1Email clients info for Linux
   4General Preferences
   6Patches for the Linux kernel are submitted via email, preferably as
   7inline text in the body of the email.  Some maintainers accept
   8attachments, but then the attachments should have content-type
   9"text/plain".  However, attachments are generally frowned upon because
  10it makes quoting portions of the patch more difficult in the patch
  11review process.
  13Email clients that are used for Linux kernel patches should send the
  14patch text untouched.  For example, they should not modify or delete tabs
  15or spaces, even at the beginning or end of lines.
  17Don't send patches with "format=flowed".  This can cause unexpected
  18and unwanted line breaks.
  20Don't let your email client do automatic word wrapping for you.
  21This can also corrupt your patch.
  23Email clients should not modify the character set encoding of the text.
  24Emailed patches should be in ASCII or UTF-8 encoding only.
  25If you configure your email client to send emails with UTF-8 encoding,
  26you avoid some possible charset problems.
  28Email clients should generate and maintain References: or In-Reply-To:
  29headers so that mail threading is not broken.
  31Copy-and-paste (or cut-and-paste) usually does not work for patches
  32because tabs are converted to spaces.  Using xclipboard, xclip, and/or
  33xcutsel may work, but it's best to test this for yourself or just avoid
  36Don't use PGP/GPG signatures in mail that contains patches.
  37This breaks many scripts that read and apply the patches.
  38(This should be fixable.)
  40It's a good idea to send a patch to yourself, save the received message,
  41and successfully apply it with 'patch' before sending patches to Linux
  42mailing lists.
  45Some email client (MUA) hints
  47Here are some specific MUA configuration hints for editing and sending
  48patches for the Linux kernel.  These are not meant to be complete
  49software package configuration summaries.
  52TUI = text-based user interface
  53GUI = graphical user interface
  56Alpine (TUI)
  58Config options:
  59In the "Sending Preferences" section:
  61- "Do Not Send Flowed Text" must be enabled
  62- "Strip Whitespace Before Sending" must be disabled
  64When composing the message, the cursor should be placed where the patch
  65should appear, and then pressing CTRL-R let you specify the patch file
  66to insert into the message.
  69Evolution (GUI)
  71Some people use this successfully for patches.
  73When composing mail select: Preformat
  74  from Format->Heading->Preformatted (Ctrl-7)
  75  or the toolbar
  77Then use:
  78  Insert->Text File... (Alt-n x)
  79to insert the patch.
  81You can also "diff -Nru old.c new.c | xclip", select Preformat, then
  82paste with the middle button.
  85Kmail (GUI)
  87Some people use Kmail successfully for patches.
  89The default setting of not composing in HTML is appropriate; do not
  90enable it.
  92When composing an email, under options, uncheck "word wrap". The only
  93disadvantage is any text you type in the email will not be word-wrapped
  94so you will have to manually word wrap text before the patch. The easiest
  95way around this is to compose your email with word wrap enabled, then save
  96it as a draft. Once you pull it up again from your drafts it is now hard
  97word-wrapped and you can uncheck "word wrap" without losing the existing
 100At the bottom of your email, put the commonly-used patch delimiter before
 101inserting your patch:  three hyphens (---).
 103Then from the "Message" menu item, select insert file and choose your patch.
 104As an added bonus you can customise the message creation toolbar menu
 105and put the "insert file" icon there.
 107Make the the composer window wide enough so that no lines wrap. As of
 108KMail 1.13.5 (KDE 4.5.4), KMail will apply word wrapping when sending
 109the email if the lines wrap in the composer window. Having word wrapping
 110disabled in the Options menu isn't enough. Thus, if your patch has very
 111long lines, you must make the composer window very wide before sending
 112the email. See:
 114You can safely GPG sign attachments, but inlined text is preferred for
 115patches so do not GPG sign them.  Signing patches that have been inserted
 116as inlined text will make them tricky to extract from their 7-bit encoding.
 118If you absolutely must send patches as attachments instead of inlining
 119them as text, right click on the attachment and select properties, and
 120highlight "Suggest automatic display" to make the attachment inlined to
 121make it more viewable.
 123When saving patches that are sent as inlined text, select the email that
 124contains the patch from the message list pane, right click and select
 125"save as".  You can use the whole email unmodified as a patch if it was
 126properly composed.  There is no option currently to save the email when you
 127are actually viewing it in its own window -- there has been a request filed
 128at kmail's bugzilla and hopefully this will be addressed.  Emails are saved
 129as read-write for user only so you will have to chmod them to make them
 130group and world readable if you copy them elsewhere.
 133Lotus Notes (GUI)
 135Run away from it.
 138Mutt (TUI)
 140Plenty of Linux developers use mutt, so it must work pretty well.
 142Mutt doesn't come with an editor, so whatever editor you use should be
 143used in a way that there are no automatic linebreaks.  Most editors have
 144an "insert file" option that inserts the contents of a file unaltered.
 146To use 'vim' with mutt:
 147  set editor="vi"
 149  If using xclip, type the command
 150  :set paste
 151  before middle button or shift-insert or use
 152  :r filename
 154if you want to include the patch inline.
 155(a)ttach works fine without "set paste".
 157Config options:
 158It should work with default settings.
 159However, it's a good idea to set the "send_charset" to:
 160  set send_charset="us-ascii:utf-8"

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