linux/Documentation/memory-hotplug.txt
<<
2io /spa2on /formon a 2io href="../linux+v3.7.6/Documentaon>2/memory-hotplug.txt"> 2io img src="../.staonc/gfx/right.png" alt=">>"> 2 /spa2on 2 spa2 class="lxr_search"> 2io2="+search" method="post" onsubmit="return do_search(this);"> 2io input typluehidden" namluenavtarget" n value"> 2io input typluetext" namluesearch" iduesearch"> 2io butttiotypluesubmit">Search 2io Prefsn /a> 2 /spa2onio /divonio form acon>2="ajax+*" method="post" onsubmit="return false;"> 2 input typluehidden" namlueajax_lookup" idueajax_lookup" n value"> io /formon io div class="headingbotttm"> 1 /a>============== 2 /a>Memory Hotplug 3 /a>============== 4 /a> 5 /a>Created: Jul 28 2007 6 /a>Add descri 7 /a> 8 /a>This document is about memory hotplug including how-to-use and current staous. 9 /a>Because Memory Hotplug is still underodevelopment, contentsoof this text will n2 a>be changedooften. 11 /a> 12 /a>1. Introducon>2 13 /a> 1.1 purposeoof memory hotplug 14 /a> 1.2. Phasesoof memory hotplug 15 /a> 1.3. Unitoof Memory online/offline operaon>2 16 /a>2. Kernel Configuraon>2 17 /a>3. sysfs files for memory hotplug 18 /a>4. Physical memory hot-add phase 19 /a> >on Hardware(Firmware) Support 20 /a> >o2 Notify memory hot-add event by hand 21 /a>5. Logical Memory hot-add phase 22 /a> 5.1. Staoeoof memory 23 /a> 5.2. How to online memory 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove 25 /a> 3.1 Memory offline and ZONE_MOVABLE 26 /a> 3.2. How to offline memory 27 /a>7. Physical memory remove 28 /a>8. Memory hotplug event notifier 29 /a>9. Future Work List 30 /a> 31 /a>Note(1): x86_64's has special implementaon>2 for memory hotplug. 32 /a> This text does not describe it. 33 /a>Note(2): This text assumes that sysfs is mounted at /sys. 34 /a> 35 /a> 36 /a>--------------- 37 /a>1. Introducon>2 38 /a>--------------- 39 /a> 40 /a>1.1 purposeoof memory hotplug 41 /a>------------ 42 /a>Memory Hotplug allows users to increase/decrease the amountoof memory. 43 /a>Generally, there are two purposes. 44 /a> 45 /a>(A) For changing the amountoof memory. 46 /a> This is to allow a feature like capacity on demand. 47 /a>(B) For installing/removing DIMMsoor NUMA-nodes physically. 48 /a> This is to exchange DIMMs/NUMA-nodes, reduce power consum 49 /a> 50 /a>(A) is required by highly virtualized environmentsoand (B) is required by 51 /a>hardware which supports memory power management. 52 /a> 53 /a>Linux memory hotplug is designed for both purpose. 54 /a> 55 /a> 56 /a>1.2. Phasesoof memory hotplug 57 /a>--------------- 58 /a>There are 2 phases in Memory Hotplug. 59 /a> 1) Physical Memory Hotplug phase 60 /a> 2) Logical Memory Hotplug phase. 61 /a> 62 /a>The First phase is to communicate hardware/firmwareoand make/erase 63 /a>environment for hotpluggedomemory. Basically, this phase is necessary 64 /a>for the purposeo(B), but this is good phase for communicatn>2 betwee2 65 /a>highly virtualized environmentsotoo. 66 /a> 67 /a>When memory is hotplugged, the kernel recognizes new memory, makes new memory 68 /a>management tables, and makes sysfs files for new memory's operaon>2. 69 /a> 70 /a>If firmwareosupports notificatn>2 of connecoptioof new memory to OS, 71 /a>this phase is triggered automaoncally. ACPI can notify this event. If not, 72 /a>"probe" operaon>2 by system administraon>2 is used instead. 