linux/Documentation/pinctrl.txt
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   1PINCTRL (PIN CONTROL) subsystem
   2This document outlines the pin control subsystem in Linux
   3
   4This subsystem deals with:
   5
   6- Enumerating and naming controllable pins
   7
   8- Multiplexing of pins, pads, fingers (etc) see below for details
   9
  10- Configuration of pins, pads, fingers (etc), such as software-controlled
  11  biasing and driving mode specific pins, such as pull-up/down, open drain,
  12  load capacitance etc.
  13
  14Top-level interface
  15===================
  16
  17Definition of PIN CONTROLLER:
  18
  19- A pin controller is a piece of hardware, usually a set of registers, that
  20  can control PINs. It may be able to multiplex, bias, set load capacitance,
  21  set drive strength etc for individual pins or groups of pins.
  22
  23Definition of PIN:
  24
  25- PINS are equal to pads, fingers, balls or whatever packaging input or
  26  output line you want to control and these are denoted by unsigned integers
  27  in the range 0..maxpin. This numberspace is local to each PIN CONTROLLER, so
  28  there may be several such number spaces in a system. This pin space may
  29  be sparse - i.e. there may be gaps in the space with numbers where no
  30  pin exists.
  31
  32When a PIN CONTROLLER is instantiated, it will register a descriptor to the
  33pin control framework, and this descriptor contains an array of pin descriptors
  34describing the pins handled by this specific pin controller.
  35
  36Here is an example of a PGA (Pin Grid Array) chip seen from underneath:
  37
  38        A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H
  39
  40   8    o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o
  41
  42   7    o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o
  43
  44   6    o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o
  45
  46   5    o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o
  47
  48   4    o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o
  49
  50   3    o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o
  51
  52   2    o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o
  53
  54   1    o   o   o   o   o   o   o   o
  55
  56To register a pin controller and name all the pins on this package we can do
  57this in our driver:
  58
  59#include <linux/pinctrl/pinctrl.h>
  60
  61const struct pinctrl_pin_desc foo_pins[] = {
  62      PINCTRL_PIN(0, "A8"),
  63      PINCTRL_PIN(1, "B8"),
  64      PINCTRL_PIN(2, "C8"),
  65      ...
  66      PINCTRL_PIN(61, "F1"),
  67      PINCTRL_PIN(62, "G1"),
  68      PINCTRL_PIN(63, "H1"),
  69};
  70
  71static struct pinctrl_desc foo_desc = {
  72        .name = "foo",
  73        .pins = foo_pins,
  74        .npins = ARRAY_SIZE(foo_pins),
  75        .maxpin = 63,
  76        .owner = THIS_MODULE,
  77};
  78
  79int __init foo_probe(void)
  80{
  81        struct pinctrl_dev *pctl;
  82
  83        pctl = pinctrl_register(&foo_desc, <PARENT>, NULL);
  84        if (IS_ERR(pctl))
  85                pr_err("could not register foo pin driver\n");
  86}
  87
  88To enable the pinctrl subsystem and the subgroups for PINMUX and PINCONF and
  89selected drivers, you need to select them from your machine's Kconfig entry,
  90since these are so tightly integrated with the machines they are used on.
  91See for example arch/arm/mach-u300/Kconfig for an example.
  92
  93Pins usually have fancier names than this. You can find these in the dataheet
  94for your chip. Notice that the core pinctrl.h file provides a fancy macro
  95called PINCTRL_PIN() to create the struct entries. As you can see I enumerated
  96the pins from 0 in the upper left corner to 63 in the lower right corner.
  97This enumeration was arbitrarily chosen, in practice you need to think
  98through your numbering system so that it matches the layout of registers
  99and such things in your driver, or the code may become complicated. You must
 100also consider matching of offsets to the GPIO ranges that may be handled by
 101the pin controller.
 102
 103For a padring with 467 pads, as opposed to actual pins, I used an enumeration
 104like this, walking around the edge of the chip, which seems to be industry
 105standard too (all these pads had names, too):
 106
 107
 108     0 ..... 104
 109   466        105
 110     .        .
 111     .        .
 112   358        224
 113    357 .... 225
 114
 115
 116Pin groups
 117==========
 118
 119Many controllers need to deal with groups of pins, so the pin controller
 120subsystem has a mechanism for enumerating groups of pins and retrieving the
 121actual enumerated pins that are part of a certain group.
 122
 123For example, say that we have a group of pins dealing with an SPI interface
 124on { 0, 8, 16, 24 }, and a group of pins dealing with an I2C interface on pins
 125on { 24, 25 }.
 126
 127These two groups are presented to the pin control subsystem by implementing
 128some generic pinctrl_ops like this:
 129
 130#include <linux/pinctrl/pinctrl.h>
 131
 132struct foo_group {
 133        const char *name;
 134        const unsigned int *pins;
 135        const unsigned num_pins;
 136};
 137
 138static const unsigned int spi0_pins[] = { 0, 8, 16, 24 };
 139static const unsigned int i2c0_pins[] = { 24, 25 };
 140
 141static const struct foo_group foo_groups[] = {
 142        {
 143                .name = "spi0_grp",
 144                .pins = spi0_pins,
 145                .num_pins = ARRAY_SIZE(spi0_pins),
 146        },
 147        {
 148                .name = "i2c0_grp",
 149                .pins = i2c0_pins,
 150                .num_pins = ARRAY_SIZE(i2c0_pins),
 151        },
 152};
 153
 154
 155static int foo_get_groups_count(struct pinctrl_dev *pctldev)
 156{
 157        return ARRAY_SIZE(foo_groups);
 158}
 159
 160static const char *foo_get_group_name(struct pinctrl_dev *pctldev,
 161                                       unsigned selector)
 162{
 163        return foo_groups[selector].name;
 164}
 165
 166static int foo_get_group_pins(struct pinctrl_dev *pctldev, unsigned selector,
 167                               unsigned ** const pins,
 168                               unsigned * const num_pins)
 169{
 170        *pins = (unsigned *) foo_groups[selector].pins;
 171        *num_pins = foo_groups[selector].num_pins;
 172        return 0;
 173}
 174
 175static struct pinctrl_ops foo_pctrl_ops = {
 176        .get_groups_count = foo_get_groups_count,
 177        .get_group_name = foo_get_group_name,
 178        .get_group_pins = foo_get_group_pins,
 179};
 180
 181
 182static struct pinctrl_desc foo_desc = {
 183       ...
