1Linux* Base Driver for the Intel(R) PRO/1000 Family of Adapters
   4Intel Gigabit Linux driver.
   5Copyright(c) 1999 - 2010 Intel Corporation.
  10- Identifying Your Adapter
  11- Command Line Parameters
  12- Speed and Duplex Configuration
  13- Additional Configurations
  14- Support
  16Identifying Your Adapter
  19For more information on how to identify your adapter, go to the Adapter &
  20Driver ID Guide at:
  24For the latest Intel network drivers for Linux, refer to the following
  25website.  In the search field, enter your adapter name or type, or use the
  26networking link on the left to search for your adapter:
  30Command Line Parameters
  33The default value for each parameter is generally the recommended setting,
  34unless otherwise noted.
  36NOTES:  For more information about the AutoNeg, Duplex, and Speed
  37        parameters, see the "Speed and Duplex Configuration" section in
  38        this document.
  40        For more information about the InterruptThrottleRate,
  41        RxIntDelay, TxIntDelay, RxAbsIntDelay, and TxAbsIntDelay
  42        parameters, see the application note at:
  47(Supported only on adapters with copper connections)
  48Valid Range:   0x01-0x0F, 0x20-0x2F
  49Default Value: 0x2F
  51This parameter is a bit-mask that specifies the speed and duplex settings
  52advertised by the adapter.  When this parameter is used, the Speed and
  53Duplex parameters must not be specified.
  55NOTE:  Refer to the Speed and Duplex section of this readme for more
  56       information on the AutoNeg parameter.
  60(Supported only on adapters with copper connections)
  61Valid Range:   0-2 (0=auto-negotiate, 1=half, 2=full)
  62Default Value: 0
  64This defines the direction in which data is allowed to flow.  Can be
  65either one or two-directional.  If both Duplex and the link partner are
  66set to auto-negotiate, the board auto-detects the correct duplex.  If the
  67link partner is forced (either full or half), Duplex defaults to half-
  72Valid Range:   0-3 (0=none, 1=Rx only, 2=Tx only, 3=Rx&Tx)
  73Default Value: Reads flow control settings from the EEPROM
  75This parameter controls the automatic generation(Tx) and response(Rx)
  76to Ethernet PAUSE frames.
  80(not supported on Intel(R) 82542, 82543 or 82544-based adapters)
  81Valid Range:   0,1,3,4,100-100000 (0=off, 1=dynamic, 3=dynamic conservative,
  82                                 4=simplified balancing)
  83Default Value: 3
  85The driver can limit the amount of interrupts per second that the adapter
  86will generate for incoming packets. It does this by writing a value to the
  87adapter that is based on the maximum amount of interrupts that the adapter
  88will generate per second.
  90Setting InterruptThrottleRate to a value greater or equal to 100
  91will program the adapter to send out a maximum of that many interrupts
  92per second, even if more packets have come in. This reduces interrupt
  93load on the system and can lower CPU utilization under heavy load,
  94but will increase latency as packets are not processed as quickly.
  96The default behaviour of the driver previously assumed a static
  97InterruptThrottleRate value of 8000, providing a good fallback value for
  98all traffic types,but lacking in small packet performance and latency.
  99The hardware can handle many more small packets per second however, and
 100for this reason an adaptive interrupt moderation algorithm was implemented.
 102Since 7.3.x, the driver has two adaptive modes (setting 1 or 3) in which
 103it dynamically adjusts the InterruptThrottleRate value based on the traffic
 104that it receives. After determining the type of incoming traffic in the last
 105timeframe, it will adjust the InterruptThrottleRate to an appropriate value
 106for that traffic.
 108The algorithm classifies the incoming traffic every interval into
 109classes.  Once the class is determined, the InterruptThrottleRate value is
 110adjusted to suit that traffic type the best. There are three classes defined:
 111"Bulk traffic", for large amounts of packets of normal size; "Low latency",
 112for small amounts of traffic and/or a significant percentage of small
 113packets; and "Lowest latency", for almost completely small packets or
 114minimal traffic.
 116In dynamic conservative mode, the InterruptThrottleRate value is set to 4000
 117for traffic that falls in class "Bulk traffic". If traffic falls in the "Low
 118latency" or "Lowest latency" class, the InterruptThrottleRate is increased
 119stepwise to 20000. This default mode is suitable for most applications.
