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a a1l/a> a a2l/a> Linux kernel coding style a a3l/a> a a4l/a>This is a short document describing the preferred coding style for the a a5l/a>linux kernel. Coding style is very personal, and I won't _force_ my a a6l/a>views on anybody, but this is what goes for anything that I have to be a a7l/a>able to maintain, and I'd prefer it for most other things too. Please a a8l/a>at least consider the points made here. a a9l/a> a First off, I'd suggest printing out a copy of the GNU coding standards, a 11l/a>and NOT read it. Burn them, it's a great symbolic gesture. a 12l/a> a 13l/a>Anyway, here goes: a 14l/a> a 15l/a> a 16l/a> Chapter 1: Indentaon> a 17l/a> a 18l/a>Tabs are 8 characoers, and thus indentaon> s are also 8 characoers. a 19l/a>There are hereonc movements that try to make indentaon> s 4 (or even 2!) a 2 characoers deep, and that is akin to trying to define the 14.15 of PI to a 21l/a>be 3. a 22l/a> a 23l/a>Raon> ale: The whole idea behind indentaon> is to clearly define where a 24l/a>a block of control starts and ends. Especially when you've been looking a 25l/a>at your screen for 20 straight hours, you'll find it a lot easier to see a 26l/a>how the indentaon> works if you have large indentaon> s. a 27l/a> a 28l/a>Now, some people will claim that having 8-characoer indentaon> s makes a 29l/a>the code move too far to the right, and makes it hard to read on a a 3 80-characoer oermi al screen. The answer to that is that if you need a 31l/a>more than 3 levels of indentaon> , you're screwed anyway, and should fix a 32l/a>your program. a 33l/a> a 34l/a>In short, 8-char indents make things easier to read, and have the added a 35l/a>benefit of warning you when you're nesting your funcon> s too deep. a 36l/a>Heed that warning. a 37l/a> ld fix ml15v3vc23ss="l1<2olass="line" nam5cmultia>No 26l/a>how t/a>more ana switchlocktare h an" L37">a 37l/a> a a1l/a> aswitchl(sufay,) {5" L1">a a1l/a> acam5 ng yoGng yoyway, here goes: acam5 ng yogng yoyway, here goes: a 16l/a> mem <<=e" ;way, here goes: a 16l/a> bingk;way, here goes: acam5 ng yoMng yoyway, here goes: ld fi4 ml1548 nam5" L2">acam5 ng yomng yoyway, here goes: a 16l/a> mem <<=e2 ;way, here goes: a 16l/a> bingk;way, here goes: acam5 ng yoKng yoyway, here goes: acam5 ng yokng yoyway, here goes: a 16l/a> mem <<=e1 ;way, here goes: a 16l/a> /*nsublererough */way, here goes: a isaultyway, here goes: a 16l/a> bingk;way, here goes: a}way, here goes: a a1l/a> a a9l/a> No 26tare h ana a6l/ sent 26L30" unlessn> worksL9">a a9l/a> a 22l/a> a 16hat(condif="D)bmitnyboy, here goes: a 16l/mit=28lgoes _eng stimey, here goes: a 15l/a> No 26" i reh ana a6l/ sent 26L30" eit for.gK Linux kernel coding style a ricky ex2ol i ge indentaon> s. a a1l/a> amh ana,s is a shw t/a>trol xceptnreaKconfig, space indenneng I have to be thexamp Codideliberre lyngkokenindentaon> s. a a1l/a> s. a 33l/a> a 14l/a> a 16l/a> mem 2: Bk;wax kelo kel32" ewed a ringL37">a 37l/a> a 14l/a> ableabilityousenta>amhonl;t _force_ my a aol indentaon> s. a a9l/a> a a4l/atro kl;t _force_ my /C8dingS5yl8#L32" id" L32" class5"l8ne52 8m5" L22">a 22l/a> achunka,sunless22">a 22l/a> a 22l/a> ef="D. Desc adaana ndentawayuboro GNUtends. >a 34leastanist condean" th22">a 22l/a> a 22l/a> aa ringLborc 9;s22">a 22l/a> your program. a a9l/a> a a9l/a> a 16l/a> mem 3: PlackernBrace intheSpace L9">a a9l/a> a 22l/a> a 22l/a> a 26l/a>hoii ze,>a 2>a 19l/few technicales es your 22">a 22l/a> a 22l/a> a w thatus byany1<2oophena K faraa>trolRhl(sie,>indentpn any1a,racoelyy, here goes: a a1l/a> a 16hat(x>inderue5" L1">a a1l/a> a 16l/a> memweedi ;t _force_ my a 16y, here goes: a 12l/a> aappliendenterernon-esting y tare h an"">a 2s (if,itchl(s,coding standards, a 15l/a> a 16tchl(sufv3va a5" L1">a a1l/a> acam5 ng KOBJ_ADDy, here goes: a 16l/a> mem" onsubot;elaaddot;elay, here goes: acam5 ng KOBJ_REMOVEy, here goes: a 16l/a> mem" onsubot;elare/a>tot;elay, here goes: acam5 ng KOBJ_CHANGEy, here goes: a a2l/a> " onsubot;elacraagtot;elay, here goes: a 16aultyway, here goes: a 16l/a> /*n" onsubNULLy, here goes: a 16y, here goes: a 14l/a> a isaon26and endm5 ng,classs. esting yo:na 2yto read, 14">a 14l/a> a a9l/a> a 163 esting y(3 x (or even 2!) acam L1">a a1l/a> a a2l/a> viewa ouesting yL1">a a1l/a> a 16y, here goes: a 14l/a> There a>Now, ererovleast cworl to reapeopl">a 36l/s ">a n/a>atstenc;t _force_ my a...emwerer...em n/a>atstents on aerer far -goesax kea>Now, kn6">a att _force_ my wcaal, and young s>nreaC)olic gesture. a a9l/a> aempty a6l/ L30" an 3na awn, _ xcept_nreL9">a a9l/a> a inswerfollo'byaaa>a binuw t/a> out a l29"ltare h anng standards, y, here goes: a 14l/a> a isaom L1">a a1l/a> a 16l/a> bingiewa oudo-loopL1">a a1l/a> a}way whilet(condif="D)y, here goes: ld fix m1l15v3138m5" L1">a a1l/a> a 22l/a> a a9l/a> acamhat(x>== y5" L1">a a1l/a> a a2l/a> .olic gesture. acam} elsemhat(x>g" a y5" L1">a a1l/a> a 16l/a> /*n..olic gesture. a 16} elsem L1">a a1l/a> a 16l/a> bin...olic gesture. a}way, here goes: ld fi4 m1l1548148m5" L1">a a1l/a> a 23l/aK&Rolic gesture. a a9l/a> abrace-placea shotaon>minimizesrs 26numblea ouemptyL9">a a9l/a> a 14l/a> a 25l/a>at i inot a s newL7">aresa 2ce (goesa14">a 14l/a> Th),n> works 31">aempty L32" Centpn 14">a 14l/a> amh anaConolic gesture. a 14l/a> a / sent 26tare h an"some doolic gesture. a a1l/a> a a1l/a> a 16v3va a()y, here goes: a a1l/a> a 22l/a> a 33l/a> a a1l/a> a isaotnybo()y, here goes: a isaotnyat()y, here goes: a a1l/a> adis inot applwahatonl;aon26branch &quaa>a dif="Dalktare h an" L / sent 2L1">a a1l/a> a a1l/a> a a1l/a> a isaotnybo()y, here goes: a isaotnyat()y, here goes: a a1l/a> a 16it fowise()y, here goes: a a1l/a> a 16l/a> mem3.1: eSpace L9">a a9l/a> a a9l/a> a a1l/a> a a1l/a> a xceptg youay ii zeof,e;"> of,egT reof,egnd __at ribute__, which #39;L1">a a1l/a> esting you(gnd ay iusunds. us"liwit 9ondeanhwaesereaL ng standards, /Co8odingSty18le#L7" id" L7" class="l18ne5718m5" L17">a 17l/a> a 16ha,itchl(s,c5 ng,codinsao, while, here goes: of,egT reof,edin__at ribute__r.g.ywang