linux/Documentation/input/joystick-parport.txt
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   1                    Linux Joystick parport drivers v2.0
   2               (c) 1998-2000 Vojtech Pavlik <vojtech@ucw.cz>
   3               (c) 1998 Andree Borrmann <a.borrmann@tu-bs.de>
   4                             Sponsored by SuSE
   5----------------------------------------------------------------------------
   6
   70. Disclaimer
   8~~~~~~~~~~~~~
   9  Any information in this file is provided as-is, without any guarantee that
  10it will be true. So, use it at your own risk. The possible damages that can
  11happen include burning your parallel port, and/or the sticks and joystick
  12and maybe even more. Like when a lightning kills you it is not our problem.
  13
  141. Intro
  15~~~~~~~~
  16  The joystick parport drivers are used for joysticks and gamepads not
  17originally designed for PCs and other computers Linux runs on. Because of
  18that, PCs usually lack the right ports to connect these devices to. Parallel
  19port, because of its ability to change single bits at will, and providing
  20both output and input bits is the most suitable port on the PC for
  21connecting such devices.
  22
  232. Devices supported
  24~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  25  Many console and 8-bit computer gamepads and joysticks are supported. The
  26following subsections discuss usage of each.
  27
  282.1 NES and SNES
  29~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  30  The Nintendo Entertainment System and Super Nintendo Entertainment System
  31gamepads are widely available, and easy to get. Also, they are quite easy to
  32connect to a PC, and don't need much processing speed (108 us for NES and
  33165 us for SNES, compared to about 1000 us for PC gamepads) to communicate
  34with them.
  35
  36  All NES and SNES use the same synchronous serial protocol, clocked from
  37the computer's side (and thus timing insensitive). To allow up to 5 NES
  38and/or SNES gamepads and/or SNES mice connected to the parallel port at once,
  39the output lines of the parallel port are shared, while one of 5 available
  40input lines is assigned to each gamepad.
  41
  42  This protocol is handled by the gamecon.c driver, so that's the one
  43you'll use for NES, SNES gamepads and SNES mice.
  44
  45  The main problem with PC parallel ports is that they don't have +5V power
  46source on any of their pins. So, if you want a reliable source of power
  47for your pads, use either keyboard or joystick port, and make a pass-through
  48cable. You can also pull the power directly from the power supply (the red
  49wire is +5V).
  50
  51  If you want to use the parallel port only, you can take the power is from
  52some data pin. For most gamepad and parport implementations only one pin is
  53needed, and I'd recommend pin 9 for that, the highest data bit. On the other
  54hand, if you are not planning to use anything else than NES / SNES on the
  55port, anything between and including pin 4 and pin 9 will work.
  56
  57(pin 9) -----> Power
  58
  59  Unfortunately, there are pads that need a lot more of power, and parallel
  60ports that can't give much current through the data pins. If this is your
  61case, you'll need to use diodes (as a prevention of destroying your parallel
  62port), and combine the currents of two or more data bits together.
  63
  64           Diodes
  65(pin 9) ----|>|-------+------> Power
  66                      |
  67(pin 8) ----|>|-------+
  68                      |
  69(pin 7) ----|>|-------+
  70                      |
  71 <and so on>          :
  72                      |
  73(pin 4) ----|>|-------+
  74
  75  Ground is quite easy. On PC's parallel port the ground is on any of the
  76pins from pin 18 to pin 25. So use any pin of these you like for the ground.
  77
  78(pin 18) -----> Ground
  79
  80  NES and SNES pads have two input bits, Clock and Latch, which drive the
  81serial transfer. These are connected to pins 2 and 3 of the parallel port,
  82respectively.
  83
  84(pin 2) -----> Clock
  85(pin 3) -----> Latch
  86
  87  And the last thing is the NES / SNES data wire. Only that isn't shared and
  88each pad needs its own data pin. The parallel port pins are:
  89
  90(pin 10) -----> Pad 1 data
  91(pin 11) -----> Pad 2 data
  92(pin 12) -----> Pad 3 data
  93(pin 13) -----> Pad 4 data
  94(pin 15) -----> Pad 5 data
  95
  96  Note that pin 14 is not used, since it is not an input pin on the parallel
  97port.