 121For situations where low latency is vital such as cluster or
 122grid computing, the algorithm can reduce latency even more when
 123InterruptThrottleRate is set to mode 1. In this mode, which operates
 124the same as mode 3, the InterruptThrottleRate will be increased stepwise to
 12570000 for traffic in class "Lowest latency".
 127In simplified mode the interrupt rate is based on the ratio of TX and
 128RX traffic.  If the bytes per second rate is approximately equal, the
 129interrupt rate will drop as low as 2000 interrupts per second.  If the
 130traffic is mostly transmit or mostly receive, the interrupt rate could
 131be as high as 8000.
 133Setting InterruptThrottleRate to 0 turns off any interrupt moderation
 134and may improve small packet latency, but is generally not suitable
 135for bulk throughput traffic.
 137NOTE:  InterruptThrottleRate takes precedence over the TxAbsIntDelay and
 138       RxAbsIntDelay parameters.  In other words, minimizing the receive
 139       and/or transmit absolute delays does not force the controller to
 140       generate more interrupts than what the Interrupt Throttle Rate
 141       allows.
 143CAUTION:  If you are using the Intel(R) PRO/1000 CT Network Connection
 144          (controller 82547), setting InterruptThrottleRate to a value
 145          greater than 75,000, may hang (stop transmitting) adapters
 146          under certain network conditions.  If this occurs a NETDEV
 147          WATCHDOG message is logged in the system event log.  In
 148          addition, the controller is automatically reset, restoring
 149          the network connection.  To eliminate the potential for the
 150          hang, ensure that InterruptThrottleRate is set no greater
 151          than 75,000 and is not set to 0.
 153NOTE:  When e1000 is loaded with default settings and multiple adapters
 154       are in use simultaneously, the CPU utilization may increase non-
 155       linearly.  In order to limit the CPU utilization without impacting
 156       the overall throughput, we recommend that you load the driver as
 157       follows:
 159           modprobe e1000 InterruptThrottleRate=3000,3000,3000
 161       This sets the InterruptThrottleRate to 3000 interrupts/sec for
 162       the first, second, and third instances of the driver.  The range
 163       of 2000 to 3000 interrupts per second works on a majority of
 164       systems and is a good starting point, but the optimal value will
 165       be platform-specific.  If CPU utilization is not a concern, use
 166       RX_POLLING (NAPI) and default driver settings.
 170Valid Range:   80-256 for 82542 and 82543-based adapters
 171               80-4096 for all other supported adapters
 172Default Value: 256
 174This value specifies the number of receive buffer descriptors allocated
 175by the driver.  Increasing this value allows the driver to buffer more
 176incoming packets, at the expense of increased system memory utilization.
 178Each descriptor is 16 bytes.  A receive buffer is also allocated for each
 179descriptor and can be either 2048, 4096, 8192, or 16384 bytes, depending
 180on the MTU setting. The maximum MTU size is 16110.
 182NOTE:  MTU designates the frame size.  It only needs to be set for Jumbo
 183       Frames.  Depending on the available system resources, the request
 184       for a higher number of receive descriptors may be denied.  In this
 185       case, use a lower number.
 189Valid Range:   0-65535 (0=off)
 190Default Value: 0
 192This value delays the generation of receive interrupts in units of 1.024
 193microseconds.  Receive interrupt reduction can improve CPU efficiency if
 194properly tuned for specific network traffic.  Increasing this value adds
 195extra latency to frame reception and can end up decreasing the throughput
 196of TCP traffic.  If the system is reporting dropped receives, this value
 197may be set too high, causing the driver to run out of available receive
 200CAUTION:  When setting RxIntDelay to a value other than 0, adapters may
 201          hang (stop transmitting) under certain network conditions.  If
 202          this occurs a NETDEV WATCHDOG message is logged in the system
 203          event log.  In addition, the controller is automatically reset,
 204          restoring the network connection.  To eliminate the potential
 205          for the hang ensure that RxIntDelay is set to 0.
 209(This parameter is supported only on 82540, 82545 and later adapters.)
 210Valid Range:   0-65535 (0=off)
 211Default Value: 128
 213This value, in units of 1.024 microseconds, limits the delay in which a
 214receive interrupt is generated.  Useful only if RxIntDelay is non-zero,
 215this value ensures that an interrupt is generated after the initial
 216packet is received within the set amount of time.  Proper tuning,
 217along with RxIntDelay, may improve traffic throughput in specific network
 222(This parameter is supported only on adapters with copper connections.)