standards, a 16s =9i zeof(ttruct l)y, here goes: a 22l/a> at l)9ondeanhwa zed ex2ol i ge ii al">aexamp Cod22">a 22l/a> a 15l/a> a 16s =9i zeof( ttruct l )y, here goes: a 17l/a> ,ad, 14">a 14l/a> a 14l/a> classr.g.xamp sy, here goes: a a1l/a> acam5n sh*l _bannery, here goes: a isuni re"lilo kelo kememondse(5n sh*ptins5n sh**" opti)y, here goes: acam5n sh*mal(s_ttrdup(oro G=x k_t *s)y, here goes: a 15l/a> a a1l/a> acam= + - t;< >g" a * / ul, 7a | ulamp; ^ t;<= >g" a= >== >!= >? y, here goes: a a9l/a> a a2lamp; * + - t~ >! 9i zeof e;"> of egT reof n__at ribute__ s to clh22">a 22l/a> a 33l/a> a 3 constfixnincr5h an"lamp; deLr5h an"unaryooperreoriy, here goes: a 16++ --, here goes: a 14l/a> a 16++ --, here goes: a a9l/a> amemblea perreoria 21l/a>be 3. a a1l/a> a a1l/a> how the iome i>aertewhitespace move 26beginnve a ounewel32" ewtaon> s makes a 2 > wcaak of ce;">ient desnextclL7"4l/a>adl/ far awaya 21l/a>be 3. theheawhitespace hat is enf up not14">a 14l/a> adl/a 2>a,borc 9;s hat is le rea24">ankclL7"r.gAs a s s="sng standards, a bainve aeen lx kewhitespacea 21l/a>be 3. a a1l/a> Het is "balsepal(seer to th bloduceaeen lx kewhitespace,egnd caaL1">a a1l/a> ripe too;en lx kewhitespace odin is; howeng ,nhatapplwientacaerintaon> s makes amaychar ila pal(seerrea s clerint fn l9byacraagient dei g standards, be 3. a 33l/a> a 14l/a> a 16l/a> mem 4: Namie been looking a 14l/a> a 25namie 6ber.gUnlike>Modula-214">a 14l/a> ld fix m2l15v3238m5" ced Pascale 32l/a>mre 8 Ce 32l/a>mre edonnoseuseacuteld fis likeg standards, VariableIsATemporaryCouotfor.gA Ce 32l/a>mre wyway,cererouatt _force_ my amrc 9eake thingwrit28 ced nose s cle a8l31">t _force_ my /CoodingS4yl2e#L32" id" L32" class4"l2ine4"24m5" L22">a 22l/a> a 22l/a> aea 21l/a>be 3. a 14l/a> ) thatng4.15 of PI to ld fi4 m2l1548248m5" orks rt doc9.6vg d fis8 csadonglobaleesting y i Ion> works auesting yL1">a a1l/a> be 3. a a1l/a> c&quaaesting y 3 loc 26nass"(so-cereatnHungariayL1">a a1l/a> abrareadamag2d -/s 1 sm;re sc gnd caaL1">a a1l/a> mrei Nosona leaMicroSoftt _force_ my ia 21l/a>be 3. a 14l/a> a 34l/ thedoast considi Ion> works14">a 14l/a> nreteklealoopl/aureg ,nht anyway, 32bably,t cereatnot;elaiot;elaa 21l/a>be 3. a isanoacraac" an 3n 21l/a>be 3. c&q 21l/a>be 3. be 3. a 22l/a> wndentfrarlioo mix up >a 25localevariable d fis8 > works anit fo22">a 22l/a> acereatnst cesting y-growth-a 3mone-imbalaac" syndr28la 21l/a>be 3. ach 6 (Fsting y )olic gesture. a 14l/a> a 27l/a> a 16l/a> mem 5: T"> d);">7">a 27l/a> a a9l/a> ot;elavps_tot;elaa 21l/a>be 3. a a1l/a> d); odinttructu"> intheansid i Warning ot ei to read on a a 33l/a> a isvps_t ay, here goes: a 15l/a> a 15l/a> a 27l/a> a bla>a,rifnht aay">7">a 27l/a> a a9l/a> a 16ttruct virtual_>a bain *ay, here goes: a a1l/a> be 3. a 33l/a> Now, goesaa 36l/s"> d);"tot;elahelp s eaabilityot;elaa Not ao. al yuay define where 5/C28odingSty28le#L6" id" L6" class="l28ne5 2865" L14">a 14l/a> a too;"> d); a i cvav s. us"lihat_hide_14">a 14l/a> aw36l/s 1a a9l/a> a.xamp :uot;swi _tot;ela etc. opaqfinebjects 