  98
  99  This is everything you need on the PC's side of the connection, now on to
 100the gamepads side. The NES and SNES have different connectors. Also, there
 101are quite a lot of NES clones, and because Nintendo used proprietary
 102connectors for their machines, the cloners couldn't and used standard D-Cannon
 103connectors. Anyway, if you've got a gamepad, and it has buttons A, B, Turbo
 104A, Turbo B, Select and Start, and is connected through 5 wires, then it is
 105either a NES or NES clone and will work with this connection. SNES gamepads
 106also use 5 wires, but have more buttons. They will work as well, of course.
 107
 108Pinout for NES gamepads                 Pinout for SNES gamepads and mice
 109
 110           +----> Power                   +-----------------------\
 111           |                            7 | o  o  o  o |  x  x  o  | 1
 112 5 +---------+  7                         +-----------------------/
 113   | x  x  o   \                            |  |  |  |          |
 114   | o  o  o  o |                           |  |  |  |          +-> Ground
 115 4 +------------+ 1                         |  |  |  +------------> Data
 116     |  |  |  |                             |  |  +---------------> Latch
 117     |  |  |  +-> Ground                    |  +------------------> Clock
 118     |  |  +----> Clock                     +---------------------> Power
 119     |  +-------> Latch
 120     +----------> Data
 121
 122Pinout for NES clone (db9) gamepads     Pinout for NES clone (db15) gamepads
 123
 124        +---------> Clock                    +-----------------> Data
 125        | +-------> Latch                    |             +---> Ground
 126        | | +-----> Data                     |             |
 127        | | |                              ___________________
 128    _____________                        8 \ o x x x x x x o / 1
 129  5 \ x o o o x / 1                         \ o x x o x x o /
 130     \ x o x o /                          15 `~~~~~~~~~~~~~' 9
 131    9 `~~~~~~~' 6                             |     |     |
 132         |   |                                |     |     +----> Clock
 133         |   +----> Power                     |     +----------> Latch
 134         +--------> Ground                    +----------------> Power
 135
 1362.2 Multisystem joysticks
 137~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 138  In the era of 8-bit machines, there was something like de-facto standard
 139for joystick ports. They were all digital, and all used D-Cannon 9 pin
 140connectors (db9). Because of that, a single joystick could be used without
 141hassle on Atari (130, 800XE, 800XL, 2600, 7200), Amiga, Commodore C64,
 142Amstrad CPC, Sinclair ZX Spectrum and many other machines. That's why these
 143joysticks are called "Multisystem".
 144
 145  Now their pinout:
 146
 147      +---------> Right
 148      | +-------> Left
 149      | | +-----> Down
 150      | | | +---> Up
 151      | | | |
 152  _____________
 1535 \ x o o o o / 1
 154   \ x o x o /
 155  9 `~~~~~~~' 6
 156       |   |
 157       |   +----> Button
 158       +--------> Ground
 159
 160  However, as time passed, extensions to this standard developed, and these
 161were not compatible with each other:
 162
 163
 164        Atari 130, 800/XL/XE               MSX
 165
 166                                         +-----------> Power
 167      +---------> Right                  | +---------> Right
 168      | +-------> Left                   | | +-------> Left
 169      | | +-----> Down                   | | | +-----> Down
 170      | | | +---> Up                     | | | | +---> Up
 171      | | | |                            | | | | |
 172  _____________                        _____________
 1735 \ x o o o o / 1                    5 \ o o o o o / 1
 174   \ x o o o /                          \ o o o o /
 175  9 `~~~~~~~' 6                        9 `~~~~~~~' 6
 176       | | |                              | | | |
 177       | | +----> Button                  | | | +----> Button 1
 178       | +------> Power                   | | +------> Button 2
 179       +--------> Ground                  | +--------> Output 3
 180                                          +----------> Ground
 181
 182        Amstrad CPC                        Commodore C64
 183
 184                                         +-----------> Analog Y
 185      +---------> Right                  | +---------> Right
 186      | +-------> Left                   | | +-------> Left
 187      | | +-----> Down                   | | | +-----> Down
 188      | | | +---> Up                     | | | | +---> Up
 189      | | | |                            | | | | |
 190  _____________                        _____________
 1915 \ x o o o o / 1                    5 \ o o o o o / 1
 192   \ x o o o /                          \ o o o o /
 193  9 `~~~~~~~' 6                        9 `~~~~~~~' 6
 194       | | |                              | | | |
 195       | | +----> Button 1                | | | +----> Button
 196       | +------> Button 2                | | +------> Power
 197       +--------> Ground                  | +--------> Ground
 198                                          +----------> Analog X
 199
 200        Sinclair Spectrum +2A/+3           Amiga 1200
 201                                     
 202    +-----------> Up                     +-----------> Button 3
 203    | +---------> Fire                   | +---------> Right
 204    | |                                  | | +-------> Left
 205    | |   +-----> Ground                 | | | +-----> Down
 206    | |   |                              | | | | +---> Up
 207    | |   |                              | | | | |
 208  _____________                        _____________
 2095 \ o o x o x / 1                    5 \ o o o o o / 1
 210   \ o o o o /                          \ o o o o /
 211  9 `~~~~~~~' 6                        9 `~~~~~~~' 6
 212     | | | |                              | | | |
 213     | | | +----> Right                   | | | +----> Button 1
 214     | | +------> Left                    | | +------> Power
 215     | +--------> Ground                  | +--------> Ground
 216     +----------> Down                    +----------> Button 2
 217
 218  And there were many others.
 219
 2202.2.1 Multisystem joysticks using db9.c
 221~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 222  For the Multisystem joysticks, and their derivatives, the db9.c driver
 223was written. It allows only one joystick / gamepad per parallel port, but
 224the interface is easy to build and works with almost anything.
 225
 226  For the basic 1-button Multisystem joystick you connect its wires to the
 227parallel port like this:
 228
 229(pin  1) -----> Power
 230(pin 18) -----> Ground
 231
 232(pin  2) -----> Up
 233(pin  3) -----> Down
 234(pin  4) -----> Left
 235(pin  5) -----> Right
 236(pin  6) -----> Button 1
 237
 238  However, if the joystick is switch based (eg. clicks when you move it),
 239you might or might not, depending on your parallel port, need 10 kOhm pullup
 240resistors on each of the direction and button signals, like this:
 241
 242(pin 2) ------------+------> Up
 243          Resistor  |
 244(pin 1) --[10kOhm]--+
 245
 246  Try without, and if it doesn't work, add them. For TTL based joysticks /
 247gamepads the pullups are not needed.
 248
 249  For joysticks with two buttons you connect the second button to pin 7 on
 250the parallel port.
 251
 252(pin 7) -----> Button 2
 253
 254  And that's it.
 255
 256  On a side note, if you have already built a different adapter for use with
 257the digital joystick driver 0.8.0.2, this is also supported by the db9.c
 258driver, as device type 8. (See section 3.2)
 259
 2602.2.2 Multisystem joysticks using gamecon.c
 261~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 262  For some people just one joystick per parallel port is not enough, and/or
 263want to use them on one parallel port together with NES/SNES/PSX pads. This is
 264possible using the gamecon.c. It supports up to 5 devices of the above types,
 265including 1 and 2 buttons Multisystem joysticks.
 266
 267  However, there is nothing for free. To allow more sticks to be used at
 268once, you need the sticks to be purely switch based (that is non-TTL), and
 269not to need power. Just a plain simple six switches inside. If your
 270joystick can do more (eg. turbofire) you'll need to disable it totally first
 271if you want to use gamecon.c.
 272
 273  Also, the connection is a bit more complex. You'll need a bunch of diodes,
 274and one pullup resistor. First, you connect the Directions and the button
 275the same as for db9, however with the diodes between.
 276
 277            Diodes
 278(pin 2) -----|<|----> Up
 279(pin 3) -----|<|----> Down
 280(pin 4) -----|<|----> Left
 281(pin 5) -----|<|----> Right
 282(pin 6) -----|<|----> Button 1
 283
 284  For two button sticks you also connect the other button.
 285
 286(pin 7) -----|<|----> Button 2
 287
 288  And finally, you connect the Ground wire of the joystick, like done in
 289this little schematic to Power and Data on the parallel port, as described
 290for the NES / SNES pads in section 2.1 of this file - that is, one data pin
 291for each joystick. The power source is shared.