 223Valid Settings: 0, 10, 100, 1000
 224Default Value:  0 (auto-negotiate at all supported speeds)
 226Speed forces the line speed to the specified value in megabits per second
 227(Mbps).  If this parameter is not specified or is set to 0 and the link
 228partner is set to auto-negotiate, the board will auto-detect the correct
 229speed.  Duplex should also be set when Speed is set to either 10 or 100.
 233Valid Range:   80-256 for 82542 and 82543-based adapters
 234               80-4096 for all other supported adapters
 235Default Value: 256
 237This value is the number of transmit descriptors allocated by the driver.
 238Increasing this value allows the driver to queue more transmits.  Each
 239descriptor is 16 bytes.
 241NOTE:  Depending on the available system resources, the request for a
 242       higher number of transmit descriptors may be denied.  In this case,
 243       use a lower number.
 247Valid Range:    1 (use every Tx Descriptor)
 248                4 (use every 4th Tx Descriptor)
 250Default Value:  1 (use every Tx Descriptor)
 252On certain non-Intel architectures, it has been observed that intense TX
 253traffic bursts of short packets may result in an improper descriptor
 254writeback. If this occurs, the driver will report a "TX Timeout" and reset
 255the adapter, after which the transmit flow will restart, though data may
 256have stalled for as much as 10 seconds before it resumes.
 258The improper writeback does not occur on the first descriptor in a system
 259memory cache-line, which is typically 32 bytes, or 4 descriptors long.
 261Setting TxDescriptorStep to a value of 4 will ensure that all TX descriptors
 262are aligned to the start of a system memory cache line, and so this problem
 263will not occur.
 265NOTES: Setting TxDescriptorStep to 4 effectively reduces the number of
 266       TxDescriptors available for transmits to 1/4 of the normal allocation.
 267       This has a possible negative performance impact, which may be
 268       compensated for by allocating more descriptors using the TxDescriptors
 269       module parameter.
 271       There are other conditions which may result in "TX Timeout", which will
 272       not be resolved by the use of the TxDescriptorStep parameter. As the
 273       issue addressed by this parameter has never been observed on Intel
 274       Architecture platforms, it should not be used on Intel platforms.
 278Valid Range:   0-65535 (0=off)
 279Default Value: 64
 281This value delays the generation of transmit interrupts in units of
 2821.024 microseconds.  Transmit interrupt reduction can improve CPU
 283efficiency if properly tuned for specific network traffic.  If the
 284system is reporting dropped transmits, this value may be set too high
 285causing the driver to run out of available transmit descriptors.
 289(This parameter is supported only on 82540, 82545 and later adapters.)
 290Valid Range:   0-65535 (0=off)
 291Default Value: 64
 293This value, in units of 1.024 microseconds, limits the delay in which a
 294transmit interrupt is generated.  Useful only if TxIntDelay is non-zero,
 295this value ensures that an interrupt is generated after the initial
 296packet is sent on the wire within the set amount of time.  Proper tuning,
 297along with TxIntDelay, may improve traffic throughput in specific
 298network conditions.
 302(This parameter is NOT supported on the 82542-based adapter.)
 303Valid Range:   0-1
 304Default Value: 1
 306A value of '1' ind8"> es that the drigkin--
6"> 306A value of '1' ind8"> ei checketwking/e1000.txt#L306" id="L306" class="line" name7"L306"> 397along with TxIntD3ref="3ocumentwocumen If  of time.per desc(boffiUDP"DocuTCP)ry cacheof that small parking/e1000.txt#L299" id="L299" class="line" na3e="L208">3208-------------
3209(This parameter i3 supp3rted oCopybrearking/e1000.txt#L228" id="L228" class="line" na3e="L210">3210Valid Range:   0-35535 30=off)on/networking/e1000.txt#L289" id="L289" class="line" na3e="L211">3211Default Value: 123
3213This value, in un3ts of31.024 Ua hr: ranmod000,30.ko"Docybrear=working/e1000.txt#L212" id="L212" class="line" na3e="L214">3214receive interrupt3is ge31etworking/e1000.txt#L265" id="L265" class="line" na3e="L215">3215this value ensure3 that3an intDinterruoper dntation/netwbemay
entationer to quentatiat alfateh orking/e1000.txt#L301" id="L301" class="line" name="L216">3216packet is receive3 with3n the ach
3217along with RxIntD3lay, 31etworking/e1000.txt#L258" id="L258" class="line" na3e="L218">3218conditions.