 184       .pctlops = &foo_pctrl_ops,
 185};
 186
 187The pin control subsystem will call the .get_groups_count() function to
 188determine total number of legal selectors, then it will call the other functions
 189to retrieve the name and pins of the group. Maintaining the data structure of
 190the groups is up to the driver, this is just a simple example - in practice you
 191may need more entries in your group structure, for example specific register
 192ranges associated with each group and so on.
 193
 194
 195Pin configuration
 196=================
 197
 198Pins can sometimes be software-configured in an various ways, mostly related
 199to their electronic properties when used as inputs or outputs. For example you
 200may be able to make an output pin high impedance, or "tristate" meaning it is
 201effectively disconnected. You may be able to connect an input pin to VDD or GND
 202using a certain resistor value - pull up and pull down - so that the pin has a
 203stable value when nothing is driving the rail it is connected to, or when it's
 204unconnected.
 205
 206Pin configuration can be programmed either using the explicit APIs described
 207immediately below, or by adding configuration entries into the mapping table;
 208see section "Board/machine configuration" below.
 209
 210For example, a platform may do the following to pull up a pin to VDD:
 211
 212#include <linux/pinctrl/consumer.h>
 213
 214ret = pin_config_set("foo-dev", "FOO_GPIO_PIN", PLATFORM_X_PULL_UP);
 215
 216The format and meaning of the configuration parameter, PLATFORM_X_PULL_UP
 217above, is entirely defined by the pin controller driver.
 218
 219The pin configuration driver implements callbacks for changing pin
 220configuration in the pin controller ops like this:
 221
 222#include <linux/pinctrl/pinctrl.h>
 223#include <linux/pinctrl/pinconf.h>
 224#include "platform_x_pindefs.h"
 225
 226static int foo_pin_config_get(struct pinctrl_dev *pctldev,
 227                    unsigned offset,
 228                    unsigned long *config)
 229{
 230        struct my_conftype conf;
 231
 232        ... Find setting for pin @ offset ...
 233
 234        *config = (unsigned long) conf;
 235}
 236
 237static int foo_pin_config_set(struct pinctrl_dev *pctldev,
 238                    unsigned offset,
 239                    unsigned long config)
 240{
 241        struct my_conftype *conf = (struct my_conftype *) config;
 242
 243        switch (conf) {
 244                case PLATFORM_X_PULL_UP:
 245                ...
 246                }
 247        }
 248}
 249
 250static int foo_pin_config_group_get (struct pinctrl_dev *pctldev,
 251                    unsigned selector,
 252                    unsigned long *config)
 253{
 254        ...
 255}
 256
 257static int foo_pin_config_group_set (struct pinctrl_dev *pctldev,
 258                    unsigned selector,
 259                    unsigned long config)
 260{
 261        ...
 262}
 263
 264static struct pinconf_ops foo_pconf_ops = {
 265        .pin_config_get = foo_pin_config_get,
 266        .pin_config_set = foo_pin_config_set,
 267        .pin_config_group_get = foo_pin_config_group_get,
 268        .pin_config_group_set = foo_pin_config_group_set,
 269};
 270
 271/* Pin config operations are handled by some pin controller */
 272static struct pinctrl_desc foo_desc = {
 273        ...
 274        .confops = &foo_pconf_ops,
 275};
 276
 277Since some controllers have special logic for handling entire groups of pins
 278they can exploit the special whole-group pin control function. The
 279pin_config_group_set() callback is allowed to return the error code -EAGAIN,
 280for groups it does not want to handle, or if it just wants to do some
 281group-level handling and then fall through to iterate over all pins, in which
 282case each individual pin will be treated by separate pin_config_set() calls as
 283well.
 284
 285
 286Interaction with the GPIO subsystem
 287===================================
 288
 289The GPIO drivers may want to perform operations of various types on the same
 290physical pins that are also registered as pin controller pins.
 291
 292First and foremost, the two subsystems can be used as completely orthogonal,
 293see the section named "pin control requests from drivers" and
 294"drivers needing both pin control and GPIOs" below for details. But in some
 295situations a cross-subsystem mapping between pins and GPIOs is needed.
 296
 297Since the pin controller subsystem have its pinspace local to the pin
 298controller we need a mapping so that the pin control subsystem can figure out
 299which pin controller handles control of a certain GPIO pin. Since a single
 300pin controller may be muxing several GPIO ranges (typically SoCs that have
 301one set of pins but internally several GPIO silicon blocks, each modeled as
 302a struct gpio_chip) any number of GPIO ranges can be added to a pin controller
 303instance like this:
 304
 305struct gpio_chip chip_a;
 306struct gpio_chip chip_b;
 307
 308static struct pinctrl_gpio_range gpio_range_a = {
 309        .name = "chip a",
 310        .id = 0,
 311        .base = 32,
 312        .pin_base = 32,
 313        .npins = 16,
 314        .gc = &chip_a;
 315};
 316
 317static struct pinctrl_gpio_range gpio_range_b = {
 318        .name = "chip b",
 319        .id = 0,
 320        .base = 48,
 321        .pin_base = 64,
 322        .npins = 8,
 323        .gc = &chip_b;
 324};
 325
 326{
 327        struct pinctrl_dev *pctl;
 328        ...
 329        pinctrl_add_gpio_range(pctl, &gpio_range_a);
 330        pinctrl_add_gpio_range(pctl, &gpio_range_b);
 331}
 332
 333So this complex system has one pin controller handling two different
 334GPIO chips. "chip a" has 16 pins and "chip b" has 8 pins. The "chip a" and
 335"chip b" have different .pin_base, which means a start pin number of the
 336GPIO range.
