linux/Documentation/power/power_supply_class.txt
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   1Linux power supply class
   2========================
   3
   4Synopsis
   5~~~~~~~~
   6Power supply class used to represent battery, UPS, AC or DC power supply
   7properties to user-space.
   8
   9It defines core set of attributes, which should be applicable to (almost)
  10every power supply out there. Attributes are available via sysfs and uevent
  11interfaces.
  12
  13Each attribute has well defined meaning, up to unit of measure used. While
  14the attributes provided are believed to be universally applicable to any
  15power supply, specific monitoring hardware may not be able to provide them
  16all, so any of them may be skipped.
  17
  18Power supply class is extensible, and allows to define drivers own attributes.
  19The core attribute set is subject to the standard Linux evolution (i.e.
  20if it will be found that some attribute is applicable to many power supply
  21types or their drivers, it can be added to the core set).
  22
  23It also integrates with LED framework, for the purpose of providing
  24typically expected feedback of battery charging/fully charged status and
  25AC/USB power supply online status. (Note that specific details of the
  26indication (including whether to use it at all) are fully controllable by
  27user and/or specific machine defaults, per design principles of LED
  28framework).
  29
  30
  31Attributes/properties
  32~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  33Power supply class has predefined set of attributes, this eliminates code
  34duplication across drivers. Power supply class insist on reusing its
  35predefined attributes *and* their units.
  36
  37So, userspace gets predictable set of attributes and their units for any
  38kind of power supply, and can process/present them to a user in consistent
  39manner. Results for different power supplies and machines are also directly
  40comparable.
  41
  42See drivers/power/ds2760_battery.c and drivers/power/pda_power.c for the
  43example how to declare and handle attributes.
  44
  45
  46Units
  47~~~~~
  48Quoting include/linux/power_supply.h:
  49
  50  All voltages, currents, charges, energies, time and temperatures in µV,
  51  µA, µAh, µWh, seconds and tenths of degree Celsius unless otherwise
  52  stated. It's driver's job to convert its raw values to units in which
  53  this class operates.
  54
  55
  56Attributes/properties detailed
  57~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
  58
  59~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~  Charge/Energy/Capacity - how to not confuse  ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
  60~                                                                       ~
  61~ Because both "charge" (µAh) and "energy" (µWh) represents "capacity"  ~
  62~ of battery, this class distinguish these terms. Don't mix them!       ~
  63~                                                                       ~
  64~ CHARGE_* attributes represents capacity in µAh only.                  ~
  65~ ENERGY_* attributes represents capacity in µWh only.                  ~
  66~ CAPACITY attribute represents capacity in *percents*, from 0 to 100.  ~
  67~                                                                       ~
  68~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
  69
  70Postfixes:
  71_AVG - *hardware* averaged value, use it if your hardware is really able to
  72report averaged values.
  73_NOW - momentary/instantaneous values.
  74
  75STATUS - this attribute represents operating status (charging, full,
  76discharging (i.e. powering a load), etc.). This corresponds to
  77BATTERY_STATUS_* values, as defined in battery.h.
  78
  79CHARGE_TYPE - batteries can typically charge at different rates.
  80This defines trickle and fast charges.  For batteries that
  81are already charged or discharging, 'n/a' can be displayed (or
  82'unknown', if the status is not known).
  83
  84AUTHENTIC - indicates the power supply (battery or charger) connected
  85to the platform is authentic(1) or non authentic(0).
  86
  87HEALTH - represents health of the battery, values corresponds to
  88POWER_SUPPLY_HEALTH_*, defined in battery.h.
  89
  90VOLTAGE_OCV - open circuit voltage of the battery.
  91
  92VOLTAGE_MAX_DESIGN, VOLTAGE_MIN_DESIGN - design values for maximal and
  93minimal power supply voltages. Maximal/minimal means values of voltages
  94when battery considered "full"/"empty" at normal conditions. Yes, there is
  95no direct relation between voltage and battery capacity, but some dumb
  96batteries use voltage for very approximated calculation of capacity.
  97Battery driver also can use this attribute just to inform userspace
  98about maximal and minimal voltage thresholds of a given battery.
  99
 100VOLTAGE_MAX, VOLTAGE_MIN - same as _DESIGN voltage values except that
 101these ones should be used if hardware could only guess (measure and
 102retain) the thresholds of a given power supply.
 103
 104CHARGE_FULL_DESIGN, CHARGE_EMPTY_DESIGN - design charge values, when
 105battery considered full/empty.