3222(This parameter i3 supp32etworking/e1000.txt#L293" id="L293" class="line" na3e="L223">3223Valid Settings: 03 10, 300, 10SmartPatioDownEntworking/e1000.txt#L135" id="L135" class="line" na3e="L224">3224Default Value:  03(auto3negotimentation/networtworking/e1000.txt#L289" id="L289" class="line" na3e="L225">3225
3226Speed forces the 3ine s3eed toate at all supportedistwordrking/e1000.txt#L291" id="L291" class="line" na3e="L227">3227(Mbps).  If this 3arame32etworking/e1000.txt#L258" id="L258" class="line" na3e="L228">3228partner is set to3auto-3egotiaA transPHYry caurn3229speed.  Duplex sh3uld a3so be d or is set to 0nadapter.)
3233Valid Range:   803256 f3r 82542 and 82543-bworking/e1000.txt#L304" id="L304" class="line" name="L234">3234               8034096 33"Documentation/networ (ind8">drking/e1000.txt#L291" id="L291" class="line" na3e="L235">3235Default Value: 253
3237This value is the3numbe3 of trsilicon
3238Increasing this v3lue a33etworking/e1000.txt#L159" id="L159" class="line" na3e="L239">3239descriptor is 16 3ytes.33240
3241NOTE:  Depending 3n the34etworking/e1000.txt#L252" id="L252" class="line" na3e="L242">3242       higher num3er of34erationDocukeywa hr00 CT Nmory cset,
3243       use a lowe3 numb34.024 mitwoukeywa hr00 CT00.
<,u Speed"DocumAutoNeorking/e1000.txt#L260" id="L260" class="line" na3e="L244">3244
3a hre3="Docus approxect
3a hre3="Docufibto 0n tofactoxect
3247Valid Range:    13(use 34etworking/e1000.txt#L258" id="L258" class="line" na3e="L248">3248                43(use 3very 4cy iDocumementatixect
uot;TX keywa hr00n toactes.
n/networking/e1000.txt#L158" id="L158" class="line" na3e="L249">3249
3250Default Value:  13(use 3hat InteTocumentation/netwief="Do auto-detect tation/nxect
3252On certain non-In3el ar35 the user aonn/netwaDocudSpeed ed onIFon/networ te, the board will auto-detect trking/e1000.txt#L260" id="L260" class="line" na3e="L253">3253traffic bursts of3short35etworking/e1000.txt#L174" id="L174" class="line" na3e="L254">3254writeback. If thi3 occu3aneouslys a00.
3255the adapter, afte3 whic3er to li"Do dtertisrd (on/n="liBntaTon/nentatiiatedDauto-detect ieforking/e1000.txt#L303" id="L303" class="line" name="L256">3256have stalled for 3s muc35etworking/e1000.txt#L287" id="L287" class="line" na3e="L257">3257
3258The improper writ3back 35 alloca-detect ief="Dodistwordriver.  rmAutoNeoothe 82542-basignentdumene, theking/e1000.txt#L287" id="L287" class="line" na3e="L249">3259memory cache-line3 whic30 InterrSHOULD to eithepecifdrking/e1000.txt#L260" id="L260" class="line" na3e="L260">3260
3261Setting TxDescrip3orSte361s not ocAutoNeoothe 82542-bas Nmor or 1escriset,
3262are aligned to th3 star3 of a sauto-detect ief=process Jumbo1' ent Nmor or 1="Dowishry cset,
3263will not occur.
<3 href3"Docum/netwaDocudSpeed combocumetwo00 CT dtertisrd duTo elacheoauto-detect iefking/e1000.txt#L261" id="L261" class="line" na3e="L254">3264
3265NOTES: Setting Tx3escri36etworking/e1000.txt#L306" id="L306" class="line" name="L266">3266       TxDescript3rs av366s not octhe 82542-ocumentae link
3267       This has a3possi3le negcumermintorStep pabitmapwbemay king/e1000.txt#L261" id="L261" class="line" na3e="L248">3268       compensate3 for 36etworking/e1000.txt#L159" id="L159" class="line" na3e="L269">3269       module par3meter3
3271       There are 3ther 3onditiHed ue mort sho80iptor)0iptor20

or0it sho8riptor)


orking/e1000.txt#L305" id="L305" class="line" name="L252">3272       not be res3lved 3y the 00.