 337
 338The GPIO range of "chip a" starts from the GPIO base of 32 and actual
 339pin range also starts from 32. However "chip b" has different starting
 340offset for the GPIO range and pin range. The GPIO range of "chip b" starts
 341from GPIO number 48, while the pin range of "chip b" starts from 64.
 342
 343We can convert a gpio number to actual pin number using this "pin_base".
 344They are mapped in the global GPIO pin space at:
 345
 346chip a:
 347 - GPIO range : [32 .. 47]
 348 - pin range  : [32 .. 47]
 349chip b:
 350 - GPIO range : [48 .. 55]
 351 - pin range  : [64 .. 71]
 352
 353When GPIO-specific functions in the pin control subsystem are called, these
 354ranges will be used to look up the appropriate pin controller by inspecting
 355and matching the pin to the pin ranges across all controllers. When a
 356pin controller handling the matching range is found, GPIO-specific functions
 357will be called on that specific pin controller.
 358
 359For all functionalities dealing with pin biasing, pin muxing etc, the pin
 360controller subsystem will subtract the range's .base offset from the passed
 361in gpio number, and add the ranges's .pin_base offset to retrive a pin number.
 362After that, the subsystem passes it on to the pin control driver, so the driver
 363will get an pin number into its handled number range. Further it is also passed
 364the range ID value, so that the pin controller knows which range it should
 365deal with.
 366
 367Calling pinctrl_add_gpio_range from pinctrl driver is DEPRECATED. Please see
 368section 2.1 of Documentation/devicetree/bindings/gpio/gpio.txt on how to bind
 369pinctrl and gpio drivers.
 370
 371PINMUX interfaces
 372=================
 373
 374These calls use the pinmux_* naming prefix.  No other calls should use that
 375prefix.
 376
 377
 378What is pinmuxing?
 379==================
 380
 381PINMUX, also known as padmux, ballmux, alternate functions or mission modes
 382is a way for chip vendors producing some kind of electrical packages to use
 383a certain physical pin (ball, pad, finger, etc) for multiple mutually exclusive
 384functions, depending on the application. By "application" in this context
 385we usually mean a way of soldering or wiring the package into an electronic
 386system, even though the framework makes it possible to also change the function
 387at runtime.
 388
 389Here is an example of a PGA (Pin Grid Array) chip seen from underneath:
 390
 391        A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H
 392      +---+
 393   8  | o | o   o   o   o   o   o   o
 394      |   |
 395   7  | o | o   o   o   o   o   o   o
 396      |   |
 397   6  | o | o   o   o   o   o   o   o
 398      +---+---+
 399   5  | o | o | o   o   o   o   o   o
 400      +---+---+               +---+
 401   4    o   o   o   o   o   o | o | o
 402                              |   |
 403   3    o   o   o   o   o   o | o | o
 404                              |   |
 405   2    o   o   o   o   o   o | o | o
 406      +-------+-------+-------+---+---+
 407   1  | o   o | o   o | o   o | o | o |
 408      +-------+-------+-------+---+---+
 409
 410This is not tetris. The game to think of is chess. Not all PGA/BGA packages
 411are chessboard-like, big ones have "holes" in some arrangement according to
 412different design patterns, but we're using this as a simple example. Of the
 413pins you see some will be taken by things like a few VCC and GND to feed power
 414to the chip, and quite a few will be taken by large ports like an external
 415memory interface. The remaining pins will often be subject to pin multiplexing.
 416
 417The example 8x8 PGA package above will have pin numbers 0 thru 63 assigned to
 418its physical pins. It will name the pins { A1, A2, A3 ... H6, H7, H8 } using
 419pinctrl_register_pins() and a suitable data set as shown earlier.
 420
 421In this 8x8 BGA package the pins { A8, A7, A6, A5 } can be used as an SPI port
 422(these are four pins: CLK, RXD, TXD, FRM). In that case, pin B5 can be used as
 423some general-purpose GPIO pin. However, in another setting, pins { A5, B5 } can
 424be used as an I2C port (these are just two pins: SCL, SDA). Needless to say,
 425we cannot use the SPI port and I2C port at the same time. However in the inside
 426of the package the silicon performing the SPI logic can alternatively be routed
 427out on pins { G4, G3, G2, G1 }.
 428
 429On the botton row at { A1, B1, C1, D1, E1, F1, G1, H1 } we have something
 430special - it's an external MMC bus that can be 2, 4 or 8 bits wide, and it will
 431consume 2, 4 or 8 pins respectively, so either { A1, B1 } are taken or
 432{ A1, B1, C1, D1 } or all of them. If we use all 8 bits, we cannot use the SPI
 433port on pins { G4, G3, G2, G1 } of course.
 434
 435This way the silicon blocks present inside the chip can be multiplexed "muxed"
 436out on different pin ranges. Often contemporary SoC (systems on chip) will
 437contain several I2C, SPI, SDIO/MMC, etc silicon blocks that can be routed to
 438different pins by pinmux settings.
 439
 440Since general-purpose I/O pins (GPIO) are typically always in shortage, it is
 441common to be able to use almost any pin as a GPIO pin if it is not currently
 442in use by some other I/O port.
 443
 444
 445Pinmux conventions
 446==================
 447
 448The purpose of the pinmux functionality in the pin controller subsystem is to
 449abstract and provide pinmux settings to the devices you choose to instantiate
 450in your machine configuration. It is inspired by the clk, GPIO and regulator
 451subsystems, so devices will request their mux setting, but it's also possible
 452to request a single pin for e.g. GPIO.
 453
 454Definitions:
 455
 456- FUNCTIONS can be switched in and out by a driver residing with the pin
 457  control subsystem in the drivers/pinctrl/* directory of the kernel. The
 458  pin control driver knows the possible functions. In the example above you can
 459  identify three pinmux functions, one for spi, one for i2c and one for mmc.
 460
 461- FUNCTIONS are assumed to be enumerable from zero in a one-dimensional array.
