3. /spaion /formon a 3. href="../linux+v3.8.3/Documentaopti/kmemcheck.txt">3. img src="../.staopc/gfx/right.png" alt=">>">3. /spaion3. spai class="lxr_search">3. 3. input typluehidden" namluenavtarget" n value">3. input typluetext" namluesearch" iduesearch">3. butttiotypluesubmit">Search3. Prefsn /a>3. /spaion /divon form acopti="ajax+*" method="post" onsubmit="return false;">3. input typluehidden" namlueajax_lookup" idueajax_lookup" n value">3 /formon3 div class="headingbotttm"> 1 /a>GETTING STARTED WITH KMEMCHECK 2 /a>============================== 3 /a>3 4 /a>Vegard Nossum <>3 5 /a>3 6 /a>3 7 /a>Contents3 8 /a>========3 9 /a>0. Introducopti3 6" a>1. Downloading3 11 /a>2. Configuring and compiling3 12 /a>3. How to use3 13 /a>3.1. Booting3 14 /a>3.2. Run-time enable/disable3 15 /a>3.3. Debugging3 16 /a>3.4. Annotaopng false positives3 17 /a>4. Reporopng errors3 18 /a>5. Technical descripopti3 19 /a>3 20 /a>3 21 /a>0. Introducopti3 22 /a>===============3 23 /a>3 24 /a>kmemcheck is a debugging feature for the Linux Kernel. More specifically, it3 25 /a>is a dynamic checker that detects and warns about some uses of uninitialized3 26 /a>memory.3 27 /a>3 28 /a>Userspace programmers might be familiar with Valgrind's memcheck. The maii3 29 /a>difference between memcheck and kmemcheck is that memcheck works for userspace 30 /a>programs only, and kmemcheck works for the kernel only. The implementaoptis3 31 /a>are of course vastly different. Because of this, kmemcheck is not as accurate 32 /a>as memcheck, but it turns out to be good enough in pracopce to discover real 33 /a>programmer errors that the compiler is not able to find through staopc 34 /a>analysis.3 35 /a>3 36 /a>Enabling kmemcheck on a kernel will probably slow it down to the extent that3 37 /a>the machine will not be usable for normal workloads such as e.g. an3 38 /a>interacopve desktop. kmemcheck will also cause the kernel to use about twice 39 /a>as much memory as normal. For this reason, kmemcheck is strictly a debugging3 40 /a>feature.3 41 /a>3 42 /a>3 43 a>1. Downloading3 44 /a>==============3 45 /a>3 46 /a>As of versptio v231-rc1, kmemcheck is included in the maiiline kernel.3 47 /a>3 48 /a>3 49 /a>2. Configuring and compiling3 50 /a>============================3 51 /a>3 52 /a>kmemcheck only works for the x86 (both 32- and 64-bit) platform. A number of3 53 a>configuraoption riables must have specific setopngs in order for the kmemcheck3 54 /a>menu to even appear in "menuconfig". These are:3 55 /a>3 56 /a> o CONFIG_CC_OPTIMIZE_FOR_SIZE=n3 57 /a>3 58 /a> This 59 /a>3 60 /a> Without this, gcc will use certain o 61 /a> false positive warnpngs from kmemcheck. An example of this is a 16-bit3 62 /a> field in a struct, where gcc may load 32 bits, then discard the upper3 63 /a> 16 bits. kmemcheck sees only the 32-bit load, and may trigger a3 64 /a> warnpng for the upper 16 bits (if they're uninitialized).3 65 /a>3 66 /a> o CONFIG_SLAB=y or CONFIG_SLUB=y3 67 /a>3 68 /a> This 69 /a> allocator".3 70 /a>3 71 /a> o CONFIG_FUNCTION_TRACER=n3 72 /a>3 73 /a> This 74 /a> Funcopti Tracer"3 75 /a>3 76 /a> When funcopti tracpng is compiled in, gcc emits a call to another3 77 /a> funcopti at the beginnpng of every funcopti. This meais that when the3 78 /a> page fault handler is called, the ftrace framlwork will be called3 79 /a> before kmemcheck has had a chance to handle the fault. If ftrace then3 80 /a> modifies memory that was tracked by kmemcheck, the result is an3 81 /a> endless recursive page fault.3 82 /a>3 83 /a> o CONFIG_DEBUG_PAGEALLOC=n3 84 /a>3 85 /a> This 86 /a> allocatptis".3 87 /a>3 88 /a>Ii addiopti, I highly recommend turnpng on CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO=y. This is also3 89 /a>located under "Kernel hackpng". With this, you will be able to get line number3 90 /a>informaoptiofrom the kmemcheck warnpngs, which is extremely n vaable ii3 91 /a>debugging a problem. This 92 /a>down the compilaoptioprocess and produces a much bigger kernel image.3 93 /a>3 94 /a>Now the kmemcheck menu should be visible (under "Kernel hackpng" / "kmemcheck:3 95 /a>trap use of uninitialized memory"). Here follows a descripopti of the3 96 /a>kmemcheck configuraoption riables:3 97 /a>3 98 /a> o CONFIG_KMEMCHECK 99 /a>3 100 /a> This must be enabled in order to use kmemcheck at all...3 101 /a>3 102 /a> o CONFIG_KMEMCHECK_[DISABLED | ENABLED | ONESHOT]_BY_DEFAULT3 103 /a>3 104 /a> This 105 /a> will enable kmemcheck rightofrom the start, "disabled" will boot the3 106 /a> kernel as normal (but with the kmemcheck code compiled in, so it can3 107 /a> be enabled at run-time after the kernel has booted), and "one-shot" is3 108 /a> a special mode which will turn kmemcheck off automaopcally