
 381                187 = /dev/irnet        IrNET device
 382                188 = /dev/smbusbios    SMBus BIOS
 383                189 = /dev/ussp_ctl     User space serial port control
 384                190 = /dev/crash        Mission Critical Linux crash dump facility
 385                191 = /dev/pcl181       <information missing>
 386                192 = /dev/nas_xbus     NAS xbus LCD/buttons access
 387                193 = /dev/d7s          SPARC 7-segment display
 388                194 = /dev/zkshim       Zero-Knowledge network shim control
 389                195 = /dev/elographics/e2201    Elographics touchscreen E271-2201
 390                198 = /dev/sexec        Signed executable interface
 391                199 = /dev/scanners/cuecat :CueCat barcode scanner
 392                200 = /dev/net/tun      TAP/TUN network device
 393                201 = /dev/button/gulpb Transmeta GULP-B buttons
 394                204 = /dev/video/em8300     EM8300 DVD decoder control
 395                205 = /dev/video/em8300_mv  EM8300 DVD decoder video
 396                206 = /dev/video/em8300_ma  EM8300 DVD decoder audio
 397                207 = /dev/video/em8300_sp  EM8300 DVD decoder subpicture
 398                208 = /dev/compaq/cpqphpc Compaq PCI Hot Plug Controller
 399                209 = /dev/compaq/cpqrid  Compaq Remote Insight Driver
 400                240-255                 Reserved for local use
 401
 402 11 char        Raw keyboard device
 403                  0 = /dev/kbd          Raw keyboard device
 404
 405                The raw keyboard device is used on Linux/SPARC only.
 406
 407    block       SCSI CD-ROM devices
 408                  0 = /dev/sr0          First SCSI CD-ROM
 409                  1 = /dev/sr1          Second SCSI CD-ROM
 410                    ...
 411
 412                The prefix /dev/scd instead of /dev/sr has been used
 413                as well, and might make more sense.
 414
 415 12 char        QIC-02 tape
 416                  2 = /dev/ntpqic11     QIC-11, no rewind-on-close
 417                  3 = /dev/tpqic11      QIC-11, rewind-on-close
 418                  4 = /dev/ntpqic24     QIC-24, no rewind-on-close
 419                  5 = /dev/tpqic24      QIC-24, rewind-on-close
 420                  6 = /dev/ntpqic120    QIC-120, no rewind-on-close
 421                  7 = /dev/tpqic120     QIC-120, rewind-on-close
 422                  8 = /dev/ntpqic150    QIC-150, no rewind-on-close
 423                  9 = /dev/tpqic150     QIC-150, rewind-on-close
 424
 425                The device names specified are proposed -- if there
 426                are "standard" names for these devices, please let me know.
 427
 428    block       MSCDEX CD-ROM callback support {2.6}
 429                  0 = /dev/dos_cd0      First MSCDEX CD-ROM
 430                  1 = /dev/dos_cd1      Second MSCDEX CD-ROM
 431                    ...
 432
 433 13 char        PC speaker (OBSOLETE)
 434                  0 = /dev/pcmixer      Emulates /dev/mixer
 435                  1 = /dev/pcsp         Emulates /dev/dsp (8-bit)
 436                  4 = /dev/pcaudio      Emulates /dev/audio
 437                  5 = /dev/pcsp16       Emulates /dev/dsp (16-bit)
 438
 439                The current PC speaker driver uses the Open Sound
 440                System interface, and these devices are obsolete.
 441
 442    block       8-bit MFM/RLL/IDE controller
 443                  0 = /dev/xda          First XT disk whole disk
 444                 64 = /dev/xdb          Second XT disk whole disk
 445
 446                Partitions are handled in the same way as IDE disks
 447                (see major number 3).
 448
 449 14 char        Open Sound System (OSS)
 450                  0 = /dev/mixer        Mixer control
 451                  1 = /dev/sequencer    Audio sequencer
 452                  2 = /dev/midi00       First MIDI port
 453                  3 = /dev/dsp          Digital audio
 454                  4 = /dev/audio        Sun-compatible digital audio
 455                  6 = /dev/sndstat      Sound card status information {2.6}
 456                  7 = /dev/audioctl     SPARC audio control device
 457                  8 = /dev/sequencer2   Sequencer -- alternate device
 458                 16 = /dev/mixer1       Second soundcard mixer control
 459                 17 = /dev/patmgr0      Sequencer patch manager
 460                 18 = /dev/midi01       Second MIDI port
 461                 19 = /dev/dsp1         Second soundcard digital audio
 462                 20 = /dev/audio1       Second soundcard Sun digital audio
 463                 33 = /dev/patmgr1      Sequencer patch manager
 464                 34 = /dev/midi02       Third MIDI port
 465                 50 = /dev/midi03       Fourth MIDI port
 466    block       BIOS harddrive callback support {2.6}
 467                  0 = /dev/dos_hda      First BIOS harddrive whole disk
 468                 64 = /dev/dos_hdb      Second BIOS harddrive whole disk
 469                128 = /dev/dos_hdc      Third BIOS harddrive whole disk
 470                192 = /dev/dos_hdd      Fourth BIOS harddrive whole disk
 471
 472                Partitions are handled in the same way as IDE disks
 473                (see major number 3).
 474
 475 15 char        Joystick
 476                  0 = /dev/js0          First analog joystick
 477                  1 = /dev/js1          Second analog joystick
 478                    ...
 479                128 = /dev/djs0         First digital joystick
 480                129 = /dev/djs1         Second digital joystick
 481                    ...
 482    block       Sony CDU-31A/CDU-33A CD-ROM
 483                  0 = /dev/sonycd       Sony CDU-31a CD-ROM
 484
 485 16 char        Non-SCSI scanners
 486                  0 = /dev/gs4500       Genius 4500 handheld scanner
 487    block       GoldStar CD-ROM
 488                  0 = /dev/gscd         GoldStar CD-ROM
 489
 490 17 char        Chase serial card
 491                  0 = /dev/ttyH0        First Chase port
 492                  1 = /dev/ttyH1        Second Chase port
 493                    ...
 494    block       Optics Storage CD-ROM
 495                  0 = /dev/optcd        Optics Storage CD-ROM
 496
 497 18 char        Chase serial card - alternate devices
 498                  0 = /dev/cuh0         Callout device for ttyH0
 499                  1 = /dev/cuh1         Callout device for ttyH1
 500                    ...
 501    block       Sanyo CD-ROM
 502                  0 = /dev/sjcd         Sanyo CD-ROM
 503
 504 19 char        Cyclades serial card
 505                  0 = /dev/ttyC0        First Cyclades port
 506                    ...
 507                 31 = /dev/ttyC31       32nd Cyclades port
 508    block       "Double" compressed disk
 509                  0 = /dev/double0      First compressed disk
 510                    ...
 511                  7 = /dev/double7      Eighth compressed disk
 512                128 = /dev/cdouble0     Mirror of first compressed disk
 513                    ...
 514                135 = /dev/cdouble7     Mirror of eighth compressed disk
 515
 516                See the Double documentation for the meaning of the
 517                mirror devices.
 518
 519 20 char        Cyclades serial card - alternate devices
 520                  0 = /dev/cub0         Callout device for ttyC0
 521                    ...
 522                 31 = /dev/cub31        Callout device for ttyC31
 523    block       Hitachi CD-ROM (under development)
 524                  0 = /dev/hitcd        Hitachi CD-ROM
 525
 526 21 char        Generic SCSI access
 527                  0 = /dev/sg0          First generic SCSI device
 528                  1 = /dev/sg1          Second generic SCSI device
 529                    ...
 530
 531                Most distributions name these /dev/sga, /dev/sgb...;
 532                this sets an unnecessary limit of 26 SCSI devices in
 533                the system and is counter to standard Linux
 534                device-naming practice.
 535
 536    block       Acorn MFM hard drive interface
 537                  0 = /dev/mfma         First MFM drive whole disk
 538                 64 = /dev/mfmb         Second MFM drive whole disk
 539
 540                This device is used on the ARM-based Acorn RiscPC.
 541                Partitions are handled the same way as for IDE disks
 542                (see major number 3). 
 543
 544 22 char        Digiboard serial card
 545                  0 = /dev/ttyD0        First Digiboard port
 546                  1 = /dev/ttyD1        Second Digiboard port
 547                    ...
 548    block       Second IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
 549                  0 = /dev/hdc          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 550                 64 = /dev/hdd          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 551                
 552                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
 553                interface (see major number 3).
 554
 555 23 char        Digiboard serial card - alternate devices
 556                  0 = /dev/cud0         Callout device for ttyD0
 557                  1 = /dev/cud1         Callout device for ttyD1
 558                      ...
 559    block       Mitsumi proprietary CD-ROM
 560                  0 = /dev/mcd          Mitsumi CD-ROM
 561
 562 24 char        Stallion serial card
 563                  0 = /dev/ttyE0        Stallion port 0 card 0
 564                  1 = /dev/ttyE1        Stallion port 1 card 0
 565                    ...
 566                 64 = /dev/ttyE64       Stallion port 0 card 1
 567                 65 = /dev/ttyE65       Stallion port 1 card 1
 568                      ...
 569                128 = /dev/ttyE128      Stallion port 0 card 2
 570                129 = /dev/ttyE129      Stallion port 1 card 2
 571                    ...
 572                192 = /dev/ttyE192      Stallion port 0 card 3
 573                193 = /dev/ttyE193      Stallion port 1 card 3
 574                    ...
 575    block       Sony CDU-535 CD-ROM
 576                  0 = /dev/cdu535       Sony CDU-535 CD-ROM
 577
 578 25 char        Stallion serial card - alternate devices
 579                  0 = /dev/cue0         Callout device for ttyE0
 580                  1 = /dev/cue1         Callout device for ttyE1
 581                    ...
 582                 64 = /dev/cue64        Callout device for ttyE64
 583                 65 = /dev/cue65        Callout device for ttyE65
 584                    ...
 585                128 = /dev/cue128       Callout device for ttyE128
 586                129 = /dev/cue129       Callout device for ttyE129
 587                    ...
 588                192 = /dev/cue192       Callout device for ttyE192
 589                193 = /dev/cue193       Callout device for ttyE193
 590                      ...
 591    block       First Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM
 592                  0 = /dev/sbpcd0       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 0 unit 0
 593                  1 = /dev/sbpcd1       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 0 unit 1
 594                  2 = /dev/sbpcd2       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 0 unit 2
 595                  3 = /dev/sbpcd3       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 0 unit 3
 596
 597 26 char        Quanta WinVision frame grabber {2.6}
 598                  0 = /dev/wvisfgrab    Quanta WinVision frame grabber
 599    block       Second Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM
 600                  0 = /dev/sbpcd4       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 1 unit 0
 601                  1 = /dev/sbpcd5       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 1 unit 1
 602                  2 = /dev/sbpcd6       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 1 unit 2
 603                  3 = /dev/sbpcd7       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 1 unit 3
 604
 605 27 char        QIC-117 tape
 606                  0 = /dev/qft0         Unit 0, rewind-on-close
 607                  1 = /dev/qft1         Unit 1, rewind-on-close
 608                  2 = /dev/qft2         Unit 2, rewind-on-close
 609                  3 = /dev/qft3         Unit 3, rewind-on-close
 610                  4 = /dev/nqft0        Unit 0, no rewind-on-close
 611                  5 = /dev/nqft1        Unit 1, no rewind-on-close
 612                  6 = /dev/nqft2        Unit 2, no rewind-on-close
 613                  7 = /dev/nqft3        Unit 3, no rewind-on-close
 614                 16 = /dev/zqft0        Unit 0, rewind-on-close, compression
 615                 17 = /dev/zqft1        Unit 1, rewind-on-close, compression
 616                 18 = /dev/zqft2        Unit 2, rewind-on-close, compression
 617                 19 = /dev/zqft3        Unit 3, rewind-on-close, compression
 618                 20 = /dev/nzqft0       Unit 0, no rewind-on-close, compression
 619                 21 = /dev/nzqft1       Unit 1, no rewind-on-close, compression
 620                 22 = /dev/nzqft2       Unit 2, no rewind-on-close, compression
 621                 23 = /dev/nzqft3       Unit 3, no rewind-on-close, compression
 622                 32 = /dev/rawqft0      Unit 0, rewind-on-close, no file marks
 623                 33 = /dev/rawqft1      Unit 1, rewind-on-close, no file marks
 624                 34 = /dev/rawqft2      Unit 2, rewind-on-close, no file marks
 625                 35 = /dev/rawqft3      Unit 3, rewind-on-close, no file marks
 626                 36 = /dev/nrawqft0     Unit 0, no rewind-on-close, no file marks
 627                 37 = /dev/nrawqft1     Unit 1, no rewind-on-close, no file marks
 628                 38 = /dev/nrawqft2     Unit 2, no rewind-on-close, no file marks
 629                 39 = /dev/nrawqft3     Unit 3, no rewind-on-close, no file marks
 630    block       Third Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM
 631                  0 = /dev/sbpcd8       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 2 unit 0
 632                  1 = /dev/sbpcd9       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 2 unit 1
 633                  2 = /dev/sbpcd10      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 2 unit 2
 634                  3 = /dev/sbpcd11      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 2 unit 3
 635
 636 28 char        Stallion serial card - card programming
 637                  0 = /dev/staliomem0   First Stallion card I/O memory
 638                  1 = /dev/staliomem1   Second Stallion card I/O memory
 639                  2 = /dev/staliomem2   Third Stallion card I/O memory
 640                  3 = /dev/staliomem3   Fourth Stallion card I/O memory
 641    char        Atari SLM ACSI laser printer (68k/Atari)
 642                  0 = /dev/slm0         First SLM laser printer
 643                  1 = /dev/slm1         Second SLM laser printer
 644                    ...