 292
 293Data    ------------+-----> Ground
 294          Resistor  |
 295Power   --[10kOhm]--+
 296
 297  And that's all, here we go!
 298
 2992.2.3 Multisystem joysticks using turbografx.c
 300~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 301  The TurboGraFX interface, designed by
 302
 303        Steffen Schwenke <schwenke@burg-halle.de>
 304
 305  allows up to 7 Multisystem joysticks connected to the parallel port. In
 306Steffen's version, there is support for up to 5 buttons per joystick.  However,
 307since this doesn't work reliably on all parallel ports, the turbografx.c driver
 308supports only one button per joystick. For more information on how to build the
 309interface, see
 310
 311        http://www2.burg-halle.de/~schwenke/parport.html
 312
 3132.3 Sony Playstation
 314~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 315
 316  The PSX controller is supported by the gamecon.c. Pinout of the PSX
 317controller (compatible with DirectPadPro):
 318
 319  +---------+---------+---------+
 3209 | o  o  o | o  o  o | o  o  o | 1               parallel
 321   \________|_________|________/                  port pins
 322    |  |      |  |  |   |
 323    |  |      |  |  |   +-------->  Clock    ---  (4)
 324    |  |      |  |  +------------>  Select   ---  (3)
 325    |  |      |  +--------------->  Power    ---  (5-9)
 326    |  |      +------------------>  Ground   ---  (18-25)
 327    |  +------------------------->  Command  ---  (2)
 328    +---------------------------->  Data     ---  (one of 10,11,12,13,15)
 329
 330  The driver supports these controllers:
 331
 332 * Standard PSX Pad
 333 * NegCon PSX Pad
 334 * Analog PSX Pad (red mode)
 335 * Analog PSX Pad (green mode)
 336 * PSX Rumble Pad
 337 * PSX DDR Pad
 338
 3392.4 Sega
 340~~~~~~~~
 341  All the Sega controllers are more or less based on the standard 2-button
 342Multisystem joystick. However, since they don't use switches and use TTL
 343logic, the only driver usable with them is the db9.c driver.
 344
 3452.4.1 Sega Master System
 346~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 347  The SMS gamepads are almost exactly the same as normal 2-button
 348Multisystem joysticks. Set the driver to Multi2 mode, use the corresponding
 349parallel port pins, and the following schematic:
 350
 351    +-----------> Power
 352    | +---------> Right
 353    | | +-------> Left
 354    | | | +-----> Down
 355    | | | | +---> Up
 356    | | | | |
 357  _____________
 3585 \ o o o o o / 1
 359   \ o o x o /
 360  9 `~~~~~~~' 6
 361     | |   |
 362     | |   +----> Button 1
 363     | +--------> Ground
 364     +----------> Button 2
 365
 3662.4.2 Sega Genesis aka MegaDrive
 367~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 368  The Sega Genesis (in Europe sold as Sega MegaDrive) pads are an extension
 369to the Sega Master System pads. They use more buttons (3+1, 5+1, 6+1).  Use
 370the following schematic:
 371
 372    +-----------> Power
 373    | +---------> Right
 374    | | +-------> Left
 375    | | | +-----> Down
 376    | | | | +---> Up
 377    | | | | |
 378  _____________
 3795 \ o o o o o / 1
 380   \ o o o o /
 381  9 `~~~~~~~' 6
 382     | | | |
 383     | | | +----> Button 1
 384     | | +------> Select
 385     | +--------> Ground
 386     +----------> Button 2
 387
 388  The Select pin goes to pin 14 on the parallel port.
 389
 390(pin 14) -----> Select
 391
 392  The rest is the same as for Multi2 joysticks using db9.c
 393
 3942.4.3 Sega Saturn
 395~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 396  Sega Saturn has eight buttons, and to transfer that, without hacks like
 397Genesis 6 pads use, it needs one more select pin. Anyway, it is still
 398handled by the db9.c driver. Its pinout is very different from anything
 399else.  Use this schematic:
 400
 401    +-----------> Select 1
 402    | +---------> Power
 403    | | +-------> Up
 404    | | | +-----> Down
 405    | | | | +---> Ground
 406    | | | | |
 407  _____________
 4085 \ o o o o o / 1
 409   \ o o o o /
 410  9 `~~~~~~~' 6
 411     | | | |
 412     | | | +----> Select 2
 413     | | +------> Right
 414     | +--------> Left
 415     +----------> Power
 416
 417  Select 1 is pin 14 on the parallel port, Select 2 is pin 16 on the
 418parallel port.
 419
 420(pin 14) -----> Select 1
 421(pin 16) -----> Select 2
 422
 423  The other pins (Up, Down, Right, Left, Power, Ground) are the same as for
 424Multi joysticks using db9.c
 425
 4263. The drivers
 427~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 428  There are three drivers for the parallel port interfaces. Each, as
 429described above, allows to connect a different group of joysticks and pads.