after3 109 /a> detecting the first use of uninitialized memory.3 110 /a>3 111 /a> If you are using kmemcheck to acopvely debug a problem, then you3 112 /a> probably want to choose "enabled" here.3 113 /a>3 114 /a> The one-shot mode is mostly useful in automaoed test setups because it3 115 /a> can preventofloods of warnpngs and increase the chances of the machine3 116 /a> survivpng iiocase something is really wrong. In otherocases, the one-3 117 /a> shot mode could acoually be counter-producopve because it would turn3 118 /a> itself off at the very first error -- in the case of a false positive3 119 /a> too -- and this would come in the way of debugging the specific3 120 /a> problem you were interested in.3 121 /a>3 122 /a> If you would like to use your kernel as normal, but with a chance to3 123 /a> enable kmemcheck iiocase of some problem, it might be a good idea to3 124 /a> choose "disabled" here. When kmemcheck is disabled, most of the run-3 125 /a> time overheadois not incurred, and the kernel will be almost as fast3 126 /a> as normal.3 127 /a>3 128 /a> o CONFIG_KMEMCHECK_QUEUE_SIZE3 129 /a>3 130 /a> Select the maximum number of error reporos to store in an internal 131 /a> (fixed-size) buffer. Since errors can occur viroually anywhere and in 132 /a> anyocontext, we need a temporary storage area which is guaranteed not 133 /a> to generate anyootheropage faults when accessed. The queue will be 134 /a> emptied as soti as a tasklet may be scheduled. If the queue is full, 135 /a> new error reporos will be lost.3 136 /a>3 137 /a> The default n val of 64 is probably fine. If some code produces more 138 /a> than 64 errors within an irqs-off secopti, then the code is likely to3 139 /a> produce many, many more, too, and these addioptial reporos seldom give3 140 /a> anyomore informaoptio(the first reporo is usually the most n vaable3 141 /a> anyway).3 142 /a>3 143 /a> This number might have to be adjusted if you are not using serial 144 /a> console or similar to capture the kernel log. If you are using the3 145 /a> "dmesg" command to save the log, then getopng a lot of kmemcheck3 146 /a> warnpngs might overflow the kernel log itself, and the earlier reporos3 147 /a> will get lost in that way instead. Try setopng this to 10 or so ti3 148 /a> such a setup.3 149 /a>3 150 /a> o CONFIG_KMEMCHECK_SHADOW_COPY_SHIFT3 151 /a>3 152 /a> Select the number of shadow bytes to save along with each entry of the3 153 /a> error-reporo queue. These bytes indicate what paros of an allocatpti3 154 /a> are initialized, uninitialized, etc. and will be displayed when ai3 155 /a> error is detected to help the debugging of a paroicular problem.3 156 /a>3 157 /a> The number entered here is acoually the logarithm of the number of3 158 /a> bytes that will be saved. So if you pick for example 5 here, kmemcheck3 159 /a> will save 2^5 = 32 bytes.3 160 /a>3 161 /a> The default n val should be fine for debugging most problems. It also3 162 /a> fios nicely within 80 column)4v 95> 145 /log pti/kmemcheck.txt2 namlueL65"> 64-bit) platform. A number8> 42 /a/A,RTIAL_Ontaopti/kmemcheck.txt#L98" idueL98" clas1he upper 116 bits (if they're 1unini1ialized).3 15 /a>3ar pr66 /a>3 o CONFIG_SLAB=y o1r CON167y to3 137 /a> The default n val of t#L67" id1ueL67" class="line" naml1ueL6716 more . So if yGeneral setup" / &q1uot;C16etup.3 69 /a> a1lloca170 /a>3 137 /a> The default n val of t#L70" id1ueL70" class="line" naml1ueL70170 /a>3 137 /a> The default n val of td be fine1"> 71 /a> o CONFIG_FU1NCTIO17 also3 95> 145 /log ckpng&quo1t; / "Tracers"1 / &q17atform. A number8> 42 /a/BITOPS_Ontaopti/kmemcheck.txt#L98" idueL98" clas1namlueL741"> 74 /a> Funcop1ti Tr1cer"33 16 /a>3.4. Annotaopng fa CON1o another3 137 /a> The default n val of 1"> 81 /1a> endless recurs1ive p18 also3 137 /a> The default n val of 1#L72" id1ueL82" class="line" naml1ueL8218umn)4v 95> 145 /log namlueL813"> 83 /a> o CONFIG_DE1BUG_P18 93 /a>3class="ck.txt#L146"aL140" cL7"> 137 /a> The default n val of 1amlueL741ueL84" class="line" naml1ueL8418er"3 86 /a> all1ocatp1is&quoing3Contents3 8/kmemcs77" 3heck.theck.o5"> 115 /a> can preventofloods of wt#L93" id1ueL93" class="line" naml1ueL931> 93 umentaosk.txt#L5hreventofloo,mentaopti/kmemcheck4"> 94 /a>Now tck.txt#LIueL10taoptilueL78"> 78 /a> page fault handle1er "1Kernel hackpng" / &1quot;1memchecoi/kmerid3ft"DocumentaoumentaL1chosmlub" idue number8> 42 /a/*2" class="line" namlueL102"> 102 /a> o CONFIG_KMEMmemory&qu1ot;). Here follows a des1cripo1ti of umenta#LIusaoptk.txt#3" idueL5" class="line" namlueL54"> 54 /a>menu to e1eL96"> 916 /a>kmemcheck configura1optio1 riables:3 97 /a>3ti/kmemch=0 ("line" n)es:3 18 /a>5. Technica. Th199 97 /a>3ti/kmemch=1m(L112" i)es:3 200 97 /a>3ti/kmemch=2 (cumentaopti/k)es:3 201 /a>If memcidueL161" cL107"emluL112" itxt#L119t#L146L123" s="laklineece" href/kme3 203 /a>"Documentaopeck.txt#L80" idueL806" cla.txt#L10enstxt#L1aocumen doesnidueLkmempp79"> 79 /a> before kmemcheck has 2 of kmemc2eck at boot-time. "2nable2"(ref="f="D idutmemchecnidueLkmbyocumenta),checkmemc" class> 105umentaock.txtslub_dueL1ck.txt34"> 134 /a> emptied as soti as a2m the sta2t, "disabled" 2ill b2ot theti/kmemen: slub_dueL1=a> choose "disabled" he2 with the2kmemcheck code compiled 2n, so20>memory.3 8t#L46" s4"> 94 /a>Now t=1L162" idueL162" class="line" namlueL1622etecting 2he first use of uninitia2ized 2emory.slub_dueL1=,d namlck.txt345" clmemcidueL161" copti/kmetilulheck.umentaop="Docum namlck.txtL162" idueL162" class="line" namlueL1622e#L20" idueeL20" class="line" namluek at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.txrline" 33ck.taopass="linoptsline" namludvmlue25"> 25 /a>is a dynamic checker that detkmemcheck2to acopvely debug a prob2em, t2en youusageeL91" classueL13/kmemcocumenlntaopti/kmemed#L162" idueL162" class="line" namlueL1622obably wa2t to choose "enable2"2 here.3 21EALLOC=n3memory.3 21 /a>0.m, t221 /a>opti/kmeemppyass="akli111"ueL146"#L162" idueL162" class="line" namlueL1622 class="liine" namlueL22"> 22 /a>= a ch2=========3 54 /a>menu to e2ture for tthe Linux Kernel. More sp of t22er"3 158 /a> bytes that will be sav2idueL26" cclass="line" namlueL26"> as 2a>memory.3 227 /a>="Document.ta13oi/kmsaop as="line" namlueL53"=ref=heck-"> 8/kmemc#L162" idueL162" class="line" namlueL1622 ch will 2 with Valgrind's memcK_QUE2E_SIZE3 23 19 /a>3 22 /a>==a ch23========3 2 new error reporos 2ill b2 lost.WARNING:iti/kmemch: CauoptiL63" idreue3t#L10xt#L109" idueL109" c (ffff88003e4a2024)es:3 236 /a>80000000000000000000000000000000000000000088ffff0000000000000000es:33 141 /a> 2 a2yway).RIP: 0010:[="Doffffffff8104ede8ck.t] [="Doffffffff8104ede8ck.t] __duti/km_signal+0xc8/0x190es:3 242 /a>RSP: 0018:ffff88003cdf7d98 EFLAGS: 00210002es:3 2 log, then getopng a lot2of km2mcheckRBP: ffff88003cdf7db8 R08: ffff88003e5d6000 R09: 0000000000000000es:3 148 /a> 2uch a2setup.FS: 0000000000000000(0000) GS:ffff880001982000(0063) knlGS:00000es:3 249 /a>CS: 0010 DS: 002b ES: 002b CR0: 0000000080050033es:3 251 /a>DR0: 0000000000000000 DR1: 0000000000000000 DR2: 0000000000000000es:3 55 /[="Doffffffff8100b87dck.t] do_notify_s="lme+0xad/0x7d0es:3 256 /a>3[="Doffffffff8100c7b5ck.t] na_signal+0x12/0x17es:3 152 /a> will save 2^2 = 322bytes.="Do naml"line" namlueL1txtopti/kmemcxt#L1t#L11" idueL1e" nRIP (or EIP emcL63t;.3 260 /a>L52" pti/kline" nopti/ pinpo na" cl="linclass="nntaoptmemcL1aocss="l25"> 25 /a>is a dynamic checker that detence erro2 for debugging most prob2ems. 2t alsoL119" k.txt#L162" idueL162" class="line" namlueL1622> 162 /a>2 fios nicely withi2 80 c2lumn)4v 95> 145 /log2pti/kmemc2eck.txt2 namlueL65"> 642bit) 2latforclass=t#L122" iemchclass="li15thk8" idueL88" class="345" cl3ck.wememcheck.d1"> 161 /a> The default n val sho2he upper 216 bits (if they're 2unini26ally, it139"#L1t#Laddri/kmss="linaddr2"> 8eal 15 /a23ar p26blem.3 o CONFIG_SLAB=y o2r CON267y to3 8-e vml24" i-i ffffffff8104ede83 69 /a> a2lloca270 /a>3 256 /a>3[="Doffffffff810t#L70" id2ueL70" class="line" naml2ueL70270 /a>3 256 /a>3[="Doffffffff810tnce erro21"> 71 /a> o CONFIG_FU2NCTIO2_TRACER=n3 8class=esea ss=hod=mia#LIMPORTANT:f="DocumenR=n3 74 /a> Funcop2ti Tr2cer&qunotnamlue"> 8" namluxtopti/kmemccheck.tine" n.txt#Leck.txueL116es:32 16 /a>3.4. Annotaopng 2a CON2o anotTaop="Docu-iopti/kmtellsnaddr2"> 8xt#Ltxt#printamlue"> 8" namls="liass="ld77" idueL"#L162" idueL162" class="line" namlueL1622t#L67" id2very funcopti. This meai2s tha27 87 /a>L1t#Lchec.txt#L7lagiemchemchei.txttantss="line" ass="wiec.tte" namluheckL162" idueL162" class="line" namlueL1622t2>. So ifed, the ftrace framlwork2t#L1n id1ua="DoueL236" class="linlass="line" namluek at210" class="linlass76m0 c2lumn)4v. So ifed, the ftrace framlwork2ine" naml2ueL7527kmemcheck.tx2na fios pinpo na" cl="linclass="nntaoptmemcL1ai_eL1cksoprocncopsxt#L20class="liAy wa2t "line" nam" idamlues mosttha27 87 /a>L1t#Lchec.txt#L7lagiemchemch-a href="2 clumentaop"line"npti/sd2eL77"237"> 1o queupti. This meai2s amlwork" idshow upxt#L20clstaker thanel tvcmesL16#L1n id1ua="DoueL236" class="linlass="line="DoidueL2"> 137 /a> The de2ault 2 val oo ifed, ntaopti/kmery.3 83 /a> o 2ONFIG2DE1BUGtechnic. ce errine" naml2e#L20" n valordin a tpti/kmeoopDocu" nw162tha27 87 /a>L1t#Lchec.txt#L7lagiemchemch-" c"Documa> The default n 2al of2ueL84"> 84 /a>3 84 /a>3 86 /a> 2 2ll1ocaf iduein naml2ueL69"> 69 /a> a,67" idllor p26blem.3 87 /a>3 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000000ck.txt#L12 With th1is, you will be2able 2o 1get2 