 645    block       Fourth Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM
 646                  0 = /dev/sbpcd12      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 3 unit 0
 647                  1 = /dev/sbpcd13      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 3 unit 1
 648                  2 = /dev/sbpcd14      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 3 unit 2
 649                  3 = /dev/sbpcd15      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 3 unit 3
 650    block       ACSI disk (68k/Atari)
 651                  0 = /dev/ada          First ACSI disk whole disk
 652                 16 = /dev/adb          Second ACSI disk whole disk
 653                 32 = /dev/adc          Third ACSI disk whole disk
 654                    ...
 655                240 = /dev/adp          16th ACSI disk whole disk
 656
 657                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
 658                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
 659                partitions is 15, like SCSI.
 660
 661 29 char        Universal frame buffer
 662                  0 = /dev/fb0          First frame buffer
 663                 32 = /dev/fb1          Second frame buffer
 664                    ...
 665                224 = /dev/fb7          Eighth frame buffer
 666
 667                All additional minor numbers are reserved.
 668
 669    block       Aztech/Orchid/Okano/Wearnes CD-ROM
 670                  0 = /dev/aztcd        Aztech CD-ROM
 671
 672 30 char        iBCS-2 compatibility devices
 673                  0 = /dev/socksys      Socket access
 674                  1 = /dev/spx          SVR3 local X interface
 675                  2 = /dev/inet/arp     Network access
 676                  2 = /dev/inet/icmp    Network access
 677                  2 = /dev/inet/ip      Network access
 678                  2 = /dev/inet/udp     Network access
 679                  2 = /dev/inet/tcp     Network access
 680
 681                Additionally, iBCS-2 requires /dev/nfsd to be a link
 682                to /dev/socksys, and /dev/X0R to be a link to
 683                /dev/null.
 684
 685    block       Philips LMS CM-205 CD-ROM
 686                  0 = /dev/cm205cd      Philips LMS CM-205 CD-ROM
 687
 688                /dev/lmscd is an older name for this device.  This
 689                driver does not work with the CM-205MS CD-ROM.
 690
 691 31 char        MPU-401 MIDI
 692                  0 = /dev/mpu401data   MPU-401 data port
 693                  1 = /dev/mpu401stat   MPU-401 status port
 694    block       ROM/flash memory card
 695                  0 = /dev/rom0         First ROM card (rw)
 696                      ...
 697                  7 = /dev/rom7         Eighth ROM card (rw)
 698                  8 = /dev/rrom0        First ROM card (ro)
 699                    ...
 700                 15 = /dev/rrom7        Eighth ROM card (ro)
 701                 16 = /dev/flash0       First flash memory card (rw)
 702                    ...
 703                 23 = /dev/flash7       Eighth flash memory card (rw)
 704                 24 = /dev/rflash0      First flash memory card (ro)
 705                    ...
 706                 31 = /dev/rflash7      Eighth flash memory card (ro)
 707
 708                The read-write (rw) devices support back-caching
 709                written data in RAM, as well as writing to flash RAM
 710                devices.  The read-only devices (ro) support reading
 711                only.
 712
 713 32 char        Specialix serial card
 714                  0 = /dev/ttyX0        First Specialix port
 715                  1 = /dev/ttyX1        Second Specialix port
 716                    ...
 717    block       Philips LMS CM-206 CD-ROM
 718                  0 = /dev/cm206cd      Philips LMS CM-206 CD-ROM
 719
 720 33 char        Specialix serial card - alternate devices
 721                  0 = /dev/cux0         Callout device for ttyX0
 722                  1 = /dev/cux1         Callout device for ttyX1
 723                    ...
 724    block       Third IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
 725                  0 = /dev/hde          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 726                 64 = /dev/hdf          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 727
 728                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
 729                interface (see major number 3).
 730
 731 34 char        Z8530 HDLC driver
 732                  0 = /dev/scc0         First Z8530, first port
 733                  1 = /dev/scc1         First Z8530, second port
 734                  2 = /dev/scc2         Second Z8530, first port
 735                  3 = /dev/scc3         Second Z8530, second port
 736                    ...
 737
 738                In a previous version these devices were named
 739                /dev/sc1 for /dev/scc0, /dev/sc2 for /dev/scc1, and so
 740                on.
 741
 742    block       Fourth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
 743                  0 = /dev/hdg          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 744                 64 = /dev/hdh          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 745                
 746                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
 747                interface (see major number 3).
 748
 749 35 char        tclmidi MIDI driver
 750                  0 = /dev/midi0        First MIDI port, kernel timed
 751                  1 = /dev/midi1        Second MIDI port, kernel timed
 752                  2 = /dev/midi2        Third MIDI port, kernel timed
 753                  3 = /dev/midi3        Fourth MIDI port, kernel timed
 754                 64 = /dev/rmidi0       First MIDI port, untimed
 755                 65 = /dev/rmidi1       Second MIDI port, untimed
 756                 66 = /dev/rmidi2       Third MIDI port, untimed
 757                 67 = /dev/rmidi3       Fourth MIDI port, untimed
 758                128 = /dev/smpte0       First MIDI port, SMPTE timed
 759                129 = /dev/smpte1       Second MIDI port, SMPTE timed
 760                130 = /dev/smpte2       Third MIDI port, SMPTE timed
 761                131 = /dev/smpte3       Fourth MIDI port, SMPTE timed
 762    block       Slow memory ramdisk
 763                  0 = /dev/slram        Slow memory ramdisk
 764
 765 36 char        Netlink support
 766                  0 = /dev/route        Routing, device updates, kernel to user
 767                  1 = /dev/skip         enSKIP security cache control
 768                  3 = /dec/fwmonitor    Firewall packet copies
 769                 16 = /dev/tap0         First Ethertap device
 770                    ...
 771                 31 = /dev/tap15        16th Ethertap device
 772    block       MCA ESDI hard disk
 773                  0 = /dev/eda          First ESDI disk whole disk
 774                 64 = /dev/edb          Second ESDI disk whole disk
 775                    ...
 776
 777                Partitions are handled in the same way as IDE disks
 778                (see major number 3).
 779
 780 37 char        IDE tape
 781                  0 = /dev/ht0          First IDE tape
 782                  1 = /dev/ht1          Second IDE tape
 783                    ...
 784                128 = /dev/nht0         First IDE tape, no rewind-on-close
 785                129 = /dev/nht1         Second IDE tape, no rewind-on-close
 786                    ...
 787
 788                Currently, only one IDE tape drive is supported.
 789
 790    block       Zorro II ramdisk
 791                  0 = /dev/z2ram        Zorro II ramdisk
 792
 793 38 char        Myricom PCI Myrinet board
 794                  0 = /dev/mlanai0      First Myrinet board
 795                  1 = /dev/mlanai1      Second Myrinet board
 796                    ...
 797
 798                This device is used for status query, board control
 799                and "user level packet I/O."  This board is also
 800                accessible as a standard networking "eth" device.
 801
 802    block       Reserved for Linux/AP+
 803
 804 39 char        ML-16P experimental I/O board
 805                  0 = /dev/ml16pa-a0    First card, first analog channel
 806                  1 = /dev/ml16pa-a1    First card, second analog channel
 807                    ...
 808                 15 = /dev/ml16pa-a15   First card, 16th analog channel
 809                 16 = /dev/ml16pa-d     First card, digital lines
 810                 17 = /dev/ml16pa-c0    First card, first counter/timer
 811                 18 = /dev/ml16pa-c1    First card, second counter/timer
 812                 19 = /dev/ml16pa-c2    First card, third counter/timer
 813                 32 = /dev/ml16pb-a0    Second card, first analog channel
 814                 33 = /dev/ml16pb-a1    Second card, second analog channel
 815                    ...
 816                 47 = /dev/ml16pb-a15   Second card, 16th analog channel
 817                 48 = /dev/ml16pb-d     Second card, digital lines
 818                 49 = /dev/ml16pb-c0    Second card, first counter/timer
 819                 50 = /dev/ml16pb-c1    Second card, second counter/timer
 820                 51 = /dev/ml16pb-c2    Second card, third counter/timer
 821                      ...
 822    block       Reserved for Linux/AP+
 823
 824 40 char        Matrox Meteor frame grabber {2.6}
 825                  0 = /dev/mmetfgrab    Matrox Meteor frame grabber
 826    block       Syquest EZ135 parallel port removable drive
 827                  0 = /dev/eza          Parallel EZ135 drive, whole disk
 828
 829                This device is obsolete and will be removed in a
 830                future version of Linux.  It has been replaced with
 831                the parallel port IDE disk driver at major number 45.
 832                Partitions are handled in the same way as IDE disks
 833                (see major number 3).
 834
 835 41 char        Yet Another Micro Monitor
 836                  0 = /dev/yamm         Yet Another Micro Monitor
 837    block       MicroSolutions BackPack parallel port CD-ROM
 838                  0 = /dev/bpcd         BackPack CD-ROM
 839
 840                This device is obsolete and will be removed in a
 841                future version of Linux.  It has been replaced with
 842                the parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM driver at major number 46.
 843
 844 42             Demo/sample use
 845
 846                This number is intended for use in sample code, as
 847                well as a general "example" device number.  It
 848                should never be used for a device driver that is being
 849                distributed; either obtain an official number or use
 850                the local/experimental range.  The sudden addition or
 851                removal of a driver with this number should not cause
 852                ill effects to the system (bugs excepted.)
 853
 854                IN PARTICULAR, ANY DISTRIBUTION WHICH CONTAINS A
 855                DEVICE DRIVER USING MAJOR NUMBER 42 IS NONCOMPLIANT.
 856
 857 43 char        isdn4linux virtual modem
 858                  0 = /dev/ttyI0        First virtual modem
 859                    ...
 860                 63 = /dev/ttyI63       64th virtual modem
 861    block       Network block devices
 862                  0 = /dev/nb0          First network block device
 863                  1 = /dev/nb1          Second network block device
 864                    ...
 865
 866                Network Block Device is somehow similar to loopback
 867                devices: If you read from it, it sends packet accross
 868                network asking server for data. If you write to it, it
 869                sends packet telling server to write. It could be used
 870                to mounting filesystems over the net, swapping over
 871                the net, implementing block device in userland etc.
 872
 873 44 char        isdn4linux virtual modem - alternate devices
 874                  0 = /dev/cui0         Callout device for ttyI0
 875                    ...
 876                 63 = /dev/cui63        Callout device for ttyI63
 877    block       Flash Translatio Layer (FTL) filesystems
 878                  0 = /dev/ftla         FTL on first Memory Technology Device
 879                 16 = /dev/ftlb         FTL on second Memory Technology Device
 880                 32 = /dev/ftlc         FTL on third Memory Technology Device
 881                    ...