 462  In this case the array could be something like: { spi0, i2c0, mmc0 }
 463  for the three available functions.
 464
 465- FUNCTIONS have PIN GROUPS as defined on the generic level - so a certain
 466  function is *always* associated with a certain set of pin groups, could
 467  be just a single one, but could also be many. In the example above the
 468  function i2c is associated with the pins { A5, B5 }, enumerated as
 469  { 24, 25 } in the controller pin space.
 470
 471  The Function spi is associated with pin groups { A8, A7, A6, A5 }
 472  and { G4, G3, G2, G1 }, which are enumerated as { 0, 8, 16, 24 } and
 473  { 38, 46, 54, 62 } respectively.
 474
 475  Group names must be unique per pin controller, no two groups on the same
 476  controller may have the same name.
 477
 478- The combination of a FUNCTION and a PIN GROUP determine a certain function
 479  for a certain set of pins. The knowledge of the functions and pin groups
 480  and their machine-specific particulars are kept inside the pinmux driver,
 481  from the outside only the enumerators are known, and the driver core can:
 482
 483  - Request the name of a function with a certain selector (>= 0)
 484  - A list of groups associated with a certain function
 485  - Request that a certain group in that list to be activated for a certain
 486    function
 487
 488  As already described above, pin groups are in turn self-descriptive, so
 489  the core will retrieve the actual pin range in a certain group from the
 490  driver.
 491
 492- FUNCTIONS and GROUPS on a certain PIN CONTROLLER are MAPPED to a certain
 493  device by the board file, device tree or similar machine setup configuration
 494  mechanism, similar to how regulators are connected to devices, usually by
 495  name. Defining a pin controller, function and group thus uniquely identify
 496  the set of pins to be used by a certain device. (If only one possible group
 497  of pins is available for the function, no group name need to be supplied -
 498  the core will simply select the first and only group available.)
 499
 500  In the example case we can define that this particular machine shall
 501  use device spi0 with pinmux function fspi0 group gspi0 and i2c0 on function
 502  fi2c0 group gi2c0, on the primary pin controller, we get mappings
 503  like these:
 504
 505  {
 506    {"map-spi0", spi0, pinctrl0, fspi0, gspi0},
 507    {"map-i2c0", i2c0, pinctrl0, fi2c0, gi2c0}
 508  }
 509
 510  Every map must be assigned a state name, pin controller, device and
 511  function. The group is not compulsory - if it is omitted the first group
 512  presented by the driver as applicable for the function will be selected,
 513  which is useful for simple cases.
 514
 515  It is possible to map several groups to the same combination of device,
 516  pin controller and function. This is for cases where a certain function on
 517  a certain pin controller may use different sets of pins in different
 518  configurations.
 519
 520- PINS for a certain FUNCTION using a certain PIN GROUP on a certain
 521  PIN CONTROLLER are provided on a first-come first-serve basis, so if some
 522  other device mux setting or GPIO pin request has already taken your physical
 523  pin, you will be denied the use of it. To get (activate) a new setting, the
 524  old one has to be put (deactivated) first.
 525
 526Sometimes the documentation and hardware registers will be oriented around
 527pads (or "fingers") rather than pins - these are the soldering surfaces on the
 528silicon inside the package, and may or may not match the actual number of
 529pins/balls underneath the capsule. Pick some enumeration that makes sense to
 530you. Define enumerators only for the pins you can control if that makes sense.
 531
 532Assumptions:
 533
 534We assume that the number of possible function maps to pin groups is limited by
 535the hardware. I.e. we assume that there is no system where any function can be
 536mapped to any pin, like in a phone exchange. So the available pins groups for
 537a certain function will be limited to a few choices (say up to eight or so),
 538not hundreds or any amount of choices. This is the characteristic we have found
 539by inspecting available pinmux hardware, and a necessary assumption since we
 540expect pinmux drivers to present *all* possible function vs pin group mappings
 541to the subsystem.
 542
 543
 544Pinmux drivers
 545==============
 546
 547The pinmux core takes care of preventing conflicts on pins and calling
 548the pin controller driver to execute different settings.
 549
 550It is the responsibility of the pinmux driver to impose further restrictions
 551(say for example infer electronic limitations due to load etc) to determine
 552whether or not the requested function can actually be allowed, and in case it
 553is possible to perform the requested mux setting, poke the hardware so that
 554this happens.
 555
 556Pinmux drivers are required to supply a few callback functions, some are
 557optional. Usually the enable() and disable() functions are implemented,
 558writing values into some certain registers to activate a certain mux setting
 559for a certain pin.