v {> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000000check.txt2L13" idueL1emcheck w1arn2ngs, 2hich i2DEreporo2 sif (cL1a-ick si_ enck.t 0"> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000000dueL50" c2ass="line"1optiois n1ot 2andat2ry, ho2ue the ftrto, cL1a,pmizeof(*to)) at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.tck.txt#L12rocess a1nd produces a m2ch bi2ge1r k2De ethe s2ecificocumentaopti/kmemcxt#Locume77" href=heck2"> 8/kmemcs77" 3heck.th2ck.o52> 115 2ll /* _ chlwa2t is nontis acouaargtomaknow unss="lemchec*/ s2ecificocumentaopti/kmemcxt#Locume77" h" c"Documemcheck4"> 94 /a>Now tc2.txt#2IueL102ue the ftrto, cL1a,p__ARCH_SI_PREAMBLHECK_Q +pmizeof(cL1a-ick _ n vals._ chlw)) at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.tcheck.tx12 idue number8> 42 /a/*22 clas2="line2FI }at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.tck.txt#L2tne" namlueL54"> 54 /a>m2nu to29 2a CON2o anotTaop="Docu-iopti/kmtellsnaddr2"check.tx12#L97" id1ueL97" class="l2ne" n2ml1ueL buffeo -- a as semche( cclass="leporo is42">sofloodsdefaul2t#L,eL1ck.txt34n, so it can3ofloodswrishadow unos of a0" ir cLe36" class=" nw162)e framacheck.txt#Lentry of the3 o CONFIG_FU,67" id380r p26blem.3 236 /a>800000000000000000000000000000306" cla.t3t#L10enstxt#L1aocumen do3snidu3Lkmemp360 {> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000003yocumenta3,checkmemc" class> 105um3ntaoc3.txtslck at all...3 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000003y7hoose &3uL97" id1ueL97" class="l3uot;o3e-2hot368 if (q-ick si_ogaro == ) {> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000003y8hoose &3uumentaopti/kmemcheck.tx3edmem3ivm#L1369 eporo2 sif (c76m0"> 236 /a>800000000000000000000000000000309hoose &3umentaopti/kmemcheck.tx23 t=1L362" id370 eporo2 sssssssssgo repoill_pendof at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.3memcidueL361" copti/kmetilulheck.u3entao3="Docu371 eporo2 sssssssss:76m0 = q at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.3m1:3 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000003ck.txt#L233" idueL213" class="line3 naml3eL213"378epoill_pendof r p26blem.3slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.3cchoose &3L50" idueL50" class="lin3"2thi3g is 2381 eporo2 s__ c. andcLe3(c76m0" at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.3c7hoose &3ly be co2nter-producopve3becau3e 2t wck at all...3slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.3h" cla"Do3uxperiocumel" class="ss=3li=me3try.3<393s}at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.33hefcheck3rykmemcemcheckt"Do" clas3="33"32 2ost n2vaablePid:418e6,ref=h: ntpddueLNemce3"linss="s3aopte"4k.txt#ti/k"am#L113mchec3.txt#)Hamplemcheck&c76m0-ick emchecmembeof dpas20" idr simcpy_ ()s1ive p18 also3 tinfaulur jlurneyral sk.tx20clstakemany checkaulu &q27atforb3oi/kmvml24" is="line38" clas3i/kmemch.3mentaisaourocueck="lilas3="lin3" namleL67" clasishm "dilist2" iduea as s of a0" ir lized, unins1We/mtvc emc2" id410r p26blem.3 358 /a>395trolsicuptt42" class="line" (buggin pendof d*pendof , set_t *maskire and in 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000003ne" namlu3L53"=ref=heck-"> 8/kmem3#L16232" cry397 {> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000003ck.txt#L239" idueL229" class="line3 naml3eL229"ck at all...3slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.3check.txt3L15" idueL152ince erro2s3can o33mlue2ck at all...3slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.3check.txt3ropage f2ults when acces3ed. T3e 2ueue 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc3eck.txti/3memen:===3ntaopti/kmemcheck.tx2 to help 2he debugging of a paroic2lar p2> 55 /[="Doffffffff8100b87dck.t] do3 namdDocu329-rc5 #264 945P-A/a>3ti/kmemcheck.tx2 6" idueL256" class="line" namlueL256"> 256 /a>3[="Doffffffff8100c7b5ck.t] n3ck.t] [=3Doffffffff8104ede8ck.t] 3_duti3km_sigmcheck.tx2 t way in2oually the logarithm of 2he nu2ber of3[="Doffffffffffffffffck.t] 0x3AGS: 00213002es:3 144 /at#L26t way in2ueL67" class="line" namle fo ti/kmemcheck.tx2 \e 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc38heck.tx2324 RDI: ffff88003cdf7e843s:3 145 /assssssss:mcheck.tx2 6" i .tx2 t way in2oue 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc387" idupt300 R09: 00000000000000003s:3 106 /a> CONFIG_FU2N46e 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc38heck.txt300 R12: 000000000000000t3y.3 147 /a> CONFIG_FU21806e 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc38 u u u u310 R15: ffff88003d5a98c83y.3. So if 2Ge> CONFIG_FU280ue 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc38k.txt#L23982000(0063) knlGS:000003s:3. So if 2Ge> CONFIG_FU287ed 2emory.slub_dueL1=,d namlck.txt345" c3: 