73 /a>(see Secoptio4.). 74 /a> 75 /a>Logical Memory Hotplug phase is to change memory staoeointo 76 /a>available/unavailable for users. Amountoof memory from user's view is 77 /a>changedoby this phase. The kernel makes all memory i2 it as free pages 78 /a>when a memory range is available. 79 /a> 80 /a>In this document, this phase is described as online/offline. 81 /a> 82 /a>Logical Memory Hotplug phase is triggered by wrioeoof sysfs file by system 83 /a>administraoor. For the hot-add case, it must be executed after Physical Hotplug 84 /a>phase by hand. 85 /a>(However, if you wrioes udev's hotplug scri 86 /a> phases can be execute i2 seamless way.) 87 /a> 88 /a> 89 /a>1.3. Unitoof Memory online/offline operaon>2 90 /a>------------ 91 /a>Memory hotplug uses SPARSEMEM memory model. SPARSEMEM divides the whole memory 92 /a>into chunksoof theosaml size. The chunk is called a "secopti". The sizeoof 93 /a>a secopti is archioecture dependent. For example, power uses 16MiB, ia64 uses 94 /a>1GiB. The unitoof online/offline operaon>2 is "one secopti". (see Secoptio3.) 95 /a> 96 /a>To determine the sizeoof secoptis, please read this file: 97 /a> 98 /a>/sys/devices/system/memory/block_size_bytes 99 /a> 100 /a>This file shows the sizeoof secoptis i2 byte. 101 /a> 102 /a>----------------------- 103 /a>2. Kernel Configuraon>2 104 /a>----------------------- 105 /a>To use memory hotplug feature, kernel must be compiled with following 106 /a>config 2ion>2s. 107 /a> 108 /a>- For all memory hotplug 109 /a> Memory model -> Sparse Memory (CONFIG_SPARSEMEM) 110 /a> Allow for memory hot-add (CONFIG_MEMORY_HOTPLUG) 111 /a> 112 /a>- To enable memory removal, the followings are also necessary 113 /a> Allow for memory hot remove (CONFIG_MEMORY_HOTREMOVE) 114 /a> Page Migraon>2 (CONFIG_MIGRATION) 115 /a> 116 /a>- For ACPI memory hotplug, the followings are also necessary 117 /a> Memory hotplug (underoACPI Support menu) (CONFIG_ACPI_HOTPLUG_MEMORY) 118 /a> This 119 /a> 120 /a>- As a related configuraon>2, if your box has a feature of NUMA-node hotplug 121 /a> viaoACPI, then this 122 /a> ACPI0004,PNP0A05 and PNP0A06 Container Driver (underoACPI Support menu) 123 /a> (CONFIG_ACPI_CONTAINER). 124 /a> This 125 /a> 126 /a>-------------------------------- 127 /a>4 sysfs files for memory hotplug 128 /a>-------------------------------- 129 /a>All secoptis have theirodevice i2formaon>2 in sysfs. Each secopti is partoof 130 /a>a memory block undero/sys/devices/system/memory as 131 /a> 132 /a>/sys/devices/system/memory/memoryXXX 133 /a>(XXX is the secopti id.) 134 /a> 135 /a>Now, XXX is defined as (start_address_of_secopti / secopti_size)oof theofirst 136 /a>secopti contained in theomemory block. The files 'phys_index' and 137 /a>'end_phys_index' underoeach direcoory report theobeginning and end secopti id's 138 /a>for the memory block coveredoby the sysfs direcoory. It is expecoed that all 139 /a>memory secoptis i2 this range are present and no memory holes exist in the 140 /a>range. Currently there is no way to determine if there is a memory hole, but 141 /a>the existenceoof one should not affeco the hotplug capabilitiesoof theomemory 142 /a>block. 143 /a> 144 /a>For example, assume 1GiB secopti size. Aodevice for a memory starting at 145 /a>0x100000000 is /sys/device/system/memory/memory4 146 /a>(0x100000000 / 1Gib = 4) 147 /a>This device covers address range [0x100000000 ... 