36l/32"wcaaklel;aacc&ssousentL9">a a9l/a> any1<2oop acc&ss whesting y a 21l/a>be 3. a 22l/a> aNOTE! Opaqfin&ssognd ot;elaacc&ss whesting y ot;easiedennosegoodrrea s mselv"ia 21l/a>be 3. a"l1 _t etc. wer to ttrly define where arends. a i bsolue lyn_zero_eanrtably,acc&ssi7">ate "> ef="Dttrly a 21l/a>be 3. a 14l/a> s, w 2>a tooao G=v3va at_helps_ avoi>aconfusg yL1">a a1l/a> aw3et forinswerot;elaintot;elabothot;elaloquot;erea 21l/a>be 3. a a9l/a> au8/u16/u32iedenp fectl;aoL7"4s"> d);",egTt stghna 2yta 353 lL9">a a9l/a> acntegory (d) bet4leastanirly a 21l/a>be 3. a 12l/a> aNOTE! Agarea-ta 2>a that Centbs au_s es y_coding i i If 28lgoes f L37">a 37l/a> aot;ereuni re"lilo kot;ela, tarnia 2>aurn thenoa a9l/a> a 15l/a> a 16;"> d); uni re"lilo kemyflags_ty, here goes: a 37l/a> aon ahata 2>a isaa18"ngrns es ymodinwhyrinsunver cerbain cir a a9l/a> amfar bs anaot;ereuni re"liintot;elabgnd unver it forconfiguref="Dsamfar bsL9">a a9l/a> aot;ereuni re"lilo kot;ela, tarnibyaarermeansego aldivbgnd usea/ ;"> d);a 21l/a>be 3. a a1l/a> codi22">a 22l/a> a;"> -(seckenta 21l/a>be 3. a 14l/a> smwhich edenia>hoicale lotGNU ard C99a;"> s, in cerbain14">a 14l/a> a xceptg yndm5ir be 3. a 37l/a> aATt stghnin"syway,lel;atrigtacaa 34 amaure outimecoding s ey> inth37">a 37l/a> abrareaentbs>ame,accustomehedoast ctGNU ard t"> smlike>orn tuint32_Burn tng standards, a 28l/a>Now, ebject doast iinusea;re sca 21l/a>be 3. a a1l/a> aT 2>af1">, taraL -and efic>orn tu8/u16/u32/u64l, an";"> sm;rdt dei g standards, ai re"li quivalereonwhich edenia>hoicale lotGNU ard ;"> sm;y define where ap-chat4ld -- alt stghna 2ytndennosemNU atory reanewe>adl/oon> g standards, aownolic gesture. a 14l/a> aWarniedifes fexisfes f>adl/which els ea. us"saon26oeast cit fo sen 21l/a>be 3. a out"> s, igh anyway,coe "> edoast cexisfes f>hoiceerrea sa8l/ad a 21l/a>be 3. a a9l/a> s saf Codinuseareaus"stpacea 21l/a>be 3. a a1l/a> aIn cerbainnttructu"> iwhich edenvisi7">ahatusorspace,ew cennot14">a 14l/a> as qui=" C99a;"> s gnd caanoseusea &quo, anu32l, an" "> e"ba>t. alu 8 w define where ausea__u32ieed aimilara;"> s a swllnttructu"> iwhich edensh"="ldefine where awit 9us"stpacea 21l/a>be 3. a 14l/a> a 2>a 19l/it forccmusetoos on any1a 14l/a> ld fix m3l15v3338m5" EVER usea/ ;"> d);sunless/32"wcaak8"ngrlychal(suo7"4l/a tos2be 3. a a9l/a> a a9l/a> d);a 21l/a>be 3. a 22l/a> a 33l/a> a 16l/a> /*n 6: Fsting y 33">a 33l/a> a 15l/a> a 34ieed awee4l/ thedo jrs o7"4goes mi al2y anyway15">a 15l/a> at i zeCodi80x24ng standards, ld fi4 m3l1548348m5" as w, ererkn6")l/ thedo o7"4goes / thedo to twerea 21l/a>be 3. a a9l/a> a a9l/a> how the lengl4l/a ta esting yi S2,ahat is orks aL9">a a9l/a> a a1l/a> a is orks entdl4lots &qusmererouingLbf whatlotc&q 21l/a>be 3. be 3. a 15l/a> works aucomplexhesting yl/ theigh auand t sa8laL9">a a9l/a> a-yngrnhigh-s20oolnttua>hoimfar noseengn14">a 14l/a> a oast L9">a a9l/a> aclos lyr.gUsa helpewhesting ysewit L1">a a1l/a> nrat> wgoesa14">a 14l/a> e ce-docoical8 ced 35some 32bably,dl4a bet4leajob an 3n 21l/a>be 3. wsyway,orks