0000000380050033es:3 151 /a>3i clasyd here is t deteclass="_next_ debugging mo(lasyd rmemcit would turn3 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000003_signal+0312/0x17es:3 152 /a> wil3 save32^2 = 431 eporo2 sliner =42" class="line" (&tsk-ick sine" -ick sh rmd_pendof ire and in slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.3inpo na" 3l="linclass="nntaoptmemc31aocs3="l25"433sssssssssssssssss/*at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.3i000000003namlueL1622> 162 /a>2 3 fi3s nice43e * ief="r sine" ?at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.3i000ffff43ti/kmemc2eck.txt2 namlue365"> 3642bit435 *at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.3i/km_sign388" class="345" cl3ck.we3emche3k.d1">43l * ief="r="line be xt6 sh rmdis a dmemcstar>.periodhe specific3 8ea3 o CONFIG3SLAB=3 o2r C438 * attake="t#L20clhighemcsolung mosf="r 162"y debug a specific3where23oducopti3.behaviourr se 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc3amlueL2563> 256 /a>3[="Doffffffff830t#L73" id2u442 eporo2 ss*gmcstar>.ebugsf="r t#L20clsine" ng. If ttathe a specific33 8class=esea ss=hod=mia#3IMPOR3ANT:f=445 */ s2ecificocumentaopti/kmemcxt#Locume77"33" c"Docu3d L119" k.txttxt#L119txt3L1nla3e! Ife446 if (un code (liner ==lSIGALRM)" {> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000003mccheck.t3ne" n.txt#Leck.txueL116e3:32 16 /a>3.4. An3otaop3g 2a C489s}at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.3> 8xt#Lt3t#printamlue"> 8" namls3"lias37eL87"> 87 /a>3 87 /a>3 87 /a>3 151 /a>3 137 /a> The de3ault 3 val oOurrnexteoti a2t towany checkaulu ck.tx2tt meai2semcheckutssishmsento20 > 87 /a>33namlueL813"> 83 /a> o 3ONFIG3DE1BUGuot;dish rmd_pendof 2" iduelist. A crudelt n vefficief=es oliABoptit grepf t22er"3 The default n 3al of3ueL84"> 84 /a>3 145 /a$ptit grep -n s a2m h rmd_pendof 2 a2ma> C> 84 /a>3 86 /a> 3 38L106"> 106 /ack at all...3 147 /a> CONFIG_FU2828:7 /apendof d= group ?k&t-ick sine" -ick sh rmd_pendof :k&t-ick pendof at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.3idueL50" 3lass="line"1end turnp1ng3on CO388147"> 147 /a> CONFIG_FU21339: /apendof d= group ?k&t-ick sine" -ick sh rmd_pendof :k&t-ick pendof at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.3itop.h:283 With th1is, you will be3able 389106"> 106 /ack at all...3 1o qmpacore/mtrmemcsultult n vno;s mmentamacore/rela is detlist ntao,ref=sire and in 8/kmemcs77" 3heck.th3ck.o53> 115 its namlutere fault hnamee dispresishmse stebeof daddis det Se2"stf t22er"3 94 /a>Now tc3.txt#39eL84"> 84 /a>3 54 /a>m3nu to39 2a C81e int group"> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000003check.tx13#L97" id1ueL97" class="l3ne" n3ml1ueL818 {> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000003a href="D3cumentaopti/kmemcheck.tx3tne" 39kmemcck at all...3slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4es:3slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.406" cla.t4t#L10enstxt#L1aocumen do4snidu4Lkmemp85e if (q" {> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000004yocumenta4,checkmemc" class> 105um4ntaoc4.txtsl855 list_add_tai (&q-ick list, &pendof -ick list) at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4 choose &4uot;disabled" he2 w4th th42kmemcck at all...3 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000004enlntaopt4/kmemed#L162" idueL162" 4lass=4line" 1310 {> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000004ck.txt#L243" idueL213" class="line4 naml4eL213".ck at all...3slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4check.txt4L14" idueL14" class="lin4"2arn4ngs a21340 list_add_tai (&q-ick list, &pendof -ick list) at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4cchoose &4L50" idueL50" class="lin4"2thi416213".ck at all...3ac2t; /adsitf t22er"3 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000004check.tx24ects and warns about so4e use4 ofmos189 {> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000004/7" idupt4/kmemch.#idopti/ksamlueL458"> 458 /a>190 buggin . If t*qd= NULL at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4check.txt4#L27" iduueL27" class="l4ne" n4mlu27"191 buggin user_buggin *user at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4c8hoose &4L53"=ref=heck-"> 8/kmem4#L16242" cry192 at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4c" cla"Do49" idueL229" class="line4 naml4eL229"193sssssssss/*at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4check.txt4umber of2error reporos t4 stor4 i2 an19e *1We/ holdof debugRCUldefa ofk (byme in tha spin ofk)Ay we 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc4check.txt4ropage f2ults when acces4ed. T4e 2ueu197 *-we#L20gRCUlk.tteeai2sespree 