 560
 561A simple driver for the above example will work by setting bits 0, 1, 2, 3 or 4
 562into some register named MUX to select a certain function with a certain
 563group of pins would work something like this:
 564
 565#include <linux/pinctrl/pinctrl.h>
 566#include <linux/pinctrl/pinmux.h>
 567
 568struct foo_group {
 569        const char *name;
 570        const unsigned int *pins;
 571        const unsigned num_pins;
 572};
 573
 574static const unsigned spi0_0_pins[] = { 0, 8, 16, 24 };
 575static const unsigned spi0_1_pins[] = { 38, 46, 54, 62 };
 576static const unsigned i2c0_pins[] = { 24, 25 };
 577static const unsigned mmc0_1_pins[] = { 56, 57 };
 578static const unsigned mmc0_2_pins[] = { 58, 59 };
 579static const unsigned mmc0_3_pins[] = { 60, 61, 62, 63 };
 580
 581static const struct foo_group foo_groups[] = {
 582        {
 583                .name = "spi0_0_grp",
 584                .pins = spi0_0_pins,
 585                .num_pins = ARRAY_SIZE(spi0_0_pins),
 586        },
 587        {
 588                .name = "spi0_1_grp",
 589                .pins = spi0_1_pins,
 590                .num_pins = ARRAY_SIZE(spi0_1_pins),
 591        },
 592        {
 593                .name = "i2c0_grp",
 594                .pins = i2c0_pins,
 595                .num_pins = ARRAY_SIZE(i2c0_pins),
 596        },
 597        {
 598                .name = "mmc0_1_grp",
 599                .pins = mmc0_1_pins,
 600                .num_pins = ARRAY_SIZE(mmc0_1_pins),
 601        },
 602        {
 603                .name = "mmc0_2_grp",
 604                .pins = mmc0_2_pins,
 605                .num_pins = ARRAY_SIZE(mmc0_2_pins),
 606        },
 607        {
 608                .name = "mmc0_3_grp",
 609                .pins = mmc0_3_pins,
 610                .num_pins = ARRAY_SIZE(mmc0_3_pins),
 611        },
 612};
 613
 614
 615static int foo_get_groups_count(struct pinctrl_dev *pctldev)
 616{
 617        return ARRAY_SIZE(foo_groups);
 618}
 619
 620static const char *foo_get_group_name(struct pinctrl_dev *pctldev,
 621                                       unsigned selector)
 622{
 623        return foo_groups[selector].name;
 624}
 625
 626static int foo_get_group_pins(struct pinctrl_dev *pctldev, unsigned selector,
 627                               unsigned ** const pins,
 628                               unsigned * const num_pins)
 629{
 630        *pins = (unsigned *) foo_groups[selector].pins;
 631        *num_pins = foo_groups[selector].num_pins;
 632        return 0;
 633}
 634
 635static struct pinctrl_ops foo_pctrl_ops = {
 636        .get_groups_count = foo_get_groups_count,
 637        .get_group_name = foo_get_group_name,
 638        .get_group_pins = foo_get_group_pins,
 639};
 640
 641struct foo_pmx_func {
 642        const char *name;
 643        const char * const *groups;
 644        const unsigned num_groups;
 645};
 646
 647static const char * const spi0_groups[] = { "spi0_0_grp", "spi0_1_grp" };
 648static const char * const i2c0_groups[] = { "i2c0_grp" };
 649static const char * const mmc0_groups[] = { "mmc0_1_grp", "mmc0_2_grp",
 650                                        "mmc0_3_grp" };
 651
 652static const struct foo_pmx_func foo_functions[] = {
 653        {
 654                .name = "spi0",
 655                .groups = spi0_groups,
 656                .num_groups = ARRAY_SIZE(spi0_groups),
 657        },
 658        {
 659                .name = "i2c0",
 660                .groups = i2c0_groups,
 661                .num_groups = ARRAY_SIZE(i2c0_groups),
 662        },
 663        {
 664                .name = "mmc0",
 665                .groups = mmc0_groups,
 666                .num_groups = ARRAY_SIZE(mmc0_groups),
 667        },
 668};
 669
 670int foo_get_functions_count(struct pinctrl_dev *pctldev)
 671{
 672        return ARRAY_SIZE(foo_functions);
 673}
 674
 675const char *foo_get_fname(struct pinctrl_dev *pctldev, unsigned selector)
 676{
 677        return foo_functions[selector].name;
 678}
 679
 680static int foo_get_groups(struct pinctrl_dev *pctldev, unsigned selector,
 681                          const char * const **groups,
 682                          unsigned * const num_groups)
 683{
 684        *groups = foo_functions[selector].groups;
 685        *num_groups = foo_functions[selector].num_groups;
 686        return 0;
 687}
 688
 689int foo_enable(struct pinctrl_dev *pctldev, unsigned selector,
 690                unsigned group)
 691{
 692        u8 regbit = (1 << selector + group);
 693
 694        writeb((readb(MUX)|regbit), MUX)
 695        return 0;
 696}
 697
 698void foo_disable(struct pinctrl_dev *pctldev, unsigned selector,
 699                unsigned group)
 700{
 701        u8 regbit = (1 << selector + group);
 702
 703        writeb((readb(MUX) & ~(regbit)), MUX)
 704        return 0;
 705}
 706
 707struct pinmux_ops foo_pmxops = {
 708        .get_functions_count = foo_get_functions_count,
 709        .get_function_name = foo_get_fname,
 710        .get_function_groups = foo_get_groups,
 711        .enable = foo_enable,
 712        .disable = foo_disable,
 713};
 714
 715/* Pinmux operations are handled by some pin controller */
 716static struct pinctrl_desc foo_desc = {
 717        ...
 718        .pctlops = &foo_pctrl_ops,
 719        .pmxops = &foo_pmxops,
 720};
 721
 722In the example activating muxing 0 and 1 at the same time setting bits
 7230 and 1, uses one pin in common so they would collide.
 724
 725The beauty of the pinmux subsystem is that since it keeps track of all
 726pins and who is using them, it will already have denied an impossible
 727request like that, so the driver does not need to worry about such
 728things - when it gets a selector passed in, the pinmux subsystem makes
 729sure no other device or GPIO assignment is already using the selected
 730pins. Thus bits 0 and 1 in the control register will never be set at the
 731same time.
 732
 733All the above functions are mandatory to implement for a pinmux driver.
 734
 735
 736Pin control interaction with the GPIO subsystem
 737===============================================
 738
 739The public pinmux API contains two functions named pinctrl_request_gpio()
 740and pinctrl_free_gpio(). These two functions shall *ONLY* be called from
 741gpiolib-based drivers as part of their gpio_request() and
 742gpio_free() semantics. Likewise the pinctrl_gpio_direction_[input|output]
 743shall only be called from within respective gpio_direction_[input|output]
 744gpiolib implementation.
 745
 746NOTE that platforms and individual drivers shall *NOT* request GPIO pins to be
 747controlled e.g. muxed in. Instead, implement a proper gpiolib driver and have
 748that driver request proper muxing and other control for its pins.
 749
 750The function list could become long, especially if you can convert every
 751individual pin into a GPIO pin independent of any other pins, and then try
 752the approach to define every pin as a function.
 753
 754In this case, the function array would become 64 entries for each GPIO
 755setting and then the device functions.
 756
 757For this reason there are two functions a pin control driver can implement
 758to enable only GPIO on an individual pin: .gpio_request_enable() and
 759.gpio_disable_free().
