linux/Documentation/DocBook/kernel-api.tmpl
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   1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
   2<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.1.2//EN"
   3        "http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.1.2/docbookx.dtd" []>
   4
   5<book id="LinuxKernelAPI">
   6 <bookinfo>
   7  <title>The Linux Kernel API</title>
   8  
   9  <legalnotice>
  10   <para>
  11     This documentation is free software; you can redistribute
  12     it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
  13     License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
  14     version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
  15     version.
  16   </para>
  17      
  18   <para>
  19     This program is distributed in the hope that it will be
  20     useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
  21     warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
  22     See the GNU General Public License for more details.
  23   </para>
  24      
  25   <para>
  26     You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public
  27     License along with this program; if not, write to the Free
  28     Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston,
  29     MA 02111-1307 USA
  30   </para>
  31      
  32   <para>
  33     For more details see the file COPYING in the source
  34     distribution of Linux.
  35   </para>
  36  </legalnotice>
  37 </bookinfo>
  38
  39<toc></toc>
  40
  41  <chapter id="adt">
  42     <title>Data Types</title>
  43     <sect1><title>Doubly Linked Lists</title>
  44!Iinclude/linux/list.h
  45     </sect1>
  46  </chapter>
  47
  48  <chapter id="libc">
  49     <title>Basic C Library Functions</title>
  50
  51     <para>
  52       When writing drivers, you cannot in general use routines which are
  53       from the C Library.  Some of the functions have been found generally
  54       useful and they are listed below.  The behaviour of these functions
  55       may vary slightly from those defined by ANSI, and these deviations
  56       are noted in the text.
  57     </para>
  58
  59     <sect1><title>String Conversions</title>
  60!Elib/vsprintf.c
  61     </sect1>
  62     <sect1><title>String Manipulation</title>
  63<!-- All functions are exported at now
  64X!Ilib/string.c
  65 -->
  66!Elib/string.c
  67     </sect1>
  68     <sect1><title>Bit Operations</title>
  69!Iarch/x86/include/asm/bitops.h
  70     </sect1>
  71  </chapter>
  72
  73  <chapter id="kernel-lib">
  74     <title>Basic Kernel Library Functions</title>
  75
  76     <para>
  77       The Linux kernel provides more basic utility functions.
  78     </para>
  79
  80     <sect1><title>Bitmap Operations</title>
  81!Elib/bitmap.c
  82!Ilib/bitmap.c
  83     </sect1>
  84
  85     <sect1><title>Command-line Parsing</title>
  86!Elib/cmdline.c
  87     </sect1>
  88
  89     <sect1 id="crc"><title>CRC Functions</title>
  90!Elib/crc7.c
  91!Elib/crc16.c
  92!Elib/crc-itu-t.c
  93!Elib/crc32.c
  94!Elib/crc-ccitt.c
  95     </sect1>
  96
  97     <sect1 id="idr"><title>idr/ida Functions</title>
  98!Pinclude/linux/idr.h idr sync
  99!Plib/idr.c IDA description
 100!Elib/idr.c
 101     </sect1>
 102  </chapter>
 103
 104  <chapter id="mm">
 105     <title>Memory Management in Linux</title>
 106     <sect1><title>The Slab Cache</title>
 107!Iinclude/linux/slab.h
 108!Emm/slab.c
 109     </sect1>
 110     <sect1><title>User Space Memory Access</title>
 111!Iarch/x86/include/asm/uaccess_32.h
 112!Earch/x86/lib/usercopy_32.c
 113     </sect1>
 114     <sect1><title>More Memory Management Functions</title>
 115!Emm/readahead.c
 116!Emm/filemap.c
 117!Emm/memory.c
 118!Emm/vmalloc.c
 119!Imm/page_alloc.c
 120!Emm/mempool.c
 121!Emm/dmapool.c
 122!Emm/page-writeback.c
 123!Emm/truncate.c
 124     </sect1>
 125  </chapter>
 126
 127
 128  <chapter id="ipc">
 129     <title>Kernel IPC facilities</title>
 130
 131     <sect1><title>IPC utilities</title>
 132!Iipc/util.c
 133     </sect1>
 134  </chapter>
 135
 136  <chapter id="kfifo">
 137     <title>FIFO Buffer</title>
 138     <sect1><title>kfifo interface</title>
 139!Iinclude/linux/kfifo.h
 140     </sect1>
 141  </chapter>
 142
 143  <chapter id="relayfs">
 144     <title>relay interface support</title>
 145
 146     <para>
 147        Relay interface support
 148        is designed to provide an efficient mechanism for tools and
 149        facilities to relay large amounts of data from kernel space to
 150        user space.