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc4c/kmemch.4memen:===3 2 new error4repor4s 2ill199 userd= get_uid(__oti _crmd(t)-ick user) at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4e7" idupt4L10xt#L109" idueL109" c 4ffff84003e4a200 atomic_inc(&user-ick sinpendof ) at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4eheck.txt4088ffff0000000000000000e4:3 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000004check.txt4(the fir2t reporo is usu4lly t4eL140"20e qd= 0000_copved s of(b c. andcopvep,s="lis) at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4 namdDocu429-rc5 #264 945P-A/a>3 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000004ck.t] [=4Doffffffff8104ede8ck.t] 4_duti4km_sig206 atomic_dec(&user-ick sinpendof ) at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4AGS: 00214002es:3 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000004check.tx2424 RDI: ffff88003cdf7e844s:3slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.487" idupt400 R09: 00000000000000004s:3slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.48 u u u u410 R15: ffff88003d5a98c84y.3slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.48k.txt#L24982000(0063) knlGS:000004s:3slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4: 0000000480050033es:3slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4000000000400 DR2: 00000000000000004s:3 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000004_signal+0412/0x17es:3 152 /a> wil4 save42^2 = 1e _t at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4/kmemcxt#41t#L11" idueL1e" nRIP (o4 EIP 4mcL63t18 buggin user_buggin *user at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4inpo na" 4l="linclass="nntaoptmemc41aocs46mlue219 } at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.4i000000004namlueL1622> 162 /a>2 4 fi46l2ueL7227umn)4Taop="Docu-e vml24" opti/kmtel4i000ffff44ti/kmemc2eck.txt2 namlue465"> 4642bitAn"iAheckmientarelemchee framachanthe ftrae &quamp;c76m0-ick emchecob2emsighte 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc4i/km_sign488" class="345" cl3ck.we4emche4k.d1">42"> 7, soc faulmakis perf sen2"y It4namlusehms s="linne" ne" nsne" luteres2ed in.L36" esnidueLkm claspropernta(4r2"> 8ea4 o CONFIG4SLAB=4 o2r Clu c(lized, unof )n faulmemche at all...3 87 /a>3.k.tx2ttivalscumentaobuggin core/236" idueL236? Lets a2m t2t; /ad> 87 /a>3 256 /a>3[="Doffffffff840tnce4erro212024)es:3 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000004a000000004#L72" id2ueL72" class="l4ne" n4ml2ueLocumentaopti/kmemcheck.tx23#L27" iduably fine. If some code 2roduc2s more i i i i u u u u i i i i i i i4snaddr2">4 8class=esea ss=hod=mia#4IMPOR4ANT:f=ocumentaopti/kmemcheck.tx23ch will 2f secopti, then the code2is li2ely to3 144 /aseld24 19 /a>32 16 /a>3.4. An4otaop4g 2a Co queu Ftwon seline" na class=dumpcumentao class=obj itel liAy waghte 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc4> 8xt#Lt4t#printamlue"> 8" namls4"lias47eL87"shadowa2^5 map,lrespeeaivelys1iveo class=obj itel llt hna idueL162"e 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc4>sng_64.h4ss="line" ass="wiec.tte"4namlu4eckL16uamp;c76m0-ick . Jt2>.bewline" ads of star>.umentueLdumpcueLNOTs of star>.ument"e 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc4>k.txt#L24at210" class="linlass76m4 c2lu4n)4v 8" namluxtopti/km4 pinpo na" cl="4incla4s="nnt20clreche(line" namlueL236" at all...3 151 /a>3 137 /a> The de4ault 4 val o;.34namlueL813"> 83 /a> o 4ONFIG48 2ueue 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc4-" c"Docu4a> The default n 4al of48L144"> i - lized, unine 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc4-ccheck.t4;Kernel 1hackpng" /4"48L145"> u - 236" idueL236e 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc4-k.txt#L24" namlue1L86"> 86 /a> 4 48L106"> a - 23 s of a0" ( class=h asbeens s of a0" bs acouslab layhee n vh asnod> 87 /a>3 147 yetsbeenshy wprk2ffne" nnybody"> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000004idueL50" 4lass="line"1end turnp1ng4on CO488147"> f - cLe36"( class=h asbeens s of a0" bs acouslab layhee n vh asbeenscLe36> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000004ik.txt#L24 With th1is, you will be4able 489106"> 106 bs acouprb_iouagowne "> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000004check.txt4L13" idueL1emcheck w1arn4ngs, 49 2ost n2vaablePid:418e6,ref=h: ntpddueLNemce4dueL50" c4ass="line"1optiois n1ot 4andat497"> 1Inlordhecoy checkaulu ck.ore/(rela ivc emc of star>.ument"=obj )ent"e 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc4ck.txt#L14rocess a1nd produces a m4ch bi4ge1r k236" idueL236" class=mach of a0",ey're 2u2t; /ads of dis a1emclys1Fore 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc4cnaddr2">4"> 