3273       issue addr3ssed 3y this Speed                       Full            Full   Half   Full    Halfking/e1000.txt#L305" id="L305" class="line" name="L254">3274       Architectu3e pla37etworking/e1000.txt#L245" id="L245" class="line" na3e="L275">3275
3278Valid Range:   0-35535 378ocumenleRate=3000,300AutoNeo=1 (SaottledDbhrerking/e1000.txt#L303" id="L303" class="line" name="L269">3279Default Value: 6433280
3281This value delays3the g381ocumenleRate=3000,300AutoNeo=0x04 (RoorrictedDaut-detect ief=n.
<00 Halfrking/e1000.txt#L303" id="L303" class="line" name="L282">32821.024 microsecond3.  Tr382ocumenleRate=3000,300AutoNeo=0x05 (RoorrictedDaut-detect ief=n.
<0 Halfn/netw0king/e1000.txt#L305" id="L305" class="line" name="L283">3283efficiency if pro3erly 3g on theHalfrking/e1000.txt#L303" id="L303" class="line" name="L254">3284system is reporti3g dro3er of releRate=3000,300AutoNeo=0x020 (RoorrictedDaut-detect ief=n.
<00w Fullrking/e1000.txt#L303" id="L303" class="line" name="L275">3285causing the drive3 to r3 number.leRate=3000,300AutoNeo=32
(SaottledDbhrerking/e1000.txt#L303" id="L303" class="line" name="L286">3286
3289(This parameter i3 supp3rted os approtwor te, the boapecifdiat althe
3290Valid Range:   0-35535 30=off)is set to atforms.
3291Default Value: 6433292
3293This value, in un3ts of31.024 AomaticatatConfigunetwor king/e1000.txt#L185" id="L185" class="line" na3e="L254">3294transmit interrup3 is g3nerate=========================king/e1000.txt#L134" id="L134" class="line" na3e="L295">3295this value ensure3 that39etworking/e1000.txt#L306" id="L306" class="line" name="L296">3296packet is sent on3the w39lable fetworilable king/e1000.txt#L306" id="L306" class="line" name="L287">3297along with TxIntD3lay, 39Documenion/networorking/e1000.txt#L289" id="L289" class="line" na3e="L298">3298network condition3.
daby c seto elache  Itat all TX dlargf="Docuking/e1000.txt#L289" id="L289" class="line" na3e="L289">3299
4302(This parameter i4 NOT 4NETDEV WATCHD/fconfigseth<x> mtu 9,300urking/e1000.txt#L246" id="L246" class="line" na4e="L303">4303Valid Range:   0-4
4304Default Value: 1
4a hre4network eRate totvail0 and wh thiboots Jumbo, or 16mady be
ave amoorking/e1000.txt#L194" id="L194" class="line" na4e="L305">4305
4396packet is sent on4#39; 4networking/e1000.txt#L207" id="L207" class="line" na4e7"L306">4397along with TxIntD4ref="40e negative pize=9,30king/e1000.txt#L207" id="L207" class="line" na4e8"L306">4398network condition4ref="40etworking/e1000.txt#L159" id="L159" class="line" na4e="L209">4209(This parameter i4 supp404210Valid Range:   0-45535 410ocumen-tatioms=y cacheRme.H"Dodiorributwor ;mult indiorributwor -ocum.  Te tworking/e1000.txt#L185" id="L185" class="line" na4e="L211">4211Default Value: 124
4213This value, in un4ts of41 on theNotrorking/e1000.txt#L158" id="L158" class="line" na4e="L214">4214receive interrupt4is ge41etwork Degrof  ief="nf="Documentabe
4215this value ensure4 that41sure thenviron#L30sill reportort mentati,zation.
o elacheoatio/netwoin--
te on theach
4216packet is receive4 with41lable fntativer/ntatiion.
o elache/twoc/sys/"L3/ipv4/tcp_*memhentryll TX  -ocumhelprking/e1000.txt#L267" id="L267" class="line" na4e7"L306">4217along with RxIntD4lay, 41e negatSeets per seconceoatio/netwo-ocnuntater./usr/src/g wux*/.txt#L267" id=king/e1000.txt#L267" id="L267" class="line" na4e8"L306">4218conditions.