0x140000000) 148 /a> 149 /a>Underoeach secopti, you can see 4oor 5 files, the end_phys_index file being 150 /a>a recent addiopti and not present tioolderokernels. 151 /a> 152 /a>/sys/devices/system/memory/memoryXXX/start_phys_index 153 /a>/sys/devices/system/memory/memoryXXX/end_phys_index 154 /a>/sys/devices/system/memory/memoryXXX/phys_device 155 /a>/sys/devices/system/memory/memoryXXX/state 156 /a>/sys/devices/system/memory/memoryXXX/removable 157 /a> 158 /a>'phys_index' : read-only and contains secopti idoof theofirst secopti 159 /a> in theomemory block,osaml as XXX. 160 /a>'end_phys_index' : read-only and contains secopti idoof theolast secopti 161 /a> in theomemory block. 162 /a>'state' : read-wrioe 163 /a> at read: contains online/offline staoeoof memory. 164 /a> at wrioe: user can specify "online", "offline" command 165 /a> which will be performedooi al secoptis i2 the block. 166 /a>'phys_device' : read-only: designed to show the namloof physical memory 167 /a> device. This is not well implemented now. 168 /a>'removable' : read-only: contains a2 integer n val indicatnng 169 /a> whether the memory block is removableoor not 170 /a> removable. A n val of 1 indicates that theomemory 171 /a> block is removableoand a n val of 0 indicates that 172 /a> it is not removable. A memory block is removableoonly if 173 /a> every secopti i2 the block is removable. 174 /a> 175 /a>NOTE: 176 /a> These direcoories/files appear after physical memory hotplug phase. 177 /a> 178 /a>If CONFIG_NUMA is enabled theomemoryXXX/ direcoories0tegs="line" namlueL138"> 138 /a>for th cry-hetxt#L165" idueL165" class="line" namlueL165"> 9 /a> for th txt#L177" idueL177" class="line" namlueL177"> 0 /a>In t1his document, this phase1 is d18lug.txt#L31" idueL31" class="line" namlueL31"> 311 /a> 0 /a>Iof="Documentaon>2/mog.txt.txt#L60"3 1phase. < 1class="liindicatnng 2/memory-hotpemory fes. re which itturemw1ss=umenT3d.o /a>for th cry-hetxt#L165" iduetplug (04o /a>fortxt#L1hetxt#L165" iduetplugHxt#L165" iduehotplug#L1hetxt#L165" idue#L177ass="line" namlenta77ref="Do8. Kger n23ne" namlueL118"> 118 /a> This 136 /a>secopti containically, t36"> 136 /a>secopti containically, t367"> 136 /a>secopti conta=32/op2ion27on> tion value="v3.>3.12.1(n value=1/op2ion>2on> phe b3s="li2/memory-hotplug.txt#L48" idueL48" cla0ref /a>fes. 2on> phe b3s="li2/memory-hotplug.tkmlueL14for th cry-hetxt#L165" iduetplug lug.87 cry-hetxt#L165 2/memory-hotplug.txt#L123" idueL122/P74L> 143duetplug (04o /a>fortxt#L1hetxt#L165" iduetplugL16" idueL16" class="line" namlueL16" otplug.txt#L100" idueL100" class="line" namlu03"> 143 /a> 2/memory-hotplug.6aaon>2/mem8pendeplat/a> , direcoories/filby0A05 aamlu6" claes="line" namlueL84"> 84 /a>phase by hand. 174 /a> 2/memory-hotplu1g.txt1L96" ilueL51"taon> obj1 /a _HIDoe: useeL12C80e/offlinWueL78"se is ty thomertphys_deL12C80ally. ACPI can notify this event. If not, 8A05 alassl9 /a nam48" iduelueL51"s_d 138 /a72 /a>all the class="lplully. ACPI can notify this event. If not, 2/memory-hotplu1g.txt1L98" iwever,.67"> 1L165"> 1"on mlueL71"> 71 /lly. ACPI can notify this event. If not, 99 /a> 1L172lass="line" ngueL4ss=lplu pu2/age(nowL123"> 123 /a> (CONFIG_ACPI_CONTAINER). class="line" namlueL84"> 84 /a>phase by hand. To49">e/offl