 151     </para>
 152
 153     <sect1><title>relay interface</title>
 154!Ekernel/relay.c
 155!Ikernel/relay.c
 156     </sect1>
 157  </chapter>
 158
 159  <chapter id="modload">
 160     <title>Module Support</title>
 161     <sect1><title>Module Loading</title>
 162!Ekernel/kmod.c
 163     </sect1>
 164     <sect1><title>Inter Module support</title>
 165        <para>
 166           Refer to the file kernel/module.c for more information.
 167        </para>
 168<!-- FIXME: Removed for now since no structured comments in source
 169X!Ekernel/module.c
 170-->
 171     </sect1>
 172  </chapter>
 173
 174  <chapter id="hardware">
 175     <title>Hardware Interfaces</title>
 176     <sect1><title>Interrupt Handling</title>
 177!Ekernel/irq/manage.c
 178     </sect1>
 179
 180     <sect1><title>DMA Channels</title>
 181!Ekernel/dma.c
 182     </sect1>
 183
 184     <sect1><title>Resources Management</title>
 185!Ikernel/resource.c
 186!Ekernel/resource.c
 187     </sect1>
 188
 189     <sect1><title>MTRR Handling</title>
 190!Earch/x86/kernel/cpu/mtrr/main.c
 191     </sect1>
 192
 193     <sect1><title>PCI Support Library</title>
 194!Edrivers/pci/pci.c
 195!Edrivers/pci/pci-driver.c
 196!Edrivers/pci/remove.c
 197!Edrivers/pci/search.c
 198!Edrivers/pci/msi.c
 199!Edrivers/pci/bus.c
 200!Edrivers/pci/access.c
 201!Edrivers/pci/irq.c
 202!Edrivers/pci/htirq.c
 203<!-- FIXME: Removed for now since no structured comments in source
 204X!Edrivers/pci/hotplug.c
 205-->
 206!Edrivers/pci/probe.c
 207!Edrivers/pci/slot.c
 208!Edrivers/pci/rom.c
 209!Edrivers/pci/iov.c
 210!Idrivers/pci/pci-sysfs.c
 211     </sect1>
 212     <sect1><title>PCI Hotplug Support Library</title>
 213!Edrivers/pci/hotplug/pci_hotplug_core.c
 214     </sect1>
 215  </chapter>
 216
 217  <chapter id="firmware">
 218     <title>Firmware Interfaces</title>
 219     <sect1><title>DMI Interfaces</title>
 220!Edrivers/firmware/dmi_scan.c
 221     </sect1>
 222     <sect1><title>EDD Interfaces</title>
 223!Idrivers/firmware/edd.c
 224     </sect1>
 225  </chapter>
 226
 227  <chapter id="security">
 228     <title>Security Framework</title>
 229!Isecurity/security.c
 230!Esecurity/inode.c
 231  </chapter>
 232
 233  <chapter id="audit">
 234     <title>Audit Interfaces</title>
 235!Ekernel/audit.c
 236!Ikernel/auditsc.c
 237!Ikernel/auditfilter.c
 238  </chapter>
 239
 240  <chapter id="accounting">
 241     <title>Accounting Framework</title>
 242!Ikernel/acct.c
 243  </chapter>
 244
 245  <chapter id="blkdev">
 246     <title>Block Devices</title>
 247!Eblock/blk-core.c
 248!Iblock/blk-core.c
 249!Eblock/blk-map.c
 250!Iblock/blk-sysfs.c
 251!Eblock/blk-settings.c
 252!Eblock/blk-exec.c
 253!Eblock/blk-flush.c
 254!Eblock/blk-lib.c
 255!Eblock/blk-tag.c
 256!Iblock/blk-tag.c
 257!Eblock/blk-integrity.c
 258!Ikernel/trace/blktrace.c
 259!Iblock/genhd.c
 260!Eblock/genhd.c
 261  </chapter>
 262
 263  <chapter id="chrdev">
 264        <title>Char devices</title>
 265!Efs/char_dev.c
 266  </chapter>
 267
 268  <chapter id="miscdev">
 269     <title>Miscellaneous Devices</title>
 270!Edrivers/char/misc.c
 271  </chapter>
 272
 273  <chapter id="clk">
 274     <title>Clock Framework</title>
 275
 276     <para>
 277        The clock framework defines programming interfaces to support
 278        software management of the system clock tree.
 279        This framework is widely used with System-On-Chip (SOC) platforms
 280        to support power management and various devices which may need
 281        custom clock rates.
 282        Note that these "clocks" don't relate to timekeeping or real
 283        time clocks (RTCs), each of which have separate frameworks.
 284        These <structname>struct clk</structname> instances may be used
 285        to manage for example a 96 MHz signal that is used to shift bits
 286        into and out of peripherals or busses, or otherwise trigger
 287        synchronous state machine transitions in system hardware.
 288     </para>
 289
 290     <para>
 291        Power management is supported by explicit software clock gating:
 292        unused clocks are disabled, so the system doesn't waste power
 293        changing the state of transistors that aren't in active use.
 294        On some systems this may be backed by hardware clock gating,
 295        where clocks are gated without being disabled in software.
 296        Sections of chips that are powered but not clocked may be able
 297        to retain their last state.
 298        This low power state is often called a <emphasis>retention
 299        mode</emphasis>.
 300        This mode still incurs leakage currents, especially with finer
 301        circuit geometries, but for CMOS circuits power is mostly used
 302        by clocked state changes.
 303     </para>
 304
 305     <para>
 306        Power-aware drivers only enable their clocks when the device
 307        they manage is in active use.  Also, system sleep states often
 308        differ according to which clock domains are active:  while a
 309        "standby" state may allow wakeup from several active domains, a
 310        "mem" (suspend-to-RAM) state may require a more wholesale shutdown
 311        of clocks derived from higher speed PLLs and oscillators, limiting
 312        the number of possible wakeup event sources.  A driver's suspend
 313        method may need to be aware of system-specific clock constraints
 314        on the target sleep state.
 315     </para>
 316
 317     <para>
 318        Some platforms support programmable clock generators.  These
 319        can be used by external chips of various kinds, such as other
 320        CPUs, multimedia codecs, and devices with strict requirements
 321        for interface clocking.
 322     </para>
 323
 324!Iinclude/linux/clk.h
 325  </chapter>
 326
 327</book>
 328
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