4222(This parameter i4 supp42etworking/e1000.txt#L293" id="L293" class="line" na4e="L223">4223Valid Settings: 04 10, 423ocumen-.U
o eletworilable tapl="n/netw0 ot s ", which po/nebe
4224Default Value:  04(auto42orms, it lwh tnf twor king/e1000.txt#L261" id="L261" class="line" na4e="L215">4225
4226Speed forces the 4ine s426ocumen-.As.)
4227(Mbps).  If this 4arame42e negativumentat=etworilable syT pson/netwsponory cachen/netwo eltwof="DIf thorking/e1000.txt#L158" id="L158" class="line" na4e="L228">4228partner is set to4auto-42 allocatinmenta(R)sPRO/0,300GiumenttSerref=As.)
4229speed.  Duplex sh4uld a429allocatinmenta(R)sPRO/0,300PM NL158" tConion/netking/e1000.txt#L158" id="L158" class="line" na4e="L230">4230
4233Valid Range:   804256 f433t InteTocumpnterrutwltat="Docuethtooa 0n tofactoon/ndinterruonfigunetworhworking/e1000.txt#L138" id="L138" class="line" na4e="L234">4234               8044096 4or all odiagnosticorivs wehrefDodisplayo elnetwisntati 0n4235Default Value: 254
4237This value is the4numbe437t InteTocumentst
4238Increasing this v4lue a43 allocaing/e1000 pa="L306" /ethtooa/"> pa="L306" /ethtooa/tworking/e1000.txt#L237" id="L237" class="line" na4e="L209">4239descriptor is 16 4ytes.43etworking/e1000.txt#L220" id="L220" class="line" na4e="L240">4240
4241NOTE:  Depending 4n the441ocumenion/networortation/networorking/e1000.txt#L289" id="L289" class="line" na4e="L242">4242       higher num4er of4transmitWoLt, tuonfiguncumenDocum"Docuethtooa*rutwltty king/e1000.txt#L261" id="L261" class="line" na4e="L243">4243       use a lowe4 numb44etworking/e1000.txt#L174" id="L174" class="line" na4e="L244">4244
daoation/networ duTo elachenexplatut downtIf  oboot king/e1000.txt#L261" id="L261" class="line" na4e="L215">4245TxDescriptorStep
4a hre445ocumency iy boadinterrterswor,ntatordat y cind8"> WoLot;TX 00,300dinterrmustsorking/e1000.txt#L268" id="L268" class="line" na4e="L246">4246----------------
4a hre446ocumencumemor or 1atutalue mowntIf  obooto elachenetwor king/e1000.txt#L261" id="L261" class="line" na4e="L237">4247Valid Range:    14(use 44etworking/e1000.txt#L258" id="L258" class="line" na4e="L248">4248                44(use 4very 4Smentatking/e1000.txt#L258" id="L258" class="line" na4e="L209">4249
4250Default Value:  14(use 45etworking/e1000.txt#L231" id="L231" class="line" na4e="L231">4251
4252On certain non-In4el ar45etworking/e1000.txt#L293" id="L293" class="line" na4e="L253">4253traffic bursts of4short45 this paring/e1000http://umentat.0n">http://umentat.0n tl.comtworking/e1000.txt#L293" id="L293" class="line" na4e="L244">4254writeback. If thi4 occu45etworking/e1000.txt#L245" id="L245" class="line" na4e="L245">4255the adapter, afte4 whic4er to elay ismentatWiatd NL245" claltwojentahost>daby Sref="4256have stalled for 4s muc45etworking/e1000.txt#L287" id="L287" class="line" na4e="L257">4257
http://uref="4258The improper writ4back 45etworking/e1000.txt#L159" id="L159" class="line" na4e="L249">4259memory cache-line4 whic45ted os ar ther haortodL18 nk
4261Setting TxDescrip4orSte461s noy cacheher hay ci="li-devel@lisns.sf."L3king/e1000.txt#L159" id="L159" class="line" na4e="L252">4262are aligned to th4 star4 of a 

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