 882                240 = /dev/ftlp         FTL on 16th Memory Technology Device 
 883
 884                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
 885                disks (see major number 3) expect that the partition
 886                limit is 15 rather than 63 per disk (same as SCSI.)
 887
 888 45 char        isdn4linux ISDN BRI driver
 889                  0 = /dev/isdn0        First virtual B channel raw data
 890                    ...
 891                 63 = /dev/isdn63       64th virtual B channel raw data
 892                 64 = /dev/isdnctrl0    First channel control/debug
 893                    ...
 894                127 = /dev/isdnctrl63   64th channel control/debug
 895
 896                128 = /dev/ippp0        First SyncPPP device
 897                    ...
 898                191 = /dev/ippp63       64th SyncPPP device
 899
 900                255 = /dev/isdninfo     ISDN monitor interface
 901    block       Parallel port IDE disk devices
 902                  0 = /dev/pda          First parallel port IDE disk
 903                 16 = /dev/pdb          Second parallel port IDE disk
 904                 32 = /dev/pdc          Third parallel port IDE disk
 905                 48 = /dev/pdd          Fourth parallel port IDE disk
 906
 907                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
 908                disks (see major number 3) except that the partition
 909                limit is 15 rather than 63 per disk.
 910
 911 46 char        Comtrol Rocketport serial card
 912                  0 = /dev/ttyR0        First Rocketport port
 913                  1 = /dev/ttyR1        Second Rocketport port
 914                    ...
 915    block       Parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM devices
 916                  0 = /dev/pcd0         First parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM
 917                  1 = /dev/pcd1         Second parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM
 918                  2 = /dev/pcd2         Third parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM
 919                  3 = /dev/pcd3         Fourth parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM
 920
 921 47 char        Comtrol Rocketport serial card - alternate devices
 922                  0 = /dev/cur0         Callout device for ttyR0
 923                  1 = /dev/cur1         Callout device for ttyR1
 924                    ...
 925    block       Parallel port ATAPI disk devices
 926                  0 = /dev/pf0          First parallel port ATAPI disk
 927                  1 = /dev/pf1          Second parallel port ATAPI disk
 928                  2 = /dev/pf2          Third parallel port ATAPI disk
 929                  3 = /dev/pf3          Fourth parallel port ATAPI disk
 930
 931                This driver is intended for floppy disks and similar
 932                devices and hence does not support partitioning.
 933
 934 48 char        SDL RISCom serial card
 935                  0 = /dev/ttyL0        First RISCom port
 936                  1 = /dev/ttyL1        Second RISCom port
 937                    ...
 938    block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; first controller
 939                  0 = /dev/rd/c0d0      First disk, whole disk
 940                  8 = /dev/rd/c0d1      Second disk, whole disk
 941                    ...
 942                248 = /dev/rd/c0d15     16th disk, whole disk
 943
 944                For partitions add:
 945                  0 = /dev/rd/c?d?      Whole disk
 946                  1 = /dev/rd/c?d?p1    First partition
 947                    ...
 948                  7 = /dev/rd/c?d?p7    Seventh partition
 949
 950 49 char        SDL RISCom serial card - alternate devices
 951                  0 = /dev/cul0         Callout device for ttyL0
 952                  1 = /dev/cul1         Callout device for ttyL1
 953                    ...
 954    block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; second controller
 955                  0 = /dev/rd/c1d0      First disk, whole disk
 956                  8 = /dev/rd/c1d1      Second disk, whole disk
 957                    ...
 958                248 = /dev/rd/c1d15     16th disk, whole disk
 959
 960                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
 961
 962 50 char        Reserved for GLINT
 963
 964    block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; third controller
 965                  0 = /dev/rd/c2d0      First disk, whole disk
 966                  8 = /dev/rd/c2d1      Second disk, whole disk
 967                    ...
 968                248 = /dev/rd/c2d15     16th disk, whole disk
 969
 970 51 char        Baycom radio modem
 971                  0 = /dev/bc0          First Baycom radio modem
 972                  1 = /dev/bc1          Second Baycom radio modem
 973                    ...
 974    block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; fourth controller
 975                  0 = /dev/rd/c3d0      First disk, whole disk
 976                  8 = /dev/rd/c3d1      Second disk, whole disk
 977                    ...
 978                248 = /dev/rd/c3d15     16th disk, whole disk
 979
 980                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
 981
 982 52 char        Spellcaster DataComm/BRI ISDN card
 983                  0 = /dev/dcbri0       First DataComm card
 984                  1 = /dev/dcbri1       Second DataComm card
 985                  2 = /dev/dcbri2       Third DataComm card
 986                  3 = /dev/dcbri3       Fourth DataComm card
 987    block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; fifth controller
 988                  0 = /dev/rd/c4d0      First disk, whole disk
 989                  8 = /dev/rd/c4d1      Second disk, whole disk
 990                    ...
 991                248 = /dev/rd/c4d15     16th disk, whole disk
 992
 993                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
 994
 995 53 char        BDM interface for remote debugging MC683xx microcontrollers
 996                  0 = /dev/pd_bdm0      PD BDM interface on lp0
 997                  1 = /dev/pd_bdm1      PD BDM interface on lp1
 998                  2 = /dev/pd_bdm2      PD BDM interface on lp2
 999                  4 = /dev/icd_bdm0     ICD BDM interface on lp0
1000                  5 = /dev/icd_bdm1     ICD BDM interface on lp1
1001                  6 = /dev/icd_bdm2     ICD BDM interface on lp2
1002
1003                This device is used for the interfacing to the MC683xx
1004                microcontrollers via Background Debug Mode by use of a
1005                Parallel Port interface. PD is the Motorola Public
1006                Domain Interface and ICD is the commercial interface
1007                by P&E.
1008
1009    block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; sixth controller
1010                  0 = /dev/rd/c5d0      First disk, whole disk
1011                  8 = /dev/rd/c5d1      Second disk, whole disk
1012                    ...
1013                248 = /dev/rd/c5d15     16th disk, whole disk
1014
1015                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1016
1017 54 char        Electrocardiognosis Holter serial card
1018                  0 = /dev/holter0      First Holter port
1019                  1 = /dev/holter1      Second Holter port
1020                  2 = /dev/holter2      Third Holter port
1021
1022                A custom serial card used by Electrocardiognosis SRL
1023                <mseritan@ottonel.pub.ro> to transfer data from Holter
1024                24-hour heart monitoring equipment.
1025
1026    block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; seventh controller
1027                  0 = /dev/rd/c6d0      First disk, whole disk
1028                  8 = /dev/rd/c6d1      Second disk, whole disk
1029                    ...
1030                248 = /dev/rd/c6d15     16th disk, whole disk
1031
1032                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1033
1034 55 char        DSP56001 digital signal processor
1035                  0 = /dev/dsp56k       First DSP56001
1036    block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; eigth controller
1037                  0 = /dev/rd/c7d0      First disk, whole disk
1038                  8 = /dev/rd/c7d1      Second disk, whole disk
1039                    ...
1040                248 = /dev/rd/c7d15     16th disk, whole disk
1041
1042                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1043
1044 56 char        Apple Desktop Bus
1045                  0 = /dev/adb          ADB bus control
1046
1047                Additional devices will be added to this number, all
1048                starting with /dev/adb.
1049
1050    block       Fifth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1051                  0 = /dev/hdi          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1052                 64 = /dev/hdj          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1053
1054                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1055                interface (see major number 3).
1056
1057 57 char        Hayes ESP serial card
1058                  0 = /dev/ttyP0        First ESP port
1059                  1 = /dev/ttyP1        Second ESP port
1060                    ...
1061
1062    block       Sixth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1063                  0 = /dev/hdk          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1064                 64 = /dev/hdl          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1065
1066                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1067                interface (see major number 3).
1068
1069 58 char        Hayes ESP serial card - alternate devices
1070                  0 = /dev/cup0         Callout device for ttyP0
1071                  1 = /dev/cup1         Callout device for ttyP1
1072                    ...
1073    block       Reserved for logical volume manager
1074
1075 59 char        sf firewall package
1076                  0 = /dev/firewall     Communication with sf kernel module
1077
1078    block       Generic PDA filesystem device
1079                  0 = /dev/pda0         First PDA device
1080                  1 = /dev/pda1         Second PDA device
1081                    ...
1082
1083                The pda devices are used to mount filesystems on
1084                remote pda's (basically slow handheld machines with
1085                proprietary OS's and limited memory and storage
1086                running small fs translation drivers) through serial /
1087                IRDA / parallel links.
1088
1089                NAMING CONFLICT -- PROPOSED REVISED NAME /dev/rpda0 etc
1090
1091 60-63          LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
1092                Allocated for local/experimental use.  For devices not
1093                assigned official numbers, these ranges should be
1094                used, in order to avoid conflicting with future assignments.
1095
1096 64 char        ENskip kernel encryption package
1097                  0 = /dev/enskip       Communication with ENskip kernel module
1098
1099 65 char        Sundance "plink" Transputer boards
1100                  0 = /dev/plink0       First plink device
1101                  1 = /dev/plink1       Second plink device
1102                  2 = /dev/plink2       Third plink device
1103                  3 = /dev/plink3       Fourth plink device
1104                 64 = /dev/rplink0      First plink device, raw
1105                 65 = /dev/rplink1      Second plink device, raw
1106                 66 = /dev/rplink2      Third plink device, raw
1107                 67 = /dev/rplink3      Fourth plink device, raw
1108                128 = /dev/plink0d      First plink device, debug
1109                129 = /dev/plink1d      Second plink device, debug
1110                130 = /dev/plink2d      Third plink device, debug
1111                131 = /dev/plink3d      Fourth plink device, debug
1112                192 = /dev/rplink0d     First plink device, raw, debug
1113                193 = /dev/rplink1d     Second plink device, raw, debug
1114                194 = /dev/rplink2d     Third plink device, raw, debug
1115                195 = /dev/rplink3d     Fourth plink device, raw, debug
1116
1117                This is a commercial driver; contact James Howes
1118                <jth@prosig.demon.co.uk> for information.
1119
1120    block       SCSI disk devices (16-31)
1121                  0 = /dev/sdq          16th SCSI disk whole disk
1122                 16 = /dev/sdr          17th SCSI disk whole disk
1123                 32 = /dev/sds          18th SCSI disk whole disk
1124                    ...
1125                240 = /dev/sdaf         32nd SCSI disk whole disk
1126
1127                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1128                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1129                partitions is 15.
1130
1131 66 char        YARC PowerPC PCI coprocessor card
1132                  0 = /dev/yppcpci0     First YARC card
1133                  1 = /dev/yppcpci1     Second YARC card
1134                    ...
1135
1136    block       SCSI disk devices (32-47)
1137                  0 = /dev/sdag         33th SCSI disk whole disk
1138                 16 = /dev/sdah         34th SCSI disk whole disk
1139                 32 = /dev/sdai         35th SCSI disk whole disk
1140                    ...
1141                240 = /dev/sdav         48nd SCSI disk whole disk
1142
1143                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1144                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1145                partitions is 15.
1146
1147 67 char        Coda network file system
1148                  0 = /dev/cfs0         Coda cache manager
1149
1150                See http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu for information about Coda.
1151
1152    block       SCSI disk devices (48-63)
1153                  0 = /dev/sdaw         49th SCSI disk whole disk
1154                 16 = /dev/sdax         50th SCSI disk whole disk
1155                 32 = /dev/sday         51st SCSI disk whole disk
1156                    ...
1157                240 = /dev/sdbl         64th SCSI disk whole disk
1158
1159                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1160                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1161                partitions is 15.
1162
1163 68 char        CAPI 2.0 interface
1164                  0 = /dev/capi20       Control device
1165                  1 = /dev/capi20.00    First CAPI 2.0 application
1166                  2 = /dev/capi20.01    Second CAPI 2.0 application
1167                    ...
1168                 20 = /dev/capi20.19    19th CAPI 2.0 application
1169
1170                ISDN CAPI 2.0 driver for use with CAPI 2.0
1171                applications; currently supports the AVM B1 card.