 760
 761This function will pass in the affected GPIO range identified by the pin
 762controller core, so you know which GPIO pins are being affected by the request
 763operation.
 764
 765If your driver needs to have an indication from the framework of whether the
 766GPIO pin shall be used for input or output you can implement the
 767.gpio_set_direction() function. As described this shall be called from the
 768gpiolib driver and the affected GPIO range, pin offset and desired direction
 769will be passed along to this function.
 770
 771Alternatively to using these special functions, it is fully allowed to use
 772named functions for each GPIO pin, the pinctrl_request_gpio() will attempt to
 773obtain the function "gpioN" where "N" is the global GPIO pin number if no
 774special GPIO-handler is registered.
 775
 776
 777Board/machine configuration
 778==================================
 779
 780Boards and machines define how a certain complete running system is put
 781together, including how GPIOs and devices are muxed, how regulators are
 782constrained and how the clock tree looks. Of course pinmux settings are also
 783part of this.
 784
 785A pin controller configuration for a machine looks pretty much like a simple
 786regulator configuration, so for the example array above we want to enable i2c
 787and spi on the second function mapping:
 788
 789#include <linux/pinctrl/machine.h>
 790
 791static const struct pinctrl_map mapping[] __initconst = {
 792        {
 793                .dev_name = "foo-spi.0",
 794                .name = PINCTRL_STATE_DEFAULT,
 795                .type = PIN_MAP_TYPE_MUX_GROUP,
 796                .ctrl_dev_name = "pinctrl-foo",
 797                .data.mux.function = "spi0",
 798        },
 799        {
 800                .dev_name = "foo-i2c.0",
 801                .name = PINCTRL_STATE_DEFAULT,
 802                .type = PIN_MAP_TYPE_MUX_GROUP,
 803                .ctrl_dev_name = "pinctrl-foo",
 804                .data.mux.function = "i2c0",
 805        },
 806        {
 807                .dev_name = "foo-mmc.0",
 808                .name = PINCTRL_STATE_DEFAULT,
 809                .type = PIN_MAP_TYPE_MUX_GROUP,
 810                .ctrl_dev_name = "pinctrl-foo",
 811                .data.mux.function = "mmc0",
 812        },
 813};
 814
 815The dev_name here matches to the unique device name that can be used to look
 816up the device struct (just like with clockdev or regulators). The function name
 817must match a function provided by the pinmux driver handling this pin range.
 818
 819As you can see we may have several pin controllers on the system and thus
 820we need to specify which one of them that contain the functions we wish
 821to map.
 822
 823You register this pinmux mapping to the pinmux subsystem by simply:
 824
 825       ret = pinctrl_register_mappings(mapping, ARRAY_SIZE(mapping));
 826
 827Since the above construct is pretty common there is a helper macro to make
 828it even more compact which assumes you want to use pinctrl-foo and position
 8290 for mapping, for example:
 830
 831static struct pinctrl_map __initdata mapping[] = {
 832        PIN_MAP_MUX_GROUP("foo-i2c.o", PINCTRL_STATE_DEFAULT, "pinctrl-foo", NULL, "i2c0"),
 833};
 834
 835The mapping table may also contain pin configuration entries. It's common for
 836each pin/group to have a number of configuration entries that affect it, so
 837the table entries for configuration reference an array of config parameters
 838and values. An example using the convenience macros is shown below:
 839
 840static unsigned long i2c_grp_configs[] = {
 841        FOO_PIN_DRIVEN,
 842        FOO_PIN_PULLUP,
 843};
 844
 845static unsigned long i2c_pin_configs[] = {
 846        FOO_OPEN_COLLECTOR,
 847        FOO_SLEW_RATE_SLOW,
 848};
 849
 850static struct pinctrl_map __initdata mapping[] = {
 851        PIN_MAP_MUX_GROUP("foo-i2c.0", PINCTRL_STATE_DEFAULT, "pinctrl-foo", "i2c0", "i2c0"),
 852        PIN_MAP_CONFIGS_GROUP("foo-i2c.0", PINCTRL_STATE_DEFAULT, "pinctrl-foo", "i2c0", i2c_grp_configs),
 853        PIN_MAP_CONFIGS_PIN("foo-i2c.0", PINCTRL_STATE_DEFAULT, "pinctrl-foo", "i2c0scl", i2c_pin_configs),
 854        PIN_MAP_CONFIGS_PIN("foo-i2c.0", PINCTRL_STATE_DEFAULT, "pinctrl-foo", "i2c0sda", i2c_pin_configs),
 855};
 856
 857Finally, some devices expect the mapping table to contain certain specific
 858named states. When running on hardware that doesn't need any pin controller
 859configuration, the mapping table must still contain those named states, in
 860order to explicitly indicate that the states were provided and intended to
 861be empty. Table entry macro PIN_MAP_DUMMY_STATE serves the purpose of defining
 862a named state without causing any pin controller to be programmed:
 863
 864static struct pinctrl_map __initdata mapping[] = {
 865        PIN_MAP_DUMMY_STATE("foo-i2c.0", PINCTRL_STATE_DEFAULT),
 866};
 867
 868
 869Complex mappings
 870================
 871
 872As it is possible to map a function to different groups of pins an optional
 873.group can be specified like this:
 874
 875...
 876{
 877        .dev_name = "foo-spi.0",
 878        .name = "spi0-pos-A",
 879        .type = PIN_MAP_TYPE_MUX_GROUP,
 880        .ctrl_dev_name = "pinctrl-foo",
 881        .function = "spi0",
 882        .group = "spi0_0_grp",
 883},
 884{
 885        .dev_name = "foo-spi.0",
 886        .name = "spi0-pos-B",
 887        .type = PIN_MAP_TYPE_MUX_GROUP,
 888        .ctrl_dev_name = "pinctrl-foo",
 889        .function = "spi0",
 890        .group = "spi0_1_grp",
 891},
 892...