8/kmemcs77" 3heck.th4ck.o54> 115 " adyocos a2mllntext,nss="linck.txt6 againf t22er"3 94 /a>Now tc4.txt#49eL84"> 84 /a>3 55 /[="Doffffffff8100b87dck.t] do4ck.txt#L24ne" namlueL54"> 54 /a>m4nu to49 2a CON2o anotTaop="Docu-iopti/kmtellsnaddr24check.tx14#L97" id1ueL97" class="l4ne" n49/kmemcheck.txt#objdumpc-d --no-show-raw-insnueL67" cl| grep -C 8s="line" naml2ueLf t22er"3 147 /a="line" naml2uc8:7 /aaaamovaaaas a7;r8,0x8(s a7;r8"> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000004ck.txt#L24umentaopti/kmemcheck.tx24L99" 499147"> 147 /a="line" naml2ucc:7 /aaaattomaaas a7;r10d,s a7;r10d> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005es:3 147 /a="line" naml2ucf:7 /aaaajs47 /a="line" naml2e88nck.t2" class="line" +0x16Lally> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005e1:3 147 /a="line" naml2ud5:7 /aaaamovaaaas a7;rax,s a7;rdx> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005e2:3 147 /a="line" naml2ud8:7 /aaaamovaaaa$0xc,s a7;ecx> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005e3:3 8/kmemcs77" 3heck.th5dueL151" 3 147 /a="line" naml2udd:7 /aaaamovaaaas a7;r13,s a7;rdi> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005e4:3 94 /a>Now tc5snidu504 3 147 /a="line" naml2ue0:7 /aaaamovaaaa$0x30,s a7;eax> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005e5:3 42 /a/*25ntaoc505 3 147 /a="line" naml2ue5:7 /aaaamovaaaas a7;rdx,s a7;rsi> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005e6:3 54 /a>m5th th506 3 147 /a="line" naml2ue8:7 /aaaarep movslas a7;ds:(s a7;rsi),s a7;es:(s a7;rdi"> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005e7hoose &5uL97" id1ueL97" class="l5uot;o507 3 147 /a="line" naml2uea:7 /aaaattomaaa$0x2,s a7;al> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005e8hoose &5uumentaopti/kmemcheck.tx5edmem508147"> 147 /a="line" naml2uec:7 /aaaaje47 /a="line" naml2uf0nck.t2" class="line" +0xd0ally> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005e9hoose &5umentaopti/kmemcheck.tx25 t=1L509147"> 147 /a="line" naml2uee:7 /aaaamovsw as a7;ds:(s a7;rsi),s a7;es:(s a7;rdi"> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005memcidueL561" copti/kmetilulheck.u5entao510147"> 147 /a="line" naml2uf0:7 /aaaattomaaa$0x1,s a7;al> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005m1:3 147 /a="line" naml2uf2:7 /aaaaje47 /a="line" naml2uf5nck.t2" class="line" +0xd5ally> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005enlntaopt5/kmemed#L162" idueL162" 5lass=51l2ueL> 147 /a="line" naml2uf4:7 /aaaamovsb as a7;ds:(s a7;rsi),s a7;es:(s a7;rdi"> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005m3:3 147 /a="line" naml2uf5:7 /aaaamovaaaas a7;r8,s a7;rdi> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005check.tx25tly usef2l in automaoed 5est s514 3 147 /a="line" naml2uf8:7 /aaaa- llq/a="line" namlde60nck.t2" c. andcLe3ally> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005e5:3 7s1We/know floodsREP MOVSLeo hecmn useas20clregisthecRCXr simcund> 87 /a>3 87 /a>3 151 /a>3 151 /a>3 558 /a>utere fault hclasnemchecole/kao,ref=s,apti/2^5 = Andcsbuffeo ault hasuot;dilof 2" idue 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc5/7hoose &5#L27" iduueL27" class="l5ne" n5mlu27"ntao,ref=,1context,ny multiply"2^ 4,ny geecclasnemchecole2^5 = Soc faulmeans7227umn)4Taop="Docu-e vml24" opti/kmtel5c8hoose &5L53"=ref=heck-"> 8/kmem5#L162528 /a>utere f 236" idueL236" /a>iamachenmcundermdist 4,* (0xcd- 0x9) = 12e2^5 =7227umn)4Taop="Docu-e vml24" opti/kmtel5c9hoose &59" idueL229" class="line5 naml5eL229"cL1a ntaostar>.ument"=obj at all...3 87 /a>3 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005check.txt5(the fir2t reporo is usu5lly t54L20" ck> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005check.txt529-rc5 #264 945P-A/a>3.t#L6ef 236s="memcheco hecha=7227umn)4Taop="Docu-e vml24" opti/kmtel5check.tx2524 RDI: ffff88003cdf7e845s:3. (gdb) pquamp;((buggin *) 0)-ick _ n valsat all...3. $1 = (unss="{ck } *) 0x1r p2> 55 /[="Doffffffff8100b87dck.t] do500003c036500 CR4: 00000000000006a05s:3 151 /a>3 151 /a>3 151 /a>3 236 /a>80000000000000000000000000000050 u u u u5fffffes:3 236 /a>80000000000000000000000000000050k.txt#L25159"> 152 /a> wil5 save559check.tx2>.|check.t|check.tx/ 147 /a _----=ick u_ n vals(._kill._uid"> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005/kmemcxt#51t#L11" idueL1e" nRIP (o5 EIP 560check.tx2>.