1172
1173    block       SCSI disk devices (64-79)
1174                  0 = /dev/sdbm         64th SCSI disk whole disk
1175                 16 = /dev/sdbn         65th SCSI disk whole disk
1176                 32 = /dev/sdbo         66th SCSI disk whole disk
1177                    ...
1178                240 = /dev/sdcb         80th SCSI disk whole disk
1179
1180                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1181                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1182                partitions is 15.
1183
1184 69 char        MA16 numeric accelerator card
1185                  0 = /dev/ma16         Board memory access
1186
1187    block       SCSI disk devices (80-95)
1188                  0 = /dev/sdcc         81st SCSI disk whole disk
1189                 16 = /dev/sdcd         82nd SCSI disk whole disk
1190                 32 = /dev/sdce         83th SCSI disk whole disk
1191                    ...
1192                240 = /dev/sdcr         96th SCSI disk whole disk
1193
1194                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1195                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1196                partitions is 15.
1197
1198 70 char        SpellCaster Protocol Services Interface
1199                  0 = /dev/apscfg       Configuration interface
1200                  1 = /dev/apsauth      Authentication interface
1201                  2 = /dev/apslog       Logging interface
1202                  3 = /dev/apsdbg       Debugging interface
1203                 64 = /dev/apsisdn      ISDN command interface
1204                 65 = /dev/apsasync     Async command interface
1205                128 = /dev/apsmon       Monitor interface
1206
1207    block       SCSI disk devices (96-111)
1208                  0 = /dev/sdcs         97th SCSI disk whole disk
1209                 16 = /dev/sdct         98th SCSI disk whole disk
1210                 32 = /dev/sdcu         99th SCSI disk whole disk
1211                    ...
1212                240 = /dev/sddh         112nd SCSI disk whole disk
1213
1214                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1215                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1216                partitions is 15.
1217
1218 71 char        Computone IntelliPort II serial card
1219                  0 = /dev/ttyF0        IntelliPort II board 0, port 0
1220                  1 = /dev/ttyF1        IntelliPort II board 0, port 1
1221                    ...
1222                 63 = /dev/ttyF63       IntelliPort II board 0, port 63
1223                 64 = /dev/ttyF64       IntelliPort II board 1, port 0
1224                 65 = /dev/ttyF65       IntelliPort II board 1, port 1
1225                    ...
1226                127 = /dev/ttyF127      IntelliPort II board 1, port 63
1227                128 = /dev/ttyF128      IntelliPort II board 2, port 0
1228                129 = /dev/ttyF129      IntelliPort II board 2, port 1
1229                    ...
1230                191 = /dev/ttyF191      IntelliPort II board 2, port 63
1231                192 = /dev/ttyF192      IntelliPort II board 3, port 0
1232                193 = /dev/ttyF193      IntelliPort II board 3, port 1
1233                    ...
1234                255 = /dev/ttyF255      IntelliPort II board 3, port 63
1235
1236    block       SCSI disk devices (112-127)
1237                  0 = /dev/sddi         113th SCSI disk whole disk
1238                 16 = /dev/sddj         114th SCSI disk whole disk
1239                 32 = /dev/sddk         115th SCSI disk whole disk
1240                    ...
1241                240 = /dev/sddx         128th SCSI disk whole disk
1242
1243                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1244                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1245                partitions is 15.
1246
1247 72 char        Computone IntelliPort II serial card - alternate devices
1248                  0 = /dev/cuf0         Callout device for ttyF0
1249                  1 = /dev/cuf1         Callout device for ttyF1
1250                    ...
1251                 63 = /dev/cuf63        Callout device for ttyF63
1252                 64 = /dev/cuf64        Callout device for ttyF64
1253                 65 = /dev/cuf65        Callout device for ttyF65
1254                    ...
1255                127 = /dev/cuf127       Callout device for ttyF127
1256                128 = /dev/cuf128       Callout device for ttyF128
1257                129 = /dev/cuf129       Callout device for ttyF129
1258                    ...
1259                191 = /dev/cuf191       Callout device for ttyF191
1260                192 = /dev/cuf192       Callout device for ttyF192
1261                193 = /dev/cuf193       Callout device for ttyF193
1262                    ...
1263                255 = /dev/cuf255       Callout device for ttyF255
1264
1265    block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, first controller
1266                  0 = /dev/ida/c0d0     First logical drive whole disk
1267                 16 = /dev/ida/c0d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1268                    ...
1269                240 = /dev/ida/c0d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1270
1271                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1272                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1273                partitions is 15.
1274
1275 73 char        Computone IntelliPort II serial card - control devices
1276                  0 = /dev/ip2ipl0      Loadware device for board 0
1277                  1 = /dev/ip2stat0     Status device for board 0
1278                  4 = /dev/ip2ipl1      Loadware device for board 1
1279                  5 = /dev/ip2stat1     Status device for board 1
1280                  8 = /dev/ip2ipl2      Loadware device for board 2
1281                  9 = /dev/ip2stat2     Status device for board 2
1282                 12 = /dev/ip2ipl3      Loadware device for board 3
1283                 13 = /dev/ip2stat3     Status device for board 3
1284
1285    block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, second controller
1286                  0 = /dev/ida/c1d0     First logical drive whole disk
1287                 16 = /dev/ida/c1d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1288                    ...
1289                240 = /dev/ida/c1d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1290
1291                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1292                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1293                partitions is 15.
1294
1295 74 char        SCI bridge
1296                  0 = /dev/SCI/0        SCI device 0
1297                  1 = /dev/SCI/1        SCI device 1
1298                    ...
1299
1300                Currently for Dolphin Interconnect Solutions' PCI-SCI
1301                bridge.
1302
1303    block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, third controller
1304                  0 = /dev/ida/c2d0     First logical drive whole disk
1305                 16 = /dev/ida/c2d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1306                    ...
1307                240 = /dev/ida/c2d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1308
1309                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1310                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1311                partitions is 15.
1312
1313 75 char        Specialix IO8+ serial card
1314                  0 = /dev/ttyW0        First IO8+ port, first card
1315                  1 = /dev/ttyW1        Second IO8+ port, first card
1316                    ...
1317                  8 = /dev/ttyW8        First IO8+ port, second card
1318                    ...
1319
1320    block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, fourth controller
1321                  0 = /dev/ida/c3d0     First logical drive whole disk
1322                 16 = /dev/ida/c3d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1323                    ...
1324                240 = /dev/ida/c3d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1325
1326                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1327                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1328                partitions is 15.
1329
1330 76 char        Specialix IO8+ serial card - alternate devices
1331                  0 = /dev/cuw0         Callout device for ttyW0
1332                  1 = /dev/cuw1         Callout device for ttyW1
1333                    ...
1334                  8 = /dev/cuw8         Callout device for ttyW8
1335                    ...
1336
1337    block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, fifth controller
1338                  0 = /dev/ida/c4d0     First logical drive whole disk
1339                 16 = /dev/ida/c4d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1340                    ...
1341                240 = /dev/ida/c4d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1342
1343                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1344                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1345                partitions is 15.
1346
1347
1348 77 char        ComScire Quantum Noise Generator
1349                  0 = /dev/qng          ComScire Quantum Noise Generator
1350
1351    block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, sixth controller
1352                  0 = /dev/ida/c5d0     First logical drive whole disk
1353                 16 = /dev/ida/c5d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1354                    ...
1355                240 = /dev/ida/c5d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1356
1357                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1358                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1359                partitions is 15.
1360
1361
1362 78 char        PAM Software's multimodem boards
1363                  0 = /dev/ttyM0        First PAM modem
1364                  1 = /dev/ttyM1        Second PAM modem
1365                    ...
1366
1367    block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, seventh controller
1368                  0 = /dev/ida/c6d0     First logical drive whole disk
1369                 16 = /dev/ida/c6d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1370                    ...
1371                240 = /dev/ida/c6d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1372
1373                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1374                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1375                partitions is 15.
1376
1377
1378 79 char        PAM Software's multimodem boards - alternate devices
1379                  0 = /dev/cum0         Callout device for ttyM0
1380                  1 = /dev/cum1         Callout device for ttyM1
1381                    ...
1382
1383    block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, eigth controller
1384                  0 = /dev/ida/c7d0     First logical drive whole disk
1385                 16 = /dev/ida/c7d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1386                    ...
1387                240 = /dev/ida/c715     16th logical drive whole disk
1388
1389                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1390                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1391                partitions is 15.
1392
1393
1394 80 char        Photometrics AT200 CCD camera
1395                  0 = /dev/at200        Photometrics AT200 CCD camera
1396
1397    block       I2O hard disk
1398                  0 = /dev/i2o/hda      First I2O hard disk, whole disk
1399                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdb      Second I2O hard disk, whole disk
1400                    ...
1401                240 = /dev/i2o/hdp      16th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1402
1403                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1404                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1405                partitions is 15.
1406
1407 81 char        video4linux
1408                  0 = /dev/video0       Video capture/overlay device
1409                    ...
1410                 63 = /dev/video63      Video capture/overlay device
1411                 64 = /dev/radio0       Radio device
1412                    ...
1413                127 = /dev/radio63      Radio device
1414                192 = /dev/vtx0         Teletext device
1415                    ...
1416                223 = /dev/vtx31        Teletext device
1417                224 = /dev/vbi0         Vertical blank interrupt
1418                    ...
1419                255 = /dev/vbi31        Vertical blank interrupt
1420
1421    block       I2O hard disk
1422                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdq      17th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1423                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdr      18th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1424                    ...
1425                240 = /dev/i2o/hdaf     32nd I2O hard disk, whole disk
1426
1427                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1428                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1429                partitions is 15.
1430
1431 82 char        WiNRADiO communications receiver card
1432                  0 = /dev/winradio0    First WiNRADiO card
1433                  1 = /dev/winradio1    Second WiNRADiO card
1434                    ...
1435
1436                The driver and documentation may be obtained from
1437                http://www.proximity.com.au/~brian/winradio/
1438
1439    block       I2O hard disk
1440                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdag     33rd I2O hard disk, whole disk
1441                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdah     34th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1442                    ...
1443                240 = /dev/i2o/hdav     48th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1444
1445                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1446                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1447                partitions is 15.
1448
1449 83 char        Teletext/videotext interfaces {2.6}
1450                  0 = /dev/vtx          Teletext decoder
1451                 16 = /dev/vttuner      TV tuner on teletext interface
1452
1453                Devices for the driver contained in the VideoteXt package.
1454                More information on http://home.pages.de/~videotext/
1455
1456    block       I2O hard disk
1457                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdaw     49th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1458                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdax     50th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1459                    ...
1460                240 = /dev/i2o/hdbl     64th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1461
1462                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1463                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1464                partitions is 15.
1465
1466 84 char        Ikon 1011[57] Versatec Greensheet Interface
1467                  0 = /dev/ihcp0        First Greensheet port
1468                  1 = /dev/ihcp1        Second Greensheet port
1469
1470    block       I2O hard disk
1471                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdbm     65th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1472                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdbn     66th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1473                    ...
1474                240 = /dev/i2o/hdcb     80th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1475
1476                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1477                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1478                partitions is 15.
1479
1480 85 char        Linux/SGI shared memory input queue
1481                  0 = /dev/shmiq        Master shared input queue
1482                  1 = /dev/qcntl0       First device pushed
1483                  2 = /dev/qcntl1       Second device pushed
1484                    ...
1485
1486    block       I2O hard disk
1487                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdcc     81st I2O hard disk, whole disk
1488                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdcd     82nd I2O hard disk, whole disk
1489                    ...
1490                240 = /dev/i2o/hdcr     96th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1491
1492                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1493                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1494                partitions is 15.
1495
1496 86 char        SCSI media changer
1497                  0 = /dev/sch0         First SCSI media changer
1498                  1 = /dev/sch1         Second SCSI media changer
1499                    ...
1500
1501    block       I2O hard disk
1502                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdcs     97th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1503                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdct     98th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1504                    ...
1505                240 = /dev/i2o/hddh     112th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1506
1507                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1508                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1509                partitions is 15.
1510
1511 87 char        Sony Control-A1 stereo control bus
1512                  0 = /dev/controla0    First device on chain
1513                  1 = /dev/controla1    Second device on chain
1514                    ...