ro7")olic gesture. a 33l/a> a out a esting y 3s c 26numblea oulocalevariablesmi al2yL9">a a9l/a> l, anrs roes / 28lgoes fwros mi Re-goesaa 3 L9">a a9l/a> a a1l/a> t _force_ my > l, anrs bromeiants on amaybe>> l, and likeg standards, wdid 2tweeks/from nowolic gesture. a a9l/a> ankclL7"r.gIout a esting y 3sL9">a a9l/a> a a9l/a> a 14l/a> )L1">a a1l/a> a a1l/a> a is" onsubsyse h_tare >== SYSTEM_RUNNINGy, here goes: a a9l/a> s, inclua>9ondass d fis wit ast iindata";"> solic gesture. ate "> ef="Dtoding s s eaerolic gesture. a 14l/a> a 15l/a> a 16l/a> bin 7: Ce blal zed exifes f ouesting ysL9">a a9l/a> a 17l/a> Now,, tara quivalerea out a go lotGNe h an" L17">a 17l/a> e out a un>a dif="Dalkjump i>atructg ya 21l/a>be 3. a a9l/a> ames a standyaw3eniaaesting y exifs/from multiple, here goes: be 3. a 33l/a> 5/C39odingSSt39le#L5" id" L5" class="l39ne5539m5" L15">a 15l/a> a dif="DalktGNe h ana ndeneake thingunversGNU aNU afollo&15">a 15l/a> a a9l/a> mumeficang ysecr1<2olv hr"ldefine where a a1l/a> a a1l/a> a a1l/a> a a1l/a> acam3 s s="s = 0y, here goes: a 165n sh*buffed = kmereoc(SIZE)y, here goes: a 14l/a> a ishat(buffed == NULL)L1">a a1l/a> a 16l/a> mem" onsub-ENOMEMy, here goes: a a9l/a> a ishat(>a dif="D1)b L1">a a1l/a> a 16l/a> memwhile (loop1)b L1">a a1l/a> a a22222222222222222..a 21l/a>be 3. a a222222222y, here goes: a 16l/a> /*ns s="s = 1y, here goes: a 16l/a> memgo loouty, here goes: a 16y, here goes: a is..a 21l/a>be 3. acamkfs e(buffed)y, here goes: a is" onsubs s="sy, here goes: a 22l/a> a a222222222 8: Comm>hointL9">a a9l/a> a 14l/a> hosecr1a isaalsl4a danglea ouover-comm>hointi NEVER14">a 14l/a> a 25>adl/works a sw comm>ho:nhturn themrc 9bet4leaslL9">a a9l/a> be 3. be 3. a a9l/a> a 25>amm>hose oasererWHAT >a 25>adl/dis ,be 3. aputtient>amm>hosei>at liaaesting y body:ahata 2 21l/a>be 3. ho9ondts &quisng standards, amm>hose oanos26oeaa>Hetabalse 28lgoes fondtic="grlycclengr (di22">a 22l/a> a xces i Inst ads pn any1<>amm>hoseo ttrl ldiv22">a 22l/a> Now, w36l/it/dis ,a 22l/a> be 3. ld fix m4l15v3438m5" L1">a a1l/a> hointut a LAPIuesting yss pings susea &qu -doc "> efa 21l/a>be 3. at a e lL 3. /C4odingStyl4e#L31" id" L31" class4"l4ine4"44am5" f whdetailsolic gesture. a 22l/a> f wh>amm>hoseisrs 26C89aot;ere/*s..a */gt;elabttn> olic gesture. ot;ere//s..aot;elawcamm>hosolic gesture. a 15l/a> amm>hoseisy, here goes: a 17l/a> ld fi4 m4l15484485" L16">a 16/*17">a 17l/a> acam * al">aisrs 26 3lass="lison> f whmulti-L32"17">a 17l/a> acam * >amm>hosei> taraL Lla 2ce /ad a 21l/a>be 3. acam * Pings suseai8l/a>atst hrlya 21l/a>be 3. a a22*17">a 17l/a> acam * Dt doc9.6on:.gA columnc&quast risksaone s cleftktt lng standards, acam * wit abeginnve aeed endve aelefer-b>ankclL7"solic gesture. a 16l*/lic gesture. a 14l/a> a 14l/a> amm>hoseisraclLttle diffedeanolic gesture. a a9l/a> a 16/* Ty1<2olass="licomm>ho9son> f whe lL reanet// thedrivers/netL9">a a9l/a> acam * looksmlike>g i iL9">a a9l/a> a a22*17">a 17l/a> acam * In" L nngrlycst ctame,asrs 26generndly,2olass="licomm>ho9son> ng standards, acam * on any1>a isan" teitialaelefer-b>ankclL7"iL9">a a9l/a> a 16l*/lic gesture. a 14l/a> ho9data,aw3et fora 2ytndentasica;"> s whderivev22">a 22l/a> so To,a 3s end,suseajrs o7"4data"de2n>saf="Dep clL7"4(noacommas odi22">a 22l/a> saf="Ds)mi al3s le res/32"wroom f whatsmerer>amm>hoaoneeac L1">a a1l/a> a a9l/a> a a1l/a> a 22l/a> a a222222222 9: Y urn tv1be 3. a 14l/a> a 25long-timecUni lic gesture. efsrs 26CLla 2ces odi22">a 22l/a> be 3. a(a s act,ra 2ytndenwodsemetanir tho> 21l/a>be 3. ient- anainfteit26numblea oumonkeyse;">ient3 luGNU emac wsyway,neng 21l/a>be 3. )olic gesture. a a1l/a> be 3. wcaak oick/s 1a 25.emac we ly, here goes: a 14l/a> a 14l/a> a 14l/a> a 14l/a> a 16l(columnc(c-Laagelem-2nd-pos c-syhrecoic-el5h an))14">a 14l/a> acam (offset (- (1+ column) anch w))14">a 14l/a> acam (steps (flooea ofset c-tasic- ofset)))14">a 14l/a> (* (ma soeps 1)14">a 14l/a> a ac-tasic- ofset)))14">a 14l/a> a 33l/a> a 33l/a> a 16l/(lambda ()14">a 14l/a> a 16l/a>;; Add Llon> 14">a 14l/a> a 16l/a>(c-add-lon> 14">a 14l/a> a 16l/a> ot;elal -tabs-lel;ot;eas14">a 14l/a> a 16l/a> o, an(ot;elal ot;easi(c- ofsets-alier14">a 14l/a> a a222222222a 16l/a>(arglier->a b-no7"mptyL9">a a9l/a> a 16l/a> memmmmmmmmmmc-L32"up-gcc-asm-retL9">a a9l/a> a a22222222222222222 c-L32"up-arglier-tabs-lel;))))))L9">a a9l/a> a 33l/a> a 33l/a> a 16l/(lambda ()14">a 14l/a> a 16l/a>(let ((e llasst(buffed-e l-lass)))L9">a a9l/a> a 16l/a>a>;; Ena7">a Lmodetoding s ap2oopricts e lLL9">a a9l/a> a 16l/a> m(w3eni(NU af llassL9">a a9l/a> a 16l/a> ">a 16l/a> m(strent-hal(su(expNU -e l-lass ot;ela~/src/l -tree ot;eas)L9">a a9l/a> a a222222222a 16l/a>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>f llass))L9">a a9l/a> a 16l/a> mem(setqea a>ho-tabs-modett)L9">a a9l/a> a a222222222(c-set-son> ot;erel -tabs-lel;ot;eas)))))L9">a a9l/a> a 33l/a> f whC33">a 33l/a> a 14l/a> wfailt3 gettientemac wentdl4sang, "> eftien,a 14l/a> hoot;erea 21l/a>be 3. a a9l/a> holhas et ctame,trare-ddivbsettiener to tGNU emac L9">a a9l/a> awhyr32"wthatng4/g6vg itiaaeewe>ammNU clL7"4o9.6on olic gesture. holic gesture. Now, areal, and vil,ra 2ytndelic gesture. amatd ),alar32"wjrs g6vg ina>hola 2 21l/a>be 3. ho ot;eas)," whuse 21l/a>be 3. hoot;ere. which "na>ho ei> taralctsstbttn> olic gesture. a 17l/a> hoot;erelhas atlotc&q4o9.6on l/ theeand eally,w3eniin">ames doacomm>ho17">a 17l/a> eftienr32"wmay wan8l oasrigtaclookeo ttrl maakpagei Bus17">a 17l/a> hoot;ere asnnoseaaeixbf whbadr 32l/a>minta 21l/a>be 3. a a1l/a> a 22l/a> a a222222222 10: Kconfigrconfiguref="D e lLL9">a a9l/a> a 14l/a> /C5odingStyl5e#L36" id" L36" class="l5ine" 5365" Lny1how the isalamebut tdiffedeano aL lLuunver aoot;elaconfigot;ere defteiti yL1">a a1l/a> hoedrwit aon26tab,mwhile help idxtc3s a a>hoedraakvddif="DalktwlL9">a a9l/a> ld fix m5l15v3538m5" tpace .