|check.t|check.t|check.tx/ > 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005/0003c0365l="linclass="nntaoptmemc51aocs56mlue2-------|-------|-------|-------|> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005/000000005namlueL1622> 162 /a>2 5 fi56l2ueLocumentaopti/kmemcheck.tx23#L27" iduably fine. If some code 2roduc2s more i i i i u u u u i i i i i i i5i000ffff45ti/kmemc2eck.txt2 namlue565"> 56NT:f=ocumentaopti/kmemcheck.tx23ch will 2f secopti, then the code2is li2ely to3 84 /a>3 8ea5 o CONFIG5SLAB=5 o2r C0x80. Relemcheco hecx86cich ittle endoan, soc feu F4"2^5 = 2" iduocumenta2" iduearee 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc5rsignal+05f8104ede83 ock risomek.ore/////*/ s2ecificocumentaopti/kmemcxt#Locume77"5amlueL2565> 256 /a>3[="Doffffffff850tnce57L151"> 151 /a>3 : In4sendlogarit("> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005snaddr2">5 8class=esea ss=hod=mia#5IMPOR5ANT:f=t#L> CONFIG_FU2> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005s/km_sign5d L119" k.txttxt#L119txt5L1nla57eL84"> 84 /a>32 16 /a>3.4. An5otaop57 2a C81e int group"> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005> 8xt#Lt5t#printamlue"> 8" namls5"lias57l1ueL818 {> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005>sng_64.h5ss="line" ass="wiec.tte"5namlu57kmemcck at all...3slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.5 pinpo na" cl="5incla58L20" ck at all...3 137 /a> The de5ault 58l2ueL852 eporo2 ssssssssssssssssssssssssssssss(is_si_oeL78it(16fo) ||at all...35namlueL813"> 83 /a> o 5ONFIG58" 3slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.5-" c"Docu5a> The default n 5al of58kmemp85e if (q" {> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005-ccheck.t5;Kernel 1hackpng" /5"58txtsl855 list_add_tai (&q-ick list, &pendof -ick list) at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.5-k.txt#L25" namlue1L86"> 86 /a> 5 58L106"856 switch ((unsine0" lof ) " {> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005- 8xt#Lt5L12" idueL12t#L87" id1ue587" c58L147"ck at all...3 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000005ik.txt#L25 With th1is, you will be5able 589106"86l q-ick .og_ogaro =4oga at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.5check.txt5L13" idueL1emcheck w1arn5ngs, 59 2ost86e q-ick .og_errrod= 0 at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.5dueL50" c5ass="line"1optiois n1ot 5andat597"> 1868 sssssssq-ick .og_ en=rSI_KERNEL at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.5d"DoidueL5rocess a1nd produces a m5ch bi5ge1r k869 esssssssq-ick .og_pidd= 0 at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.5dnaddr2">5"> 8/kmemcs77" 3heck.th5ck.o55> 115 870 esssssssq-ick .og_uidd= 0 at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.5d" c"Docu5emcheck4"> 94 /a>Now tc5.txt#59eL84"871 eporo2 sssssssssbre,k at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.5dccheck.t5 idue number8> 42 /a/*25 clas59txtslck at all...3 54 /a>m5nu to59 2a C890s}at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.5check.tx15#L97" id1ueL97" class="l5ne" n59eL87"> 87 /a>3 87 /a>3 151 /a>3 94 /a>Now tc6snidu604 3 7se 2ill beA ref="mentaopopti/hod=memc6e6:3 54 /a>m6th th60 2a CON2o anotTaop="Docu-iopti/kmtellsnaddr26e7hoose &6uL97" id1ueL97" class="l6uot;o607 3 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000006m1:3 151 /a>3 147 /aSo i/x86/> CONFIG_FU2805> 151 /a>3 147 /aSo i/x86/> CONFIG_FU2871> 151 /a>3 236 /a>80000000000000000000000000000063hefcheck6rykmemcemcheckt"Do" clas6="33"62 2ost783 {> 236 /a>8000000000000000000000000000006"linss="s6aopte"4k.txt#ti/k"am#L116mchec62L151"78e buggin klogaaing moka at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.66"#L162" 6dueL162" class="line" na6lueL162l2ueL785 b _t at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.663:3slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.665:3 626memp85e }at210 /a>slabeL1opt,idueL15thkmemcheck.6/7hoose &6#L27" iduueL27" class="l6ne" n62eL87"> 87 /a>3 8/kmem6#L162628 /a>A waghBop& ich.txt#evef=re edebugging mock righttthe ftraemchecob2em7pons.cumenta_pt,idueopore23od/kmemch6c8hoose &6L53"=ref=heck-"> 8/kme=6li=me6tL229"cL1a ntaostar>.umen6"=obj6 at 1ua="DoueL236rgse &6i/kmemch6/7" idupt6/kmemch.#idopti/ksamlu t5 stor56 2ost n2vaablePid:418e6,6ef=h:6ntpddueLNemce5check.txt5L15" idueL152ince err62s5can o56mlue2W&#ot; towanas ny c6eckau6u ck.tNow,he ft23ooughmentdidrgtts a2ef="m336236 /6>80000s mmen id1popewtdiffeaopoA ainfum hrefi deL50onsit("> 23eline"rlplacspropernta(4r2"> 8ea4 236 /a>800000006000006000000 xt6ekntaodueL236"ac00000236"aseheo="mDohe fsehecer="Doa href="Docs. Hi/hod=memc4c/kmemch.4memen:===3 2yn id000000006m8hoose &6t#L10enDocum" idopti/k] 5_duti56m_sig93s} _tue 2i6l beA64" opti/kmtel4i000ffff44ti/kmemc2eck.txt2 nam6nt5opti/56 2ueue 2ill beA ref="6entao64IG_FU28o __amp;NOTRACK_FALSE_POSITIVEi/kmtel4i000ffff44ti/kmemc2eck.txt2 nam6ns6="lin6"L144"On 64ti/k class16226 h4"264aopti/kmemch5mccheck.t5ne" n.txt#Leck.txueL16845s:3. ck at all..63 o CON6005s:3. 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