1515
1516    block       I2O hard disk
1517                  0 = /dev/i2o/hddi     113rd I2O hard disk, whole disk
1518                 16 = /dev/i2o/hddj     114th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1519                    ...
1520                240 = /dev/i2o/hddx     128th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1521
1522                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1523                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1524                partitions is 15.
1525
1526 88 char        COMX synchronous serial card
1527                  0 = /dev/comx0        COMX channel 0
1528                  1 = /dev/comx1        COMX channel 1
1529                    ...
1530
1531    block       Seventh IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1532                  0 = /dev/hdm          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1533                 64 = /dev/hdn          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1534
1535                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1536                interface (see major number 3).
1537
1538
1539 89 char        I2C bus interface
1540                  0 = /dev/i2c-0        First I2C adapter
1541                  1 = /dev/i2c-1        Second I2C adapter
1542                    ...
1543
1544    block       Eighth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1545                  0 = /dev/hdo          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1546                 64 = /dev/hdp          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1547
1548                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1549                interface (see major number 3).
1550
1551 90 char        Memory Technology Device (RAM, ROM, Flash)
1552                  0 = /dev/mtd0         First MTD (rw)
1553                  1 = /dev/mtdr0        First MTD (ro)
1554                    ...
1555                 30 = /dev/mtd15        16th MTD (rw)
1556                 31 = /dev/mtdr15       16th MTD (ro)
1557
1558    block       Ninth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1559                  0 = /dev/hdq          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1560                 64 = /dev/hdr          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1561
1562                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1563                interface (see major number 3).
1564
1565 91 char        CAN-Bus devices
1566                  0 = /dev/can0         First CAN-Bus controller
1567                  1 = /dev/can1         Second CAN-Bus controller
1568                    ...
1569
1570    block       Tenth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1571                  0 = /dev/hds          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1572                 64 = /dev/hdt          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1573
1574                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1575                interface (see major number 3).
1576
1577 92 char        Reserved for ith Kommunikationstechnik MIC ISDN card
1578
1579    block       PPDD encrypted disk driver
1580                  0 = /dev/ppdd0        First encrypted disk
1581                  1 = /dev/ppdd1        Second encrypted disk
1582                    ...
1583
1584                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1585                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1586                partitions is 15.
1587
1588 93 char        IBM Smart Capture Card frame grabber {2.6}
1589                  0 = /dev/iscc0        First Smart Capture Card
1590                  1 = /dev/iscc1        Second Smart Capture Card
1591                    ...
1592                128 = /dev/isccctl0     First Smart Capture Card control
1593                129 = /dev/isccctl1     Second Smart Capture Card control
1594                    ...
1595
1596    block       NAND Flash Translation Layer filesystem
1597                  0 = /dev/nftla        First NFTL layer
1598                 16 = /dev/nftlb        Second NFTL layer
1599                    ...
1600                240 = /dev/nftlp        16th NTFL layer
1601
1602 94 char        miroVIDEO DC10/30 capture/playback device {2.6}
1603                  0 = /dev/dcxx0        First capture card
1604                  1 = /dev/dcxx1        Second capture card
1605                    ...
1606
1607 95 char        IP filter
1608                  0 = /dev/ipl          Filter control device/log file
1609                  1 = /dev/ipnat        NAT control device/log file
1610                  2 = /dev/ipstate      State information log file
1611                  3 = /dev/ipauth       Authentication control device/log file
1612
1613    block       IBM S/390 DASD block storage
1614                  0 = /dev/dasd0        First DASD device, major
1615                  1 = /dev/dasd0a       First DASD device, block 1
1616                  2 = /dev/dasd0b       First DASD device, block 2
1617                  3 = /dev/dasd0c       First DASD device, block 3
1618                  4 = /dev/dasd1        Second DASD device, major
1619                  5 = /dev/dasd1a       Second DASD device, block 1
1620                  6 = /dev/dasd1b       Second DASD device, block 2
1621                  7 = /dev/dasd1c       Second DASD device, block 3
1622                    ...         
1623
1624 96 char        Parallel port ATAPI tape devices
1625                  0 = /dev/pt0          First parallel port ATAPI tape
1626                  1 = /dev/pt1          Second parallel port ATAPI tape
1627                    ...
1628                128 = /dev/npt0         First p.p. ATAPI tape, no rewind
1629                129 = /dev/npt1         Second p.p. ATAPI tape, no rewind
1630                    ...
1631
1632    block       IBM S/390 VM/ESA minidisk
1633                  0 = /dev/msd0         First VM/ESA minidisk
1634                  1 = /dev/msd1         Second VM/ESA minidisk
1635                    ...
1636
1637 97 char        Parallel port generic ATAPI interface
1638                  0 = /dev/pg0          First parallel port ATAPI device
1639                  1 = /dev/pg1          Second parallel port ATAPI device
1640                  2 = /dev/pg2          Third parallel port ATAPI device
1641                  3 = /dev/pg3          Fourth parallel port ATAPI device
1642
1643                These devices support the same API as the generic SCSI
1644                devices.
1645
1646    block       Packet writing for CD/DVD devices
1647                  0 = /dev/pktcdvd0     First packet-writing module
1648                  1 = /dev/pktcdvd1     Second packet-writing module
1649                    ...
1650
1651 98 char        Control and Measurement Device (comedi)
1652                  0 = /dev/comedi0      First comedi device
1653                  1 = /dev/comedi1      Second comedi device
1654                    ...
1655
1656                See http://stm.lbl.gov/comedi or http://www.llp.fu-berlin.de/.
1657
1658    block       User-mode virtual block device
1659                  0 = /dev/ubd0         First user-mode block device
1660                  1 = /dev/ubd1         Second user-mode block device
1661                    ...
1662
1663                This device is used by the user-mode virtual kernel port.
1664
1665 99 char        Raw parallel ports
1666                  0 = /dev/parport0     First parallel port
1667                  1 = /dev/parport1     Second parallel port
1668                    ...
1669
1670    block       JavaStation flash disk
1671                  0 = /dev/jsfd         JavaStation flash disk
1672
1673100 char        Telephony for Linux
1674                  0 = /dev/phone0       First telephony device
1675                  1 = /dev/phone1       Second telephony device
1676                    ...
1677
1678101 char        Motorola DSP 56xxx board
1679                  0 = /dev/mdspstat     Status information
1680                  1 = /dev/mdsp1        First DSP board I/O controls
1681                    ...
1682                 16 = /dev/mdsp16       16th DSP board I/O controls
1683
1684    block       AMI HyperDisk RAID controller
1685                  0 = /dev/amiraid/ar0  First array whole disk
1686                 16 = /dev/amiraid/ar1  Second array whole disk
1687                    ...
1688                240 = /dev/amiraid/ar15 16th array whole disk
1689
1690                For each device, partitions are added as:
1691                  0 = /dev/amiraid/ar?    Whole disk
1692                  1 = /dev/amiraid/ar?p1  First partition
1693                  2 = /dev/amiraid/ar?p2  Second partition
1694                    ...
1695                 15 = /dev/amiraid/ar?p15 15th partition
1696
1697102 char        Philips SAA5249 Teletext signal decoder {2.6}
1698                  0 = /dev/tlk0         First Teletext decoder
1699                  1 = /dev/tlk1         Second Teletext decoder
1700                  2 = /dev/tlk2         Third Teletext decoder
1701                  3 = /dev/tlk3         Fourth Teletext decoder
1702
1703103 char        Arla network file system
1704                  0 = /dev/xfs0         Arla XFS
1705
1706                Arla is a free clone of the Andrew File System, AFS.
1707                Any resemblance with the Swedish milk producer is
1708                coincidental.  For more information about the project,
1709                write to <arla-drinkers@stacken.kth.se> or subscribe
1710                to the arla announce mailing list by sending a mail to
1711                <arla-announce-request@stacken.kth.se>.
1712
1713    block       Audit device
1714                  0 = /dev/audit        Audit device
1715
1716104 char        Flash BIOS support
1717
1718    block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, first controller
1719                  0 = /dev/cciss/c0d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1720                 16 = /dev/cciss/c0d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1721                    ...
1722                240 = /dev/cciss/c0d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1723
1724                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1725                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1726                partitions is 15.
1727
1728105 char        Comtrol VS-1000 serial controller
1729                  0 = /dev/ttyV0        First VS-1000 port
1730                  1 = /dev/ttyV1        Second VS-1000 port
1731                    ...
1732
1733    block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, second controller
1734                  0 = /dev/cciss/c1d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1735                 16 = /dev/cciss/c1d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1736                    ...
1737                240 = /dev/cciss/c1d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1738
1739                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1740                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1741                partitions is 15.
1742
1743106 char        Comtrol VS-1000 serial controller - alternate devices
1744                  0 = /dev/cuv0         First VS-1000 port
1745                  1 = /dev/cuv1         Second VS-1000 port
1746                    ...
1747
1748    block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, third controller
1749                  0 = /dev/cciss/c2d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1750                 16 = /dev/cciss/c2d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1751                    ...
1752                240 = /dev/cciss/c2d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1753
1754                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1755                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1756                partitions is 15.
1757
1758107 char        3Dfx Voodoo Graphics device
1759                  0 = /dev/3dfx         Primary 3Dfx graphics device
1760
1761    block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, fourth controller
1762                  0 = /dev/cciss/c3d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1763                 16 = /dev/cciss/c3d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1764                    ...
1765                240 = /dev/cciss/c3d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1766
1767                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1768                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1769                partitions is 15.
1770
1771108 char        Device independent PPP interface
1772                  0 = /dev/ppp          Device independent PPP interface
1773
1774    block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, fifth controller
1775                  0 = /dev/cciss/c4d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1776                 16 = /dev/cciss/c4d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1777                    ...
1778                240 = /dev/cciss/c4d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1779
1780                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1781                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1782                partitions is 15.
1783
1784109 char        Reserved for logical volume manager
1785
1786    block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, sixth controller
1787                  0 = /dev/cciss/c5d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1788                 16 = /dev/cciss/c5d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1789                    ...
1790                240 = /dev/cciss/c5d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1791
1792                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1793                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1794                partitions is 15.
1795
1796110 char        miroMEDIA Surround board
1797                  0 = /dev/srnd0        First miroMEDIA Surround board
1798                  1 = /dev/srnd1        Second miroMEDIA Surround board
1799                    ...
1800
1801    block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, seventh controller
1802                  0 = /dev/cciss/c6d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1803                 16 = /dev/cciss/c6d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1804                    ...
1805                240 = /dev/cciss/c6d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1806
1807                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1808                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1809                partitions is 15.
1810
1811111 char        Philips SAA7146-based audio/video card {2.6}
1812                  0 = /dev/av0          First A/V card
1813                  1 = /dev/av1          Second A/V card
1814                    ...
1815
1816    block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, eigth controller
1817                  0 = /dev/cciss/c7d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1818                 16 = /dev/cciss/c7d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1819                    ...
1820                240 = /dev/cciss/c7d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1821
1822                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1823                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1824                partitions is 15.
1825
1826112 char        ISI serial card
1827                  0 = /dev/ttyM0        First ISI port
1828                  1 = /dev/ttyM1        Second ISI port
1829                    ...
1830
1831                There is currently a device-naming conflict between
1832                these and PAM multimodems (major 78).
1833
1834113 char        ISI serial card - alternate devices
1835                  0 = /dev/cum0         Callout device for ttyM0
1836                  1 = /dev/cum1         Callout device for ttyM1
1837                    ...
1838
1839114 char        Picture Elements ISE board
1840                  0 = /dev/ise0         First ISE board
1841                  1 = /dev/ise1         Second ISE board
1842                    ...
1843                128 = /dev/isex0        Control node for first ISE board
1844                129 = /dev/isex1        Control node for second ISE board
1845                    ...
1846
1847                The ISE board is an embedded computer, optimized for
1848                image processing. The /dev/iseN nodes are the general
1849                I/O access to the board, the /dev/isex0 nodes command
1850                nodes used to control the board.