 893
 894This example mapping is used to switch between two positions for spi0 at
 895runtime, as described further below under the heading "Runtime pinmuxing".
 896
 897Further it is possible for one named state to affect the muxing of several
 898groups of pins, say for example in the mmc0 example above, where you can
 899additively expand the mmc0 bus from 2 to 4 to 8 pins. If we want to use all
 900three groups for a total of 2+2+4 = 8 pins (for an 8-bit MMC bus as is the
 901case), we define a mapping like this:
 902
 903...
 904{
 905        .dev_name = "foo-mmc.0",
 906        .name = "2bit"
 907        .type = PIN_MAP_TYPE_MUX_GROUP,
 908        .ctrl_dev_name = "pinctrl-foo",
 909        .function = "mmc0",
 910        .group = "mmc0_1_grp",
 911},
 912{
 913        .dev_name = "foo-mmc.0",
 914        .name = "4bit"
 915        .type = PIN_MAP_TYPE_MUX_GROUP,
 916        .ctrl_dev_name = "pinctrl-foo",
 917        .function = "mmc0",
 918        .group = "mmc0_1_grp",
 919},
 920{
 921        .dev_name = "foo-mmc.0",
 922        .name = "4bit"
 923        .type = PIN_MAP_TYPE_MUX_GROUP,
 924        .ctrl_dev_name = "pinctrl-foo",
 925        .function = "mmc0",
 926        .group = "mmc0_2_grp",
 927},
 928{
 929        .dev_name = "foo-mmc.0",
 930        .name = "8bit"
 931        .type = PIN_MAP_TYPE_MUX_GROUP,
 932        .ctrl_dev_name = "pinctrl-foo",
 933        .function = "mmc0",
 934        .group = "mmc0_1_grp",
 935},
 936{
 937        .dev_name = "foo-mmc.0",
 938        .name = "8bit"
 939        .type = PIN_MAP_TYPE_MUX_GROUP,
 940        .ctrl_dev_name = "pinctrl-foo",
 941        .function = "mmc0",
 942        .group = "mmc0_2_grp",
 943},
 944{
 945        .dev_name = "foo-mmc.0",
 946        .name = "8bit"
 947        .type = PIN_MAP_TYPE_MUX_GROUP,
 948        .ctrl_dev_name = "pinctrl-foo",
 949        .function = "mmc0",
 950        .group = "mmc0_3_grp",
 951},
 952...
 953
 954The result of grabbing this mapping from the device with something like
 955this (see next paragraph):
 956
 957        p = devm_pinctrl_get(dev);
 958        s = pinctrl_lookup_state(p, "8bit");
 959        ret = pinctrl_select_state(p, s);
 960
 961or more simply:
 962
 963        p = devm_pinctrl_get_select(dev, "8bit");
 964
 965Will be that you activate all the three bottom records in the mapping at
 966once. Since they share the same name, pin controller device, function and
 967device, and since we allow multiple groups to match to a single device, they
 968all get selected, and they all get enabled and disable simultaneously by the
 969pinmux core.
 970
 971
 972Pin control requests from drivers
 973=================================
 974
 975Generally it is discouraged to let individual drivers get and enable pin
 976control. So if possible, handle the pin control in platform code or some other
 977place where you have access to all the affected struct device * pointers. In
 978some cases where a driver needs to e.g. switch between different mux mappings
 979at runtime this is not possible.
 980
 981A typical case is if a driver needs to switch bias of pins from normal
 982operation and going to sleep, moving from the PINCTRL_STATE_DEFAULT to
 983PINCTRL_STATE_SLEEP at runtime, re-biasing or even re-muxing pins to save
 984current in sleep mode.
 985
 986A driver may request a certain control state to be activated, usually just the
 987default state like this:
 988
 989#include <linux/pinctrl/consumer.h>
 990
 991struct foo_state {
 992       struct pinctrl *p;
 993       struct pinctrl_state *s;
 994       ...
 995};
 996
 997foo_probe()
 998{
 999        /* Allocate a state holder named "foo" etc */
1000        struct foo_state *foo = ...;
1001
1002        foo->p = devm_pinctrl_get(&device);
1003        if (IS_ERR(foo->p)) {
1004                /* FIXME: clean up "foo" here */
1005                return PTR_ERR(foo->p);
1006        }
1007
1008        foo->s = pinctrl_lookup_state(foo->p, PINCTRL_STATE_DEFAULT);
1009        if (IS_ERR(foo->s)) {
1010                /* FIXME: clean up "foo" here */
1011                return PTR_ERR(s);
1012        }
1013
1014        ret = pinctrl_select_state(foo->s);
1015        if (ret < 0) {
1016                /* FIXME: clean up "foo" here */
1017                return ret;
1018        }
1019}
1020
1021This get/lookup/select/put sequence can just as well be handled by bus drivers
1022if you don't want each and every driver to handle it and you know the
1023arrangement on your bus.
1024
1025The semantics of the pinctrl APIs are:
1026
1027- pinctrl_get() is called in process context to obtain a handle to all pinctrl
1028  information for a given client device. It will allocate a struct from the
1029  kernel memory to hold the pinmux state. All mapping table parsing or similar
1030  slow operations take place within this API.
1031
1032- devm_pinctrl_get() is a variant of pinctrl_get() that causes pinctrl_put()
1033  to be called automatically on the retrieved pointer when the associated
1034  device is removed. It is recommended to use this function over plain
1035  pinctrl_get().
1036
1037- pinctrl_lookup_state() is called in process context to obtain a handle to a
1038  specific state for a the client device. This operation may be slow too.
1039
1040- pinctrl_select_state() programs pin controller hardware according to the
1041  definition of the state as given by the mapping table. In theory this is a
1042  fast-path operation, since it only involved blasting some register settings
1043  into hardware. However, note that some pin controllers may have their
1044  registers on a slow/IRQ-based bus, so client devices should not assume they
1045  can call pinctrl_select_state() from non-blocking contexts.
1046
1047- pinctrl_put() frees all information associated with a pinctrl handle.