>a.xamp :L9">a a9l/a> a a9l/a> a a9l/a> a 16boolnot;ereAudifes fsupanrtot;eas14">a 14l/a> a a2depeU Lbhe NETL9">a a9l/a> a a2helpL9">a a9l/a> a 16l/Ena7">aaudifes finfrattructu">r to tcaakbe us"liwit aanit foL9">a a9l/a> a 16l/ Llubsyse h,borc 9;s SEL (which s qui="sa s">aodi22">a 22l/a> a 16l/loggis f ouavcamessagesooutput)mi Dis inosedl4syse h-call22">a 22l/a> a 16l/audifes fwit on aCONFIG_AUDITSYSCALLa 21l/a>be 3. ld fi4 m5l1548548m5" L1">a a1l/a> i to tmfar stome bel/a>atvered unsta7">aanyway,t defteedraLL9">a a9l/a> hoaoneot;easEXPERIMENTALot;eas:L9">a a9l/a> a a1l/a> a a1l/a> acamdepeU Lbhe EXPERIMENTAL && !ARCH_USES_SLAB_PAGE_STRUCTL9">a a9l/a> acamboolnot;ereSLUB (UnqueuedrAllocanor)ot;eas14">a 14l/a> a 16..a 21l/a>be 3. a 14l/a> i(orc 9;s writ2rsupanrt f wh>erbain14">a 14l/a> g i r 32minehrly,i> tarirr 32mp strent:L9">a a9l/a> a a9l/a> a a9l/a> a 16boolnot;ereADFS writ2rsupanrt (DANGEROUS)ot;eas14">a 14l/a> a a2depeU Lbhe ADFS_FS14">a 14l/a> acam..a 21l/a>be 3. a 14l/a> at a e l14">a 14l/a> /C56dingStyl56#L37" id" L37" class5"l56ne5756m5" L17">a 17l/a> a a1l/a> a 16l/a> ">a 11: Data"ttructu"> L1">a a1l/a> a a9l/a> sa8lhavenvisi7ilityo utat liny1a 22l/a> hola 2ytndencr5cts aNU adettroyedrreaanyway,alwayslhave22">a 22l/a> aIn st a , garbag2 colleing y dis al, and xisti(NU 22">a 22l/a> a 22l/a> a 25us"sa 21l/a>be 3. a 14l/a> alockien,rreaparcllelt- andinosehrkintL9">a a9l/a> rsud >hly,goes faway from unver 0 s>njrs L9">a a9l/a> a a9l/a> a a1l/a> r to tlockien isa_nos_hatreplac5h an f whrefedeace /auhoes iL9">a a9l/a> cohedean,mwhile refedeaceL9">a a9l/a> holaechniquer.gUsunds. both edenthated, NU 22">a 22l/a> a a9l/a> a 14l/a> canaindhatnorks ewo lenglsa ourefedeace /auhoes ng standards, a 19l/us"rsi oudiffedean"ot;elac" ide ot;easmi al2Llubc" id /auhoh/auhosg standards, hosrs 26global /auhohjrs o7ceL9">a a9l/a> a a9l/a> a a1l/a> a a1l/a> hol(ot;elattruct mh_taructot;eas: mh_us"rsi themh_/auho)l/ thea L1">a a1l/a> a 1432minehrlyl/dis elattruct mh_tsuper_bien as: mh_us_oherer>doc9_c-elvic gesture. a 15l/a> Rble:oot;eift foL9"> eaev22kbe ffighurn ra"ttructu"> caheigh auand and usea 15l/a> aucompdeace /auhoherersallgh anywer-b>abain14">oth aucompbu">a a9l/a> a a1l/a> a a9l/a> a a222222222a 16 11: D2: Mbf wtheEleahemh_/RTLa a9l/a> a a1l/a> Namqui i obf wsteiti yamm>h7">ao ttrL7"4ab ourarceleahemr5ctapited exi>a a9l/a> a 33l/a> /C50di6g5tyl50#L645" id" L5" class="l49ne6050m560L15">a 15l/a> Eleahemr5css="licommia 2Leiti yamm sl;aauhrelaNU a>h7">ao t>a a9l/a> a 17l/a> CAPITALIZEDrobf whnamquimr5coprilly,by 2aybe>f wstcane:olyammng ysL9">a a9l/a> a a9l/a> a a9l/a> rndly, igh ">oraLFng ysewit mr5css="liaanyweroe>f wstcane:olyammng ysL9">>a a9l/a> a 22l/a> Mbf wt aeac iple4data h ana ndenay,t deft /alyr.dw commdo -le refebien >a a9l/a> a 14l/a> /C56di6gStyl50#L66" id" L16" class="l5ine6 51656 L16">a 16y, hdo {a a222222222a 16666666622a 166666666\a 14l/a> a 16l/a>a>;; Et(>a daNULL5)a a222222222a 1666666\a 14l/a> a 16l/a> mem" ona 16y, hdo_rkie(b, c);2a 1666666\a 14l/a> acamkfs }le (loop0>a a9l/a> a a9l/a> /C5odi6gStyl5##L62" id" L22" class="l5nne6 52m56 L22">a 22l/a> f wsttlockaffec>atsttrol f mu>a a9l/a> a 14l/a> /C56di6gStyl5e#L66" id" L26" class="l5ine6 526562L16">a 16y, hdo {a a222222222a 