1851
1852115 char        Console driver speaker
1853                  0 = /dev/speaker      Speaker device file
1854
1855                Plays music using IBM BASIC style strings.
1856
1857116 char        Advanced Linux Sound Driver (ALSA)
1858
1859117 char        COSA/SRP synchronous serial card
1860                  0 = /dev/cosa0c0      1st board, 1st channel
1861                  1 = /dev/cosa0c1      1st board, 2nd channel
1862                    ...
1863                 16 = /dev/cosa1c0      2nd board, 1st channel
1864                 17 = /dev/cosa1c1      2nd board, 2nd channel
1865                    ...
1866
1867118 char        Solidum ???
1868                  0 = /dev/solnp0
1869                  1 = /dev/solnp1
1870                    ...
1871                128 = /dev/solnpctl0
1872                129 = /dev/solnpctl1
1873                    ...
1874
1875119 char        VMware virtual network control
1876                  0 = /dev/vnet0        1st virtual network
1877                  1 = /dev/vnet1        2nd virtual network
1878                    ...
1879
1880120-127         LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
1881
1882128-135 char    Unix98 PTY masters
1883
1884                These devices should not have corresponding device
1885                nodes; instead they should be accessed through the
1886                /dev/ptmx cloning interface.
1887
1888136-143 char    Unix98 PTY slaves
1889                  0 = /dev/pts/0        First Unix98 pseudo-TTY
1890                  1 = /dev/pts/1        Second Unix98 pesudo-TTY
1891                    ...
1892
1893                These device nodes are automatically generated with
1894                the proper permissions and modes by mounting the
1895                devpts filesystem onto /dev/pts with the appropriate
1896                mount options (distribution dependent, however, on
1897                *most* distributions the appropriate options are
1898                "mode=0620,gid=<gid of the "tty" group>".)
1899
1900144 char        Encapsulated PPP
1901                  0 = /dev/pppox0       First PPP over Ethernet
1902                    ...
1903                 63 = /dev/pppox63      64th PPP over Ethernet
1904
1905                This is primarily used for ADSL.
1906
1907                The SST 5136-DN DeviceNet interface driver has been
1908                relocated to major 183 due to an unfortunate conflict.
1909
1910145 char        SAM9407-based soundcard
1911                  0 = /dev/sam0_mixer
1912                  1 = /dev/sam0_sequencer
1913                  2 = /dev/sam0_midi00
1914                  3 = /dev/sam0_dsp
1915                  4 = /dev/sam0_audio
1916                  6 = /dev/sam0_sndstat
1917                 18 = /dev/sam0_midi01
1918                 34 = /dev/sam0_midi02
1919                 50 = /dev/sam0_midi03
1920                 64 = /dev/sam1_mixer
1921                    ...
1922                128 = /dev/sam2_mixer
1923                    ...
1924                192 = /dev/sam3_mixer
1925                    ...
1926
1927                Device functions match OSS, but offer a number of
1928                addons, which are sam9407 specific.  OSS can be
1929                operated simultaneously, taking care of the codec.
1930
1931146 char        SYSTRAM SCRAMNet mirrored-memory network
1932                  0 = /dev/scramnet0    First SCRAMNet device
1933                  1 = /dev/scramnet1    Second SCRAMNet device
1934                    ...
1935
1936147 char        Aueral Semiconductor Vortex Audio device
1937                  0 = /dev/aureal0      First Aureal Vortex
1938                  1 = /dev/aureal1      Second Aureal Vortex
1939                    ...
1940
1941148 char        Technology Concepts serial card
1942                  0 = /dev/ttyT0        First TCL port
1943                  1 = /dev/ttyT1        Second TCL port
1944                    ...
1945
1946149 char        Technology Concepts serial card - alternate devices
1947                  0 = /dev/cut0         Callout device for ttyT0
1948                  1 = /dev/cut0         Callout device for ttyT1
1949                    ...
1950
1951150 char        Real-Time Linux FIFOs
1952                  0 = /dev/rtf0         First RTLinux FIFO
1953                  1 = /dev/rtf1         Second RTLinux FIFO
1954                    ...
1955
1956151 char        DPT I2O SmartRaid V controller
1957                  0 = /dev/dpti0        First DPT I2O adapter
1958                  1 = /dev/dpti1        Second DPT I2O adapter
1959                    ...
1960
1961154 char        Specialix RIO serial card
1962                  0 = /dev/ttySR0       First RIO port
1963                    ...
1964                255 = /dev/ttySR255     256th RIO port
1965
1966155 char        Specialix RIO serial card - alternate devices
1967                  0 = /dev/cusr0        Callout device for ttySR0
1968                    ...
1969                255 = /dev/cusr255      Callout device for ttySR255
1970
1971156 char        Specialix RIO serial card
1972                  0 = /dev/ttySR256     257th RIO port
1973                    ...
1974                255 = /dev/ttySR511     512th RIO port
1975
1976157 char        Specialix RIO serial card - alternate devices
1977                  0 = /dev/cusr256      Callout device for ttySR256
1978                    ...
1979                255 = /dev/cusr511      Callout device for ttySR511
1980
1981158 char        Dialogic GammaLink fax driver
1982                  0 = /dev/gfax0        GammaLink channel 0
1983                  1 = /dev/gfax1        GammaLink channel 1
1984                    ...
1985
1986159             RESERVED
1987
1988160 char        General Purpose Instrument Bus (GPIB)
1989                  0 = /dev/gpib0        First GPIB bus
1990                  1 = /dev/gpib1        Second GPIB bus
1991                    ...
1992
1993161 char        IrCOMM devices (IrDA serial/parallel emulation)
1994                  0 = /dev/ircomm0      First IrCOMM device
1995                  1 = /dev/ircomm1      Second IrCOMM device
1996                    ...
1997                 16 = /dev/irlpt0       First IrLPT device
1998                 17 = /dev/irlpt1       Second IrLPT device
1999                    ...
2000
2001162 char        Raw block device interface
2002                  0 = /dev/raw          Raw I/O control device
2003                  1 = /dev/raw1         First raw I/O device
2004                  2 = /dev/raw2         Second raw I/O device
2005                    ...
2006
2007163 char        Radio Tech BIM-XXX-RS232 radio modem
2008                  0 = /dev/bimrt0       First BIM radio modem
2009                  1 = /dev/bimrt1       Second BIM radio modem
2010                    ...
2011
2012164 char        Chase Research AT/PCI-Fast serial card
2013                  0 = /dev/ttyCH0       AT/PCI-Fast board 0, port 0
2014                    ...
2015                 15 = /dev/ttyCH15      AT/PCI-Fast board 0, port 15
2016                 16 = /dev/ttyCH16      AT/PCI-Fast board 1, port 0
2017                    ...
2018                 31 = /dev/ttyCH31      AT/PCI-Fast board 1, port 15
2019                 32 = /dev/ttyCH32      AT/PCI-Fast board 2, port 0
2020                    ...
2021                 47 = /dev/ttyCH47      AT/PCI-Fast board 2, port 15
2022                 48 = /dev/ttyCH48      AT/PCI-Fast board 3, port 0
2023                    ...
2024                 63 = /dev/ttyCH63      AT/PCI-Fast board 3, port 15
2025
2026165 char        Chase Research AT/PCI-Fast serial card - alternate devices
2027                  0 = /dev/cuch0        Callout device for ttyCH0
2028                    ...
2029                 63 = /dev/cuch63       Callout device for ttyCH63
2030
2031166 char        ACM USB modems
2032                  0 = /dev/ttyACM0      First ACM modem
2033                  1 = /dev/ttyACM1      Second ACM modem
2034                    ...
2035
2036167 char        ACM USB modems - alternate devices
2037                  0 = /dev/cuacm0       Callout device for ttyACM0
2038                  1 = /dev/cuacm1       Callout device for ttyACM1
2039                    ...
2040
2041168 char        Eracom CSA7000 PCI encryption adaptor
2042                  0 = /dev/ecsa0        First CSA7000
2043                  1 = /dev/ecsa1        Second CSA7000
2044                    ...
2045
2046169 char        Eracom CSA8000 PCI encryption adaptor
2047                  0 = /dev/ecsa8-0      First CSA8000
2048                  1 = /dev/ecsa8-1      Second CSA8000
2049                    ...
2050
2051170 char        AMI MegaRAC remote access controller
2052                  0 = /dev/megarac0     First MegaRAC card
2053                  1 = /dev/megarac1     Second MegaRAC card
2054                    ...
2055
2056171 char        Reserved for IEEE 1394 (Firewire)
2057
2058
2059172 char        Moxa Intellio serial card
2060                  0 = /dev/ttyMX0       First Moxa port
2061                  1 = /dev/ttyMX1       Second Moxa port
2062                    ...
2063                127 = /dev/ttyMX127     128th Moxa port
2064                128 = /dev/moxactl      Moxa control port
2065
2066173 char        Moxa Intellio serial card - alternate devices
2067                  0 = /dev/cumx0        Callout device for ttyMX0
2068                  1 = /dev/cumx1        Callout device for ttyMX1
2069                    ...
2070                127 = /dev/cumx127      Callout device for ttyMX127
2071
2072174 char        SmartIO serial card
2073                  0 = /dev/ttySI0       First SmartIO port
2074                  1 = /dev/ttySI1       Second SmartIO port
2075                    ...
2076
2077175 char        SmartIO serial card - alternate devices
2078                  0 = /dev/cusi0        Callout device for ttySI0
2079                  1 = /dev/cusi1        Callout device for ttySI1
2080                    ...
2081
2082176 char        nCipher nFast PCI crypto accelerator
2083                  0 = /dev/nfastpci0    First nFast PCI device
2084                  1 = /dev/nfastpci1    First nFast PCI device
2085                    ...
2086
2087177 char        TI PCILynx memory spaces
2088                  0 = /dev/pcilynx/aux0  AUX space of first PCILynx card
2089                    ...
2090                 15 = /dev/pcilynx/aux15 AUX space of 16th PCILynx card
2091                 16 = /dev/pcilynx/rom0  ROM space of first PCILynx card
2092                    ...
2093                 31 = /dev/pcilynx/rom15 ROM space of 16th PCILynx card
2094                 32 = /dev/pcilynx/ram0  RAM space of first PCILynx card
2095                    ...
2096                 47 = /dev/pcilynx/ram15 RAM space of 16th PCILynx card
2097
2098178 char        Giganet cLAN1xxx virtual interface adapter
2099                  0 = /dev/clanvi0      First cLAN adapter
2100                  1 = /dev/clanvi1      Second cLAN adapter
2101                    ...
2102
2103179 char        CCube DVXChip-based PCI products
2104                  0 = /dev/dvxirq0      First DVX device
2105                  1 = /dev/dvxirq1      Second DVX device
2106                    ...
2107
2108180 char        USB devices
2109                  0 = /dev/usb/lp0      First USB printer
2110                    ...
2111                 15 = /dev/usb/lp15     16th USB printer
2112                 16 = /dev/usb/mouse0   First USB mouse
2113                    ...
2114                 31 = /dev/usb/mouse15  16th USB mouse
2115                 32 = /dev/usb/ez0      First USB firmware loader
2116                    ...
2117                 47 = /dev/usb/ez15     16th USB firmware loader
2118                 48 = /dev/usb/scanner0 First USB scanner
2119                    ...
2120                 63 = /dev/usb/scanner15 16th USB scanner
2121                 64 = /dev/usb/rio500   Diamond Rio 500
2122
2123181 char        Conrad Electronic parallel port radio clocks
2124                  0 = /dev/pcfclock0    First Conrad radio clock
2125                  1 = /dev/pcfclock1    Second Conrad radio clock
2126                    ...
2127
2128182 char        Picture Elements THR2 binarizer
2129                  0 = /dev/pethr0       First THR2 board
2130                  1 = /dev/pethr1       Second THR2 board
2131                    ...
2132
2133183 char        SST 5136-DN DeviceNet interface
2134                  0 = /dev/ss5136dn0    First DeviceNet interface
2135                  1 = /dev/ss5136dn1    Second DeviceNet interface
2136                    ...
2137
2138                This device used to be assigned to major number 144.
2139                It had to be moved due to an unfortunate conflict.
2140
2141184 char        Picture Elements' video simulator/sender
2142                  0 = /dev/pevss0       First sender board
2143                  1 = /dev/pevss1       Second sender board
2144                    ...