class="line" namlue at wrioe: use class="line" namlueLpecify ne" naml"lin="line" namlueL84"> 84 /a>phase by hand. 2/memory-hotplug.2xt#L124" idudueL70" class="line" iguraon>2, if youne" na="linermovaobj1 /a_HIDoe: use2" class at wris225 150 233 2007on>2/memory-hotpemory y thomertphys_ditne" naA05 alassl9 s225 150 233 2007on>2/memory-hotpemory 2,f08" clalinebj1 /sclass="amlueLf"line" n/a> This text does not describe it. if und, direcoories/filcn>2,L165"> 1o chun> This text does not describe it. 148 /a> 99 /a> 20 /a> >o2 Notify memory hot-add event by hand 41 /a>------------ 65" class="line" namlueL65,eL70" clasL165"hether the memory block is removableoor not s_d 138ecent 3 /a>asus="" namlueL65,edueL72" class="liher the memory block is removableoor not iu6" claes=67"> 16le&rfa29"eL93">/a> 178" claARCH Allow PROBE> This text does not describe it. 115 /a> iu6" claest remob1"> 51pc namline" namlueeL115" class="line" namlueL115"> 115 /a> 2smor /a>ToL83">L106" ass="lineestdueL72" class="liher the memory block is removableoor not This text does not describe it. 119 /a> i namlueL removableoand a n val of 0 indicates that fortxt#L1" claemovableoand a n val of 0 indicates that 52 /a> 67 /alized environmentsoand (B) is required by 174 /a> 135 /a>Nosu_ports netpluiduetplug (04o /a>fortxt#L1" claemovableoand a n val of 0 indicates that 1362href="Docuumentaon>2/memory-hotplugxt#L122" idueLen, [ueL135"> 135 /a>Nosu_ports , ueL135"> 135 /a>Nosu_ports n+s defined as (> This 1362href="Docuumentaon>2/memory-hotplugxt#L128" iduports n"line" na namluees=6dueL80" > 83 nas/filwever,mlueL172o chunk(id contains secopti idoof theolast secopti Note(1):). Yam85"> "line"oc"line" namlue 20 120 self> This text does not describe it. To49">e/offl class="line" namlue at wr ne" naml"lin="line" namlueL84"> 84 /a>phase by hand. 131 /a> 52 /a> 2/memory-hotplug.2xt#L123" idueL104" class="line" nam1" class="line" namlueL41"> 41 /a>------------ 21 /a>5. Logical Memory hot-add phase 41 /a>------------ 177 /a> 22 /a> 5.1. Staoeoof memory 22 /a> 5.1. Staoeoof memory (> ) at read: ss="line" deteeL162" class="linaml="line" namlueL84"> 84 /a>phase by hand. 131 /a> 145 /a>0x10000155 /a>/sys/devices/system/memory/memoryXXX/state 143 /a> 44 /a> " nam85"> detee at wr="line" namlueL84"> 84 /a>phase by hand. " nam85"> detee can specify="line" namlueL84"> 84 /a>phase by hand. 177 /a> 148 /a> 23 /a> 5.2. How to online memory 90 /a>------------ 84 /a>phase by hand. 84 /a>phase by hand. 143 /a> 8 an seasss="line" namlueL162">re which itturemw1ss=um2ref="Docu2entaon>2/memory-hotplug.2xt#L12L55" idueL55" class="line" namlueL55"> 55 /a> fortxt#L1x10000155 /a>/sys/devices/system/memory/memoryXXX/state 157 /a> 8 L165"> 185"> emory bline" namlueL45eL157" class="line" namlueL157"> 157 /a> 1> 42 /an> This text does not describe it. 2/memory-hotplug.txt#L123" idue2ref="Docu2entaon>2/memory-hotplug.2xt#L121" iduclass="li,posumlu=ueesis hotp y thueesiaslueL25NORMAL (f08"> 51pc,lueL25DMAL123"> 123 /a> (CONFIG_ACPI_CONTAINER). Noay"> 1oueL77" ne"f29" c123"> 123 /a> (CONFIG_ACPI_CONTAINER). 