 106
 107ENERGY_FULL_DESIGN, ENERGY_EMPTY_DESIGN - same as above but for energy.
 108
 109CHARGE_FULL, CHARGE_EMPTY - These attributes means "last remembered value
 110of charge when battery became full/empty". It also could mean "value of
 111charge when battery considered full/empty at given conditions (temperature,
 112age)". I.e. these attributes represents real thresholds, not design values.
 113
 114CHARGE_COUNTER - the current charge counter (in µAh).  This could easily
 115be negative; there is no empty or full value.  It is only useful for
 116relative, time-based measurements.
 117
 118CONSTANT_CHARGE_CURRENT - constant charge current programmed by charger.
 119CONSTANT_CHARGE_CURRENT_MAX - maximum charge current supported by the
 120power supply object.
 121
 122CONSTANT_CHARGE_VOLTAGE - constant charge voltage programmed by charger.
 123CONSTANT_CHARGE_VOLTAGE_MAX - maximum charge voltage supported by the
 124power supply object.
 125
 126ENERGY_FULL, ENERGY_EMPTY - same as above but for energy.
 127
 128CAPACITY - capacity in percents.
 129CAPACITY_ALERT_MIN - minimum capacity alert value in percents.
 130CAPACITY_ALERT_MAX - maximum capacity alert value in percents.
 131CAPACITY_LEVEL - capacity level. This corresponds to
 132POWER_SUPPLY_CAPACITY_LEVEL_*.
 133
 134TEMP - temperature of the power supply.
 135TEMP_ALERT_MIN - minimum battery temperature alert value in milli centigrade.
 136TEMP_ALERT_MAX - maximum battery temperature alert value in milli centigrade.
 137TEMP_AMBIENT - ambient temperature.
 138TEMP_AMBIENT_ALERT_MIN - minimum ambient temperature alert value in milli centigrade.
 139TEMP_AMBIENT_ALERT_MAX - maximum ambient temperature alert value in milli centigrade.
 140
 141TIME_TO_EMPTY - seconds left for battery to be considered empty (i.e.
 142while battery powers a load)
 143TIME_TO_FULL - seconds left for battery to be considered full (i.e.
 144while battery is charging)
 145
 146
 147Battery <-> external power supply interaction
 148~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 149Often power supplies are acting as supplies and supplicants at the same
 150time. Batteries are good example. So, batteries usually care if they're
 151externally powered or not.
 152
 153For that case, power supply class implements notification mechanism for
 154batteries.
 155
 156External power supply (AC) lists supplicants (batteries) names in
 157"supplied_to" struct member, and each power_supply_changed() call
 158issued by external power supply will notify supplicants via
 159external_power_changed callback.
 160
 161
 162QA
 163~~
 164Q: Where is POWER_SUPPLY_PROP_XYZ attribute?
 165A: If you cannot find attribute suitable for your driver needs, feel free
 166   to add it and send patch along with your driver.
 167
 168   The attributes available currently are the ones currently provided by the
 169   drivers written.
 170
 171   Good candidates to add in future: model/part#, cycle_time, manufacturer,
 172   etc.
 173
 174
 175Q: I have some very specific attribute (e.g. battery color), should I add
 176   this attribute to standard ones?
 177A: Most likely, no. Such attribute can be placed in the driver itself, if
 178   it is useful. Of course, if the attribute in question applicable to
 179   large set of batteries, provided by many drivers, and/or comes from
 180   some general battery specification/standard, it may be a candidate to
 181   be added to the core attribute set.
 182
 183
 184Q: Suppose, my battery monitoring chip/firmware does not provides capacity
 185   in percents, but provides charge_{now,full,empty}. Should I calculate
 186   percentage capacity manually, inside the driver, and register CAPACITY
 187   attribute? The same question about time_to_empty/time_to_full.
 188A: Most likely, no. This class is designed to export properties which are
 189   directly measurable by the specific hardware available.
 190
 191   Inferring not available properties using some heuristics or mathematical
 192   model is not subject of work for a battery driver. Such functionality
 193   should be factored out, and in fact, apm_power, the driver to serve
 194   legacy APM API on top of power supply class, uses a simple heuristic of
 195   approximating remaining battery capacity based on its charge, current,
 196   voltage and so on. But full-fledged battery model is likely not subject
 197   for kernel at all, as it would require floating point calculation to deal
 198   with things like differential equations and Kalman filters. This is
 199   better be handled by batteryd/libbattery, yet to be written.
 200
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