2145
2146185 char        InterMezzo high availability file system
2147                  0 = /dev/intermezzo0  First cache manager
2148                  1 = /dev/intermezzo1  Second cache manager
2149                    ...
2150
2151                See http://www.inter-mezzo.org/ for more information.
2152
2153186 char        Object-based storage control device
2154                  0 = /dev/obd0         First obd control device
2155                  1 = /dev/obd1         Second obd control device
2156                    ...
2157
2158                See ftp://ftp.lustre.org/pub/obd for code and information.
2159
2160187 char        DESkey hardware encryption device
2161                  0 = /dev/deskey0      First DES key
2162                  1 = /dev/deskey1      Second DES key
2163                    ...
2164
2165188 char        USB serial converters
2166                  0 = /dev/ttyUSB0      First USB serial converter
2167                  1 = /dev/ttyUSB1      Second USB serial converter
2168                    ...
2169
2170189 char        USB serial converters - alternate devices
2171                  0 = /dev/cuusb0       Callout device for ttyUSB0
2172                  1 = /dev/cuusb1       Callout device for ttyUSB1
2173                    ...
2174
2175190 char        Kansas City tracker/tuner card
2176                  0 = /dev/kctt0        First KCT/T card
2177                  1 = /dev/kctt1        Second KCT/T card
2178                    ...
2179
2180191 char        Reserved for PCMCIA
2181
2182192 char        Kernel profiling interface
2183                  0 = /dev/profile      Profiling control device
2184                  1 = /dev/profile0     Profiling device for CPU 0
2185                  2 = /dev/profile1     Profiling device for CPU 1
2186                    ...
2187
2188193 char        Kernel event-tracing interface
2189                  0 = /dev/trace        Tracing control device
2190                  1 = /dev/trace0       Tracing device for CPU 0
2191                  2 = /dev/trace1       Tracing device for CPU 1
2192                    ...
2193
2194194 char        linVideoStreams (LINVS)
2195                  0 = /dev/mvideo/status0       Video compression status
2196                  1 = /dev/mvideo/stream0       Video stream
2197                  2 = /dev/mvideo/frame0        Single compressed frame
2198                  3 = /dev/mvideo/rawframe0     Raw uncompressed frame
2199                  4 = /dev/mvideo/codec0        Direct codec access
2200                  5 = /dev/mvideo/video4linux0  Video4Linux compatibility
2201
2202                 16 = /dev/mvideo/status1       Second device
2203                    ...
2204                 32 = /dev/mvideo/status2       Third device
2205                    ...
2206                    ...
2207                240 = /dev/mvideo/status15      16th device 
2208                    ...
2209
2210195 char        Nvidia graphics devices
2211                  0 = /dev/nvidia0              First Nvidia card
2212                  1 = /dev/nvidia1              Second Nvidia card
2213                    ...
2214                255 = /dev/nvidiactl            Nvidia card control device
2215
2216196-197         UNASSIGNED
2217
2218198 char        Total Impact TPMP2 quad coprocessor PCI card
2219                  0 = /dev/tpmp2/0              First card
2220                  1 = /dev/tpmp2/1              Second card
2221                    ...
2222
2223199 char        Veritas volume manager (VxVM) volumes
2224                  0 = /dev/vx/rdsk/*/*          First volume
2225                  1 = /dev/vx/rdsk/*/*          Second volume
2226                    ...
2227    block       Veritas volume manager (VxVM) volumes
2228                  0 = /dev/vx/dsk/*/*           First volume
2229                  1 = /dev/vx/dsk/*/*           First volume
2230                    ...
2231
2232                The namespace in these directories is maintained by
2233                the user space VxVM software.
2234
2235200 char        Veritas VxVM configuration interface
2236                  0 = /dev/vx/config            Configuration access node
2237                  1 = /dev/vx/trace             Volume i/o trace access node
2238                  2 = /dev/vx/iod               Volume i/o daemon access node
2239                  3 = /dev/vx/info              Volume information access node
2240                  4 = /dev/vx/task              Volume tasks access node
2241                  5 = /dev/vx/taskmon           Volume tasks monitor daemon
2242
2243201 char        Veritas VxVM dynamic multipathing driver
2244                  0 = /dev/vx/rdmp/*            First multipath device
2245                  1 = /dev/vx/rdmp/*            Second multipath device
2246                    ...
2247    block       Veritas VxVM dynamic multipathing driver
2248                  0 = /dev/vx/dmp/*             First multipath device
2249                  1 = /dev/vx/dmp/*             Second multipath device
2250                    ...
2251
2252                The namespace in these directories is maintained by
2253                the user space VxVM software.
2254
2255202 char        CPU model-specific registers
2256                  0 = /dev/cpu/0/msr            MSRs on CPU 0
2257                  1 = /dev/cpu/1/msr            MSRs on CPU 1
2258                    ...
2259
2260203 char        CPU CPUID information
2261                  0 = /dev/cpu/0/cpuid          CPUID on CPU 0
2262                  1 = /dev/cpu/1/cpuid          CPUID on CPU 1
2263                    ...
2264
2265204 char        Low-density serial ports
2266                  0 = /dev/ttyLU0               LinkUp Systems L72xx UART - port 0
2267                  1 = /dev/ttyLU1               LinkUp Systems L72xx UART - port 1
2268                  2 = /dev/ttyLU2               LinkUp Systems L72xx UART - port 2
2269                  3 = /dev/ttyLU3               LinkUp Systems L72xx UART - port 3
2270                  4 = /dev/ttyFB0               Intel Footbridge (ARM)
2271                  5 = /dev/ttySA0               StrongARM builtin serial port 0
2272                  6 = /dev/ttySA1               StrongARM builtin serial port 1
2273                  7 = /dev/ttySA2               StrongARM builtin serial port 2
2274                  8 = /dev/ttySC0               SCI serial port (SuperH) - port 0
2275                  9 = /dev/ttySC1               SCI serial port (SuperH) - port 1
2276                 10 = /dev/ttySC2               SCI serial port (SuperH) - port 2
2277                 11 = /dev/ttySC3               SCI serial port (SuperH) - port 3
2278                 12 = /dev/ttyFW0               Firmware console - port 0
2279                 13 = /dev/ttyFW1               Firmware console - port 1
2280                 14 = /dev/ttyFW2               Firmware console - port 2
2281                 15 = /dev/ttyFW3               Firmware console - port 3
2282                 16 = /dev/ttyAM0               ARM "AMBA" serial port 0
2283                    ...
2284                 31 = /dev/ttyAM15              ARM "AMBA" serial port 15
2285
2286205 char        Low-density serial ports (alternate device)
2287                  0 = /dev/culu0                Callout device for ttyLU0
2288                  1 = /dev/culu1                Callout device for ttyLU1
2289                  2 = /dev/culu2                Callout device for ttyLU2
2290                  3 = /dev/culu3                Callout device for ttyLU3
2291                  4 = /dev/cufb0                Callout device for ttyFB0
2292                  5 = /dev/cusa0                Callout device for ttySA0
2293                  6 = /dev/cusa1                Callout device for ttySA1
2294                  7 = /dev/cusa2                Callout device for ttySA2
2295                  8 = /dev/cusc0                Callout device for ttySC0
2296                  9 = /dev/cusc1                Callout device for ttySC1
2297                 10 = /dev/cusc2                Callout device for ttySC2
2298                 11 = /dev/cusc3                Callout device for ttySC3
2299                 12 = /dev/cufw0                Callout device for ttyFW0
2300                 13 = /dev/cufw1                Callout device for ttyFW1
2301                 14 = /dev/cufw2                Callout device for ttyFW2
2302                 15 = /dev/cufw3                Callout device for ttyFW3
2303                 16 = /dev/cuam0                Callout device for ttyAM0
2304                    ...
2305                 31 = /dev/cuam15               Callout device for ttyAM15
2306
2307206 char        OnStream SC-x0 tape devices
2308                  0 = /dev/osst0                First OnStream SCSI tape, mode 0
2309                  1 = /dev/osst1                Second OnStream SCSI tape, mode 0
2310                    ...
2311                 32 = /dev/osst0l               First OnStream SCSI tape, mode 1
2312                 33 = /dev/osst1l               Second OnStream SCSI tape, mode 1
2313                    ...
2314                 64 = /dev/osst0m               First OnStream SCSI tape, mode 2
2315                 65 = /dev/osst1m               Second OnStream SCSI tape, mode 2
2316                    ...
2317                 96 = /dev/osst0a               First OnStream SCSI tape, mode 3
2318                 97 = /dev/osst1a               Second OnStream SCSI tape, mode 3
2319                    ...
2320                128 = /dev/nosst0               No rewind version of /dev/osst0
2321                129 = /dev/nosst1               No rewind version of /dev/osst1
2322                    ...
2323                160 = /dev/nosst0l              No rewind version of /dev/osst0l
2324                161 = /dev/nosst1l              No rewind version of /dev/osst1l
2325                    ...
2326                192 = /dev/nosst0m              No rewind version of /dev/osst0m
2327                193 = /dev/nosst1m              No rewind version of /dev/osst1m
2328                    ...
2329                224 = /dev/nosst0a              No rewind version of /dev/osst0a
2330                225 = /dev/nosst1a              No rewind version of /dev/osst1a
2331                    ...
2332
2333                The OnStream SC-x0 SCSI tapes do not support the
2334                standard SCSI SASD command set and therefore need
2335                their own driver "osst". Note that the IDE, USB (and
2336                maybe ParPort) versions may be driven via ide-scsi or
2337                usb-storage SCSI emulation and this osst device and
2338                driver as well.  The ADR-x0 drives are QIC-157
2339                compliant and don't need osst.
2340
2341207 char        Compaq ProLiant health feature indicate
2342                  0 = /dev/cpqhealth/cpqw       Redirector interface
2343                  1 = /dev/cpqhealth/crom       EISA CROM
2344                  2 = /dev/cpqhealth/cdt        Data Table
2345                  3 = /dev/cpqhealth/cevt       Event Log
2346                  4 = /dev/cpqhealth/casr       Automatic Server Recovery
2347                  5 = /dev/cpqhealth/cecc       ECC Memory
2348                  6 = /dev/cpqhealth/cmca       Machine Check Architecture
2349                  7 = /dev/cpqhealth/ccsm       Deprecated CDT
2350                  8 = /dev/cpqhealth/cnmi       NMI Handling
2351                  9 = /dev/cpqhealth/css        Sideshow Management
2352                 10 = /dev/cpqhealth/cram       CMOS interface
2353                 11 = /dev/cpqhealth/cpci       PCI IRQ interface
2354
2355208 char        User space serial ports
2356                  0 = /dev/ttyU0                First user space serial port
2357                  1 = /dev/ttyU1                Second user space serial port
2358                    ...
2359
2360209 char        User space serial ports (alternate devices)
2361                  0 = /dev/cuu0                 Callout device for ttyU0
2362                  1 = /dev/cuu1                 Callout device for ttyU1
2363                    ...
2364
2365210 char        SBE, Inc. sync/async serial card
2366                  0 = /dev/sbei/wxcfg0          Configuration device for board 0
2367                  1 = /dev/sbei/dld0            Download device for board 0
2368                  2 = /dev/sbei/wan00           WAN device, port 0, board 0
2369                  3 = /dev/sbei/wan01           WAN device, port 1, board 0
2370                  4 = /dev/sbei/wan02           WAN device, port 2, board 0
2371                  5 = /dev/sbei/wan03           WAN device, port 3, board 0
2372                  6 = /dev/sbei/wanc00          WAN clone device, port 0, board 0
2373                  7 = /dev/sbei/wanc01          WAN clone device, port 1, board 0
2374                  8 = /dev/sbei/wanc02          WAN clone device, port 2, board 0
2375                  9 = /dev/sbei/wanc03          WAN clone device, port 3, board 0
2376                 10 = /dev/sbei/wxcfg1          Configuration device for board 1
2377                 11 = /dev/sbei/dld1            Download device for board 1
2378                 12 = /dev/sbei/wan10           WAN device, port 0, board 1
2379                 13 = /dev/sbei/wan11           WAN device, port 1, board 1
2380                 14 = /dev/sbei/wan12           WAN device, port 2, board 1
2381                 15 = /dev/sbei/wan13           WAN device, port 3, board 1
2382                 16 = /dev/sbei/wanc10          WAN clone device, port 0, board 1
2383                 17 = /dev/sbei/wanc11          WAN clone device, port 1, board 1
2384                 18 = /dev/sbei/wanc12          WAN clone device, port 2, board 1
2385                 19 = /dev/sbei/wanc13          WAN clone device, port 3, board 1
2386                    ...