143 /a> 44 /a> 55 /a> 55 /a> 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove 69 /a> 25 /a> 3.1 Memory offline and ZONE_MOVABLE 41 /a>------------ 41 /a>------------ 2/memory-hotplug.2xt#L12755" idueL55" class="line" namlueL55"> 55 /a> 177 /a> &#e. Thchangedoby thilass="line"ug.ttoo.symbolic entks 2/maturementaonovable 2ref="Docu2 th cry-he2xt#L125" idu(2) mss="lThchane ker thilass="line"ug.ttoo.symbolic entks 2/maturementaonovable 2a href="D2cury-hury-h*8 /a>for th 2xt#L127" idueL177" class="line" namlueL177"> 0 /a>In t1h2s documen2, this phase1 is d18lug.2xt#L32" idueIhilassmemory h31 /a>Note(1):, LueL585"> 8class="="line"lhioecmethod (2),#e. T-only: contains a2 integer n val indicatnng 2/mem21ug.tx1plug.t,ne" namlue2177">20 /a>Ichanne ker thilass="line"ob1">" clmss="line. ButeL172nhane ker ar"s="line" namlueL41"> 41 /a>------------ 2class="liindicatnng onyamlsne ker a> >o2 Notify memory hot-add event by hand fes.2 67 /As a ocguarante"s="line" namlueL41"> 41 /a>------------ 2118 /a> This 1362/a>secopt2 containically, t36"> 132 /a>s2copti eL135a bo172ass="lif youakecopas="line"oLass="uonsistass="lss="l2 /ane ker . Amountoof memory from user's view is 2on> p2e b3s2"li2/mu6" claes=6Bya> ecop at wr> 67 ctrs=ss="line we: use ctrs=ss="linbo172ass="l" namlueLAmountoof memory from user's view is 25 ...a zon mLass="a>Nj>To ; opef you is note kerug.ttoo.symbolic entks 2/maturementaonovable 2 cry-het2t#L165 67 -param/a>rsvabl(> This 1362122/P74L>2143duetplug (04o /a>fort2t#L1h29" idueL131" class="line" namlueL131"> 131 /a> 143 /a> 2a hre2="DocuAline" 138 /a72 /As ass="liTOTALss="lina76 /a>available/ bo172timeine" nabo172ass="leL131" class="line" namlueL131"> 131 /a> 2mory rangementaon>2/memo2y-hot2lug.6a62" clslueL25"> 25 phase 116 /a>ug.ttoo.symbolic entks 2/maturementaonovable 2 /a>fes.2umentaon>2/memory-hotplu2g.txt29" idueL174" class="line" namlueL174"> 174 /a> 67 ctrs=YYYY bo172ass="liuot; opis225 150 233 2007on>2/memory-hotpemory secopt2umentaon>2/memory-hotplu2g.txt297 idueLSamlueL1ilable/f you is note ker (f yo ) uotTOTAL-YYYYug.ttoo.symbolic entks 2/maturementaonovable 2 12.1(n v2umentaon>2/memory-hotplu2g.txt29" idueL148" class="line" namlueL148"> 148 /a> 2/memory-hotplug.3xt#L1300 idueLSamlueL1ilable/L172f you is note ker (L172f yo ) uotTOTAL - ZZZZug.ttoo.symbolic entks 2/maturementaonovable 3ref="Docu3entaon>2/memory-hotplug.3xt#L1301 idueLSamlueL1ilable/f you is note ker (f yo ) uotZZZZug.ttoo.symbolic entks 2/maturementaonovable 3r2f="Docu3eine" namlu03"> 143 /a> 3xt#L13052" idueL52" class="line" namlueL52"> 52 /a> 2/memory-hotplug.3xt#L134" iduNot ) U 129tun clvironm namlueL14> 129 /a>Alls_devicelass="leirodevbclong Amountoof memory from user's view is 25 .67"> 167 TBDug.ttoo.symbolic entks 2/maturementaonovable 3r6f="Docu3ementaon>2/memory-hotplu3xt#L13018 /a> This 1363ref="Docu3entaon>2/memory-hotplug.3xt#L137" idueL107" class="line" namlueL107"> 107 /a> 107 /a> 22 /a> 5.1. Staoeoof memory foble&rfa29" waot; operaamlueL22"> 22 /a> 5.1. Staoeoof memory 2/memory-hotplug.3xt#L13152" idueL52" class="line" namlueL52"> 52 /a> fortxt#L1x10000155 /a>/sys/devices/system/memory/memoryXXX/state 174 /a> 84 /a>phase by hand. 1returnL138"> 138ecent 3"line" namlueL84"> 84 /a>phase by hand. 25 " namlueL1ts noti /a> This text does not describe it. 72lass="l185"> unclass="line" s hotplu="l85"> get uccesrug.ttoo.symbolic entks 2/maturementaonovable 3ref="Docu3entaon>2/memory-hotplug.3xt#L139" idueL119" class="line" namlueL119"> 119 /a> 25 piceoonsidueL13tdueL1s nottdueL1 d easi1 /lly. ACPI can notify this event. If not, aay1return -EBUSY. Even. Cuns affectheirodelly. ACPI can notify this event. If not, 1s nottdlly. ACPI can notify this event. If not, 123 /a> (CONFIG_ACPI_CONTAINER). " cl f"rrL13tduey"homee> 67 /ble&rnal2o chemoryre /a>T >o2 Notify memory hot-add event by hand 133 /a>(XXX is the secopti id.) 1363href="Doc3umentaon>2/memory-hotplu3xt#L132" iduConsiduess="lss="line" namlueL162">re which itturemw1ss=um3href="Doc3umentaon>2/memory-hotplu3xt#L138" idudueL42"tturemw85"> 8>'emo1ry-odevice oc77 /PARSEpossif oneyueL1ilable/="lineecos="line" namlueL162">re which itturemw1ss=um3hef="Docu3umentaon>2/memory-hotplu3xt#L139" idu" na37" blinocguarante"eeLremwgecopilable/eL137"any"hitu"line. Bute/a nees Amountoof memory from user's view is 1goo138eca05" ARSE"> 1Amountoof memory from user's view is class="li,pilable/="lineecoucn>2Amountoof memory from user's view is avaret42"otplu120theio">/atimeoua> This text does not describe it. 2/memory-hotplug.3xt#L133" idueL104" class="line" nam1"s225 150 233 2007on>2/memory-hotpemory 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove Note(1): yet....lueL24"> 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove memle0"> avare113">works 20 OSinocL70" cla.lueL24"> 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove Cuhet yet.lueL24"> 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove 0 /a>In t1h3ref="Docu3entaon>2/memory-hotplug.3xt#L13441" idueL41" clas6" class="ine" nam1"lueL24"> 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove namlue 1Amountoof memory from user's view is 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove namlue 1.67" namar"/6 typshouldnamlueL70"> .lueL24"> 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove 55 /a> 3.1 Memory offline and ZONE_MOVABLE 3.1 Memory offline and ZONE_MOVABLE fce oclassl9 read: >seco>" cl chnaml w> iut165"unys/devices/system/memory/memoryXXX/removable 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove 0 /a>In t1h3ref="Docu3entaon>2/memory-hotplug.3xt#L131" idu Allow CANCEL_ONLIN /a> 3.1 Memory offline and ZONE_MOVABLE 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove 143 /a> 3.1 Memory offline and ZONE_MOVABLE 3.1 Memory offline and ZONE_MOVABLE 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove 157 /a> 3.1 Memory offline and ZONE_MOVABLE 1L1/a> 3.1 Memory offline and ZONE_MOVABLE 2/memory-hotplug.3xt#L131" idueL> iut165"iL105". secoo chlu2/yne" nam; openocL. Th affectknowlls_da/a> 3.1 Memory offline and ZONE_MOVABLE 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove 143 /a> 2/memory-hotplug.3xt#L1365 idueLGueL43lueL Cu Allow GOING_OFFLIN 1f"lim.17" clasis s="line" nag="l1e.om/a> 3.1 Memory offline and ZONE_MOVABLE fplueLtdu .lueL24"> 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove 157 /a> 3.1 Memory offline and ZONE_MOVABLE 24 /a>6. Logical memory remove 2/memoryotplug.2x3#L123" iduAs a oc77 /PAR3EMEM 37mlueL143"> 143 /a> 24 /abovl memory remove o2 N24 /struct by ue_ouldnl memory remove 1363href="Doc3umentaon>2/memoryotplug.2x3#L127" idueL177" class="3ine" 3amlueLstruct by ue_ouldnl { namlueL136"> 1363href="Doc3umentaon>2/memoryotplug.3xt#L128" idu(1)L150lai /a>3#e. T37oclassllllllunread-oneL1tsry/memofnmovableoor not 2/memory-3for th 2x3#L127" idueL177" class="3ine" 38mlueL170"> 1>o2Y. 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