 430Here are described their command lines:
 431
 4323.1 gamecon.c
 433~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 434  Using gamecon.c you can connect up to five devices to one parallel port. It
 435uses the following kernel/module command line:
 436
 437        gamecon.map=port,pad1,pad2,pad3,pad4,pad5
 438
 439  Where 'port' the number of the parport interface (eg. 0 for parport0).
 440
 441  And 'pad1' to 'pad5' are pad types connected to different data input pins
 442(10,11,12,13,15), as described in section 2.1 of this file.
 443
 444  The types are:
 445
 446        Type | Joystick/Pad
 447        --------------------
 448          0  | None
 449          1  | SNES pad
 450          2  | NES pad
 451          4  | Multisystem 1-button joystick
 452          5  | Multisystem 2-button joystick
 453          6  | N64 pad
 454          7  | Sony PSX controller
 455          8  | Sony PSX DDR controller
 456          9  | SNES mouse
 457
 458  The exact type of the PSX controller type is autoprobed when used, so
 459hot swapping should work (but is not recommended).
 460
 461  Should you want to use more than one of parallel ports at once, you can use
 462gamecon.map2 and gamecon.map3 as additional command line parameters for two
 463more parallel ports.
 464
 465  There are two options specific to PSX driver portion.  gamecon.psx_delay sets
 466the command delay when talking to the controllers. The default of 25 should
 467work but you can try lowering it for better performance. If your pads don't
 468respond try raising it until they work. Setting the type to 8 allows the
 469driver to be used with Dance Dance Revolution or similar games. Arrow keys are
 470registered as key presses instead of X and Y axes.
 471
 4723.2 db9.c
 473~~~~~~~~~
 474  Apart from making an interface, there is nothing difficult on using the
 475db9.c driver. It uses the following kernel/module command line:
 476
 477        db9.dev=port,type
 478
 479  Where 'port' is the number of the parport interface (eg. 0 for parport0).
 480
 481  Caveat here: This driver only works on bidirectional parallel ports. If
 482your parallel port is recent enough, you should have no trouble with this.
 483Old parallel ports may not have this feature.
 484
 485  'Type' is the type of joystick or pad attached:
 486
 487        Type | Joystick/Pad
 488        --------------------
 489          0  | None
 490          1  | Multisystem 1-button joystick
 491          2  | Multisystem 2-button joystick
 492          3  | Genesis pad (3+1 buttons)
 493          5  | Genesis pad (5+1 buttons)
 494          6  | Genesis pad (6+2 buttons)
 495          7  | Saturn pad (8 buttons)
 496          8  | Multisystem 1-button joystick (v0.8.0.2 pin-out)
 497          9  | Two Multisystem 1-button joysticks (v0.8.0.2 pin-out) 
 498         10  | Amiga CD32 pad
 499
 500  Should you want to use more than one of these joysticks/pads at once, you
 501can use db9.dev2 and db9.dev3 as additional command line parameters for two
 502more joysticks/pads.
 503
 5043.3 turbografx.c
 505~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 506  The turbografx.c driver uses a very simple kernel/module command line:
 507
 508        turbografx.map=port,js1,js2,js3,js4,js5,js6,js7
 509
 510  Where 'port' is the number of the parport interface (eg. 0 for parport0).
 511
 512  'jsX' is the number of buttons the Multisystem joysticks connected to the
 513interface ports 1-7 have. For a standard multisystem joystick, this is 1.
 514
 515  Should you want to use more than one of these interfaces at once, you can
 516use turbografx.map2 and turbografx.map3 as additional command line parameters
 517for two more interfaces.
 518
 5193.4 PC parallel port pinout
 520~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 521                  .----------------------------------------.
 522   At the PC:     \ 13 12 11 10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1 /
 523                   \  25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 /
 524                     ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 525
 526          Pin | Name    | Description
 527        ~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~
 528            1 | /STROBE | Strobe
 529          2-9 | D0-D7   | Data Bit 0-7
 530           10 | /ACK    | Acknowledge
 531           11 | BUSY    | Busy
 532           12 | PE      | Paper End
 533           13 | SELIN   | Select In
 534           14 | /AUTOFD | Autofeed
 535           15 | /ERROR  | Error
 536           16 | /INIT   | Initialize
 537           17 | /SEL    | Select
 538        18-25 | GND     | Signal Ground
 539
 5403.5 End
 541~~~~~~~
 542  That's all, folks! Have fun!
 543
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