2387
2388                Yes, each board is really spaced 10 (decimal) apart.
2389
2390211 char        Addinum CPCI1500 digital I/O card
2391                  0 = /dev/addinum/cpci1500/0   First CPCI1500 card
2392                  1 = /dev/addinum/cpci1500/1   Second CPCI1500 card
2393                    ...
2394
2395216 char        USB BlueTooth devices
2396                  0 = /dev/ttyUB0               First USB BlueTooth device
2397                  1 = /dev/ttyUB1               Second USB BlueTooth device
2398                    ...
2399
2400217 char        USB BlueTooth devices (alternate devices)
2401                  0 = /dev/cuub0                Callout device for ttyUB0
2402                  1 = /dev/cuub1                Callout device for ttyUB1
2403                    ...
2404
2405218 char        The Logical Company bus Unibus/Qbus adapters
2406                  0 = /dev/logicalco/bci/0      First bus adapter
2407                  1 = /dev/logicalco/bci/1      First bus adapter
2408                    ...
2409
2410219 char        The Logical Company DCI-1300 digital I/O card
2411                  0 = /dev/logicalco/dci1300/0  First DCI-1300 card
2412                  1 = /dev/logicalco/dci1300/1  Second DCI-1300 card
2413                    ...
2414
2415220 char        Myricom Myrinet "GM" board
2416                  0 = /dev/myricom/gm0          First Myrinet GM board
2417                  1 = /dev/myricom/gmp0         First board "root access"
2418                  2 = /dev/myricom/gm1          Second Myrinet GM board
2419                  3 = /dev/myricom/gmp1         Second board "root access"
2420                    ...
2421
2422221 char        VME bus
2423                  0 = /dev/bus/vme/m0           First master image
2424                  1 = /dev/bus/vme/m1           Second master image
2425                  2 = /dev/bus/vme/m2           Third master image
2426                  3 = /dev/bus/vme/m3           Fourth master image
2427                  4 = /dev/bus/vme/s0           First slave image
2428                  5 = /dev/bus/vme/s1           Second slave image
2429                  6 = /dev/bus/vme/s2           Third slave image
2430                  7 = /dev/bus/vme/s3           Fourth slave image
2431                  8 = /dev/bus/vme/ctl          Control
2432
2433                It is expected that all VME bus drivers will use the
2434                same interface.  For interface documentation see
2435                http://www.vmelinux.org/.
2436
2437224 char        A2232 serial card
2438                  0 = /dev/ttyY0                First A2232 port
2439                  1 = /dev/cuy0                 Second A2232 port
2440                    ...
2441
2442225 char        A2232 serial card (alternate devices)
2443                  0 = /dev/cuy0                 Callout device for ttyY0
2444                  1 = /dev/cuy1                 Callout device for ttyY1
2445                    ...
2446
2447226-239         UNASSIGNED
2448
2449240-254         LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
2450
2451255             RESERVED
2452
2453                This major is reserved to assist the expansion to a
2454                larger number space.  No device nodes with this major
2455                should ever be created on the filesystem.
2456
2457 ****   ADDITIONAL /dev DIRECTORY ENTRIES
2458
2459This section details additional entries that should or may exist in
2460the /dev directory.  It is preferred that symbolic links use the same
2461form (absolute or relative) as is indicated here.  Links are
2462classified as "hard" or "symbolic" depending on the preferred type of
2463link; if possible, the indicated type of link should be used.
2464
2465
2466        Compulsory links
2467
2468These links should exist on all systems:
2469
2470/dev/fd         /proc/self/fd   symbolic        File descriptors
2471/dev/stdin      fd/0            symbolic        stdin file descriptor
2472/dev/stdout     fd/1            symbolic        stdout file descriptor
2473/dev/stderr     fd/2            symbolic        stderr file descriptor
2474/dev/nfsd       socksys         symbolic        Required by iBCS-2
2475/dev/X0R        null            symbolic        Required by iBCS-2
2476
2477Note: /dev/X0R is <letter X>-<digit 0>-<letter R>.
2478
2479        Recommended links
2480
2481It is recommended that these links exist on all systems:
2482
2483/dev/core       /proc/kcore     symbolic        Backward compatibility
2484/dev/ramdisk    ram0            symbolic        Backward compatibility
2485/dev/ftape      qft0            symbolic        Backward compatibility
2486/dev/bttv0      video0          symbolic        Backward compatibility
2487/dev/radio      radio0          symbolic        Backward compatibility
2488/dev/i2o*       /dev/i2o/*      symbolic        Backward compatibility
2489/dev/scd?       sr?             hard            Alternate SCSI CD-ROM name
2490
2491        Locally defined links
2492
2493The following links may be established locally to conform to the
2494configuration of the system.  This is merely a tabulation of existing
2495practice, and does not constitute a recommendation.  However, if they
2496exist, they should have the following uses.
2497
2498/dev/mouse      mouse port      symbolic        Current mouse device
2499/dev/tape       tape device     symbolic        Current tape device
2500/dev/cdrom      CD-ROM device   symbolic        Current CD-ROM device
2501/dev/cdwriter   CD-writer       symbolic        Current CD-writer device
2502/dev/scanner    scanner         symbolic        Current scanner device
2503/dev/modem      modem port      symbolic        Current dialout device
2504/dev/root       root device     symbolic        Current root filesystem
2505/dev/swap       swap device     symbolic        Current swap device
2506
2507/dev/modem should not be used for a modem which supports dialin as
2508well as dialout, as it tends to cause lock file problems.  If it
2509exists, /dev/modem should point to the appropriate primary TTY device
2510(the use of the alternate callout devices is deprecated).
2511
2512For SCSI devices, /dev/tape and /dev/cdrom should point to the
2513``cooked'' devices (/dev/st* and /dev/sr*, respectively), whereas
2514/dev/cdwriter and /dev/scanner should point to the appropriate generic
2515SCSI devices (/dev/sg*).
2516
2517/dev/mouse may point to a primary serial TTY device, a hardware mouse
2518device, or a socket for a mouse driver program (e.g. /dev/gpmdata).
2519
2520        Sockets and pipes
2521
2522Non-transient sockets and named pipes may exist in /dev.  Common entries are:
2523
2524/dev/printer    socket          lpd local socket
2525/dev/log        socket          syslog local socket
2526/dev/gpmdata    socket          gpm mouse multiplexer
2527
2528        Mount points
2529
2530The following names are reserved for mounting special filesystems
2531under /dev.  These special filesystems provide kernel interfaces that
2532cannot be provided with standard device nodes.
2533
2534/dev/pts        devpts          PTY slave filesystem
2535/dev/shm        shmfs           POSIX shared memory maintenance access
2536
2537 ****   TERMINAL DEVICES
2538
2539Terminal, or TTY devices are a special class of character devices.  A
2540terminal device is any device that could act as a controlling terminal
2541for a session; this includes virtual consoles, serial ports, and
2542pseudoterminals (PTYs).
2543
2544All terminal devices share a common set of capabilities known as line
2545diciplines; these include the common terminal line dicipline as well
2546as SLIP and PPP modes.
2547
2548All terminal devices are named similarly; this section explains the
2549naming and use of the various types of TTYs.  Note that the naming
2550conventions include several historical warts; some of these are
2551Linux-specific, some were inherited from other systems, and some
2552reflect Linux outgrowing a borrowed convention.
2553
2554A hash mark (#) in a device name is used here to indicate a decimal
2555number without leading zeroes.
2556
2557        Virtual consoles and the console device
2558
2559Virtual consoles are full-screen terminal displays on the system video
2560monitor.  Virtual consoles are named /dev/tty#, with numbering
2561starting at /dev/tty1; /dev/tty0 is the current virtual console.
2562/dev/tty0 is the device that should be used to access the system video
2563card on those architectures for which the frame buffer devices
2564(/dev/fb*) are not applicable.  Do not use /dev/console
2565for this purpose.
2566
2567The console device, /dev/console, is the device to which system
2568messages should be sent, and on which logins should be permitted in
2569single-user mode.  Starting with Linux 2.1.71, /dev/console is managed
2570by the kernel; for previous versions it should be a symbolic link to
2571either /dev/tty0, a specific virtual console such as /dev/tty1, or to
2572a serial port primary (tty*, not cu*) device, depending on the
2573configuration of the system.
2574
2575        Serial ports
2576
2577Serial ports are RS-232 serial ports and any device which simulates
2578one, either in hardware (such as internal modems) or in software (such
2579as the ISDN driver.)  Under Linux, each serial ports has two device
2580names, the primary or callin device and the alternate or callout one.
2581Each kind of device is indicated by a different letter.  For any
2582letter X, the names of the devices are /dev/ttyX# and /dev/cux#,
2583respectively; for historical reasons, /dev/ttyS# and /dev/ttyC#
2584correspond to /dev/cua# and /dev/cub#.  In the future, it should be
2585expected that multiple letters will be used; all letters will be upper
2586case for the "tty" device (e.g. /dev/ttyDP#) and lower case for the
2587"cu" device (e.g. /dev/cudp#).
2588
2589The names /dev/ttyQ# and /dev/cuq# are reserved for local use.
2590
2591The alternate devices provide for kernel-based exclusion and somewhat
2592different defaults than the primary devices.  Their main purpose is to
2593allow the use of serial ports with programs with no inherent or broken
2594support for serial ports.  Their use is deprecated, and they may be
2595removed from a future version of Linux.
2596
2597Arbitration of serial ports is provided by the use of lock files with
2598the names /var/lock/LCK..ttyX#.  The contents of the lock file should
2599be the PID of the locking process as an ASCII number.
2600
2601It is common practice to install links such as /dev/modem
2602which point to serial ports.  In order to ensure proper locking in the
2603presence of these links, it is recommended that software chase
2604symlinks and lock all possible names; additionally, it is recommended
2605that a lock file be installed with the corresponding alternate
2606device.  In order to avoid deadlocks, it is recommended that the locks
2607are acquired in the following order, and released in the reverse:
2608
2609        1. The symbolic link name, if any (/var/lock/LCK..modem)
2610        2. The "tty" name (/var/lock/LCK..ttyS2)
2611        3. The alternate device name (/var/lock/LCK..cua2)
2612
2613In the case of nested symbolic links, the lock files should be
2614installed in the order the symlinks are resolved.
2615
2616Under no circumstances should an application hold a lock while waiting
2617for another to be released.  In addition, applications which attempt
2618to create lock files for the corresponding alternate device names
2619should take into account the possibility of being used on a non-serial
2620port TTY, for which no alternate device would exist.
2621
2622        Pseudoterminals (PTYs)
2623
2624Pseudoterminals, or PTYs, are used to create login sessions or provide
2625other capabilities requiring a TTY line dicipline (including SLIP or
2626PPP capability) to arbitrary data-generation processes.  Each PTY has
2627a master side, named /dev/pty[p-za-e][0-9a-f], and a slave side, named
2628/dev/tty[p-za-e][0-9a-f].  The kernel arbitrates the use of PTYs by
2629allowing each master side to be opened only once.
2630
2631Once the master side has been opened, the corresponding slave device
2632can be used in the same manner as any TTY device.  The master and
2633slave devices are connected by the kernel, generating the equivalent
2634of a bidirectional pipe with TTY capabilities.
2635
2636Recent versions of the Linux kernels and GNU libc contain support for
2637the System V/Unix98 naming scheme for PTYs, which assigns a common
2638device, /dev/ptmx, to all the masters (opening it will automatically
2639give you a previously unassigned PTY) and a subdirectory, /dev/pts,
2640for the slaves; the slaves are named with decimal integers (/dev/pts/#
2641in our notation).  This removes the problem of exhausting the
2642namespace and enables the kernel to automatically create the device
2643nodes for the slaves on demand using the "devpts" filesystem.
2644
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