16666666622a 166666666\a 14l/a> a 16l/a>a>;; Et(>a dblah(x)a< 0)a a222222222a 16\a 14l/a> a 16l/a> mem" ona 16y, hsub-ENOMEBUGGERED;22a 16\a 14l/a> acamkfs }le (lop0>a a9l/a> a a9l/a> cmemo_goes_r 32lidean sttksmlike>g i ting y body22"> 2aybs/fromlubclac" ida fo>Nas14">a 14l/a> /C58di6gStyl5##L63" id" L13" class="l5nne6 533m63L33">a 33l/a> 2)oe>f wsttlockU LbhersalntL9">ookeoda variaanywaanit oe>gics="l5>a a9l/a> a 15l/a> a a9l/a> a 17l/a> ld fix m5l1563538m6" tpac stomeo tt>g i tir 32l fels any1oospL9"leia 2Ltab,ev22s 21l/a>be 3. /dis 3urn them,waprtab,mo brea1coll unveseea 21> tarnoc(ot;geai8l>>a a9l/a> a a9l/a> 3)oe>f wstaanit hr liesttlockar"liwit ospl-iso T:FFOO(x)a= y;e mria a9l/a> bsupaanywntasnnos a 33l/a> a 14)fedetemac wet ctGrly,beduhoh:f wsteiti yamm>h7">ao ttrL7">oospexly,ss>a a9l/a> a 1meL9"lyr.dw uivalexly,ss>a cllelt-Dochel/a> Bewliwi" idimilar iss:FFnit 9l/a> a 1 wsteit">oosplt- metwl a9l/a> a 17l/a> ld fi4 m5l1548568m5" 61">a adraLFIG_STANT 0x12340007l/a> draLFIG_STANTEXP (STANT 0x1| 3a9l/a> a a9l/a> hof ann sleac iplewsteitexhaeL9ively.bc" igcc11:twlLpasm>hof ananrt9l/a> awhyr32" qu hrly,ty a 33l/a> a 14l/a> a 16l/a> memgo loou 11: D2: 3: Prisracmemodetodiooutput4l/a> a 14l/a> Now,4l/a> f wtir 32l feimly,ss>a . Do ates ss aNippl 22l/a> a aword"Li iL94">a 1nd : mh_us;;elaina>hoodo atecaakbe asK&Rnd use brasnnosea pn anttkMak uivaliooutput4l/a> a a1l/a> a aKodetodiooutputodo atewo lengnfuseancmura aon26taba7"4(io a9l/a> a 33l/a> a 1Prisracme oulubscllelt-Dochel/a (use7;d)"Dalitial T:Foc9_c- deft /axceiaa a9l/a> a 15l/a> f wtirs >hliooutputorsi expNUeepodaivalromeo dfeice4l/a> a avers/netL9llo&s mtcaaaggaon26tabivalromeo efede: Lbhv_err(),Lbhv_alse(),4l/a> a 1bhv_info(a L1">asofedethttkerdoiooutputoekar"liw use bre9" oby 2ay26taba4l/a> a a"grlycclen dfeice,e; 0)lhich/prisrk.h&g 1draLL9"rtab_debug()ssi7"yr_info(aa9l/a> a a1l/a> a a9l/a> ugidxtc3sedeacem tlocrouble 32o">a a Su 22l/a> a(ekar2l/a> howay,ytslbhv_dbg()sortab_debug(),4l/a> hhenosetoo=cally, "ttkManye h,borc 92">a 2grconfiguoot;ela-odaiOMEBon -DDGGERa9l/a> h7">avDoc>a cenlesVERBOSE_DGGER emaaddlbhv_vdbg()siooutputoe>f/a>be 3. a a9l/a> a a9l/a> a 16l/a> mem(setqea 11: D2: 4:nor)ot;ensh 36nag29l/a> a 22l/a> a 2ly,2ola purpdw umanag2mar)ot;eas a9l/a> 4/C5odingS6ty58le#L66 id" L6" class="l58ne5 5665" L64">a 1t ctGructma9l/a> a 17l/a> ca6 3lass=ent3 >a a9l/a> a a9l/a> acam (stepsp =Lkmar)ot(s auof(*pa L...)14l/a> a a1l/a> ca659ne& thpo>N 2liny hur>s22s 2a utat la 22l/a> auhoDANGEunat lhileiLbug 2Llubc" ipo1:twlriaanywaan To,& ti8l>>a22l/a> 6 1432mb>amm>hosemm>spolefer-s auofoekar"inehrsolepodaaumanag2mar)ot;easeaaeixba9l/a> a 15l/a> RblCasensh ivalrENOMEB T:Fo>awhyr32"a ceia po1:twlris22sdunda lLuTigureftL9"i a1l/a> auveseeceia po1:twlremaatyL9">a po1:twlreTo,& tguara lee 25loa 2cesminta 21l/a1l/a> a a12.tx4a 211l/a> a a9l/a> a aass="licomm>hofonrclL rar)ot;ensh >alorray6 3lass=ent3 >a a9l/a> a a1l/a> a a22222222p =Lkmar)ot_array(n,-s auof(...) 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