1048
1049- devm_pinctrl_put() is a variant of pinctrl_put() that may be used to
1050  explicitly destroy a pinctrl object returned by devm_pinctrl_get().
1051  However, use of this function will be rare, due to the automatic cleanup
1052  that will occur even without calling it.
1053
1054  pinctrl_get() must be paired with a plain pinctrl_put().
1055  pinctrl_get() may not be paired with devm_pinctrl_put().
1056  devm_pinctrl_get() can optionally be paired with devm_pinctrl_put().
1057  devm_pinctrl_get() may not be paired with plain pinctrl_put().
1058
1059Usually the pin control core handled the get/put pair and call out to the
1060device drivers bookkeeping operations, like checking available functions and
1061the associated pins, whereas the enable/disable pass on to the pin controller
1062driver which takes care of activating and/or deactivating the mux setting by
1063quickly poking some registers.
1064
1065The pins are allocated for your device when you issue the devm_pinctrl_get()
1066call, after this you should be able to see this in the debugfs listing of all
1067pins.
1068
1069NOTE: the pinctrl system will return -EPROBE_DEFER if it cannot find the
1070requested pinctrl handles, for example if the pinctrl driver has not yet
1071registered. Thus make sure that the error path in your driver gracefully
1072cleans up and is ready to retry the probing later in the startup process.
1073
1074
1075Drivers needing both pin control and GPIOs
1076==========================================
1077
1078Again, it is discouraged to let drivers lookup and select pin control states
1079themselves, but again sometimes this is unavoidable.
1080
1081So say that your driver is fetching its resources like this:
1082
1083#include <linux/pinctrl/consumer.h>
1084#include <linux/gpio.h>
1085
1086struct pinctrl *pinctrl;
1087int gpio;
1088
1089pinctrl = devm_pinctrl_get_select_default(&dev);
1090gpio = devm_gpio_request(&dev, 14, "foo");
1091
1092Here we first request a certain pin state and then request GPIO 14 to be
1093used. If you're using the subsystems orthogonally like this, you should
1094nominally always get your pinctrl handle and select the desired pinctrl
1095state BEFORE requesting the GPIO. This is a semantic convention to avoid
1096situations that can be electrically unpleasant, you will certainly want to
1097mux in and bias pins in a certain way before the GPIO subsystems starts to
1098deal with them.
1099
1100The above can be hidden: using pinctrl hogs, the pin control driver may be
1101setting up the config and muxing for the pins when it is probing,
1102nevertheless orthogonal to the GPIO subsystem.
1103
1104But there are also situations where it makes sense for the GPIO subsystem
1105to communicate directly with with the pinctrl subsystem, using the latter
1106as a back-end. This is when the GPIO driver may call out to the functions
1107described in the section "Pin control interaction with the GPIO subsystem"
1108above. This only involves per-pin multiplexing, and will be completely
1109hidden behind the gpio_*() function namespace. In this case, the driver
1110need not interact with the pin control subsystem at all.
1111
1112If a pin control driver and a GPIO driver is dealing with the same pins
1113and the use cases involve multiplexing, you MUST implement the pin controller
1114as a back-end for the GPIO driver like this, unless your hardware design
1115is such that the GPIO controller can override the pin controller's
1116multiplexing state through hardware without the need to interact with the
1117pin control system.
1118
1119
1120System pin control hogging
1121==========================
1122
1123Pin control map entries can be hogged by the core when the pin controller
1124is registered. This means that the core will attempt to call pinctrl_get(),
1125lookup_state() and select_state() on it immediately after the pin control
1126device has been registered.
1127
1128This occurs for mapping table entries where the client device name is equal
1129to the pin controller device name, and the state name is PINCTRL_STATE_DEFAULT.
1130
1131{
1132        .dev_name = "pinctrl-foo",
1133        .name = PINCTRL_STATE_DEFAULT,
1134        .type = PIN_MAP_TYPE_MUX_GROUP,
1135        .ctrl_dev_name = "pinctrl-foo",
1136        .function = "power_func",
1137},
1138
1139Since it may be common to request the core to hog a few always-applicable
1140mux settings on the primary pin controller, there is a convenience macro for
1141this:
1142
1143PIN_MAP_MUX_GROUP_HOG_DEFAULT("pinctrl-foo", NULL /* group */, "power_func")
1144
1145This gives the exact same result as the above construction.
1146
1147
1148Runtime pinmuxing
1149=================
1150
1151It is possible to mux a certain function in and out at runtime, say to move
1152an SPI port from one set of pins to another set of pins. Say for example for
1153spi0 in the example above, we expose two different groups of pins for the same
1154function, but with different named in the mapping as described under
1155"Advanced mapping" above. So that for an SPI device, we have two states named
1156"pos-A" and "pos-B".
1157
1158This snippet first muxes the function in the pins defined by group A, enables
1159it, disables and releases it, and muxes it in on the pins defined by group B:
1160
1161#include <linux/pinctrl/consumer.h>
1162
1163struct pinctrl *p;
1164struct pinctrl_state *s1, *s2;
1165
1166foo_probe()
1167{
1168        /* Setup */
1169        p = devm_pinctrl_get(&device);
1170        if (IS_ERR(p))
1171                ...
1172
1173        s1 = pinctrl_lookup_state(foo->p, "pos-A");
1174        if (IS_ERR(s1))
1175                ...
1176
1177        s2 = pinctrl_lookup_state(foo->p, "pos-B");
1178        if (IS_ERR(s2))
1179                ...
1180}
1181
1182foo_switch()
1183{
1184        /* Enable on position A */
1185        ret = pinctrl_select_state(s1);
1186        if (ret < 0)
1187            ...
1188
1189        ...
1190
1191        /* Enable on position B */
1192        ret = pinctrl_select_state(s2);
1193        if (ret < 0)
1194            ...
1195
1196        ...
1197}
1198
1199The above has to be done from process context. The reservation of the pins
1200will be done when the state is activated, so in effect one specific pin
1201can be used by different functions at different times on a running system.
1202
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