linux/Documentation/Intel-IOMMU.txt
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   1Linux IOMMU Support
   2===================
   3
   4The architecture spec can be obtained from the below location.
   5
   6http://www.intel.com/technology/virtualization/
   7
   8This guide gives a quick cheat sheet for some basic understanding.
   9
  10Some Keywords
  11
  12DMAR - DMA remapping
  13DRHD - DMA Engine Reporting Structure
  14RMRR - Reserved memory Region Reporting Structure
  15ZLR  - Zero length reads from PCI devices
  16IOVA - IO Virtual address.
  17
  18Basic stuff
  19-----------
  20
  21ACPI enumerates and lists the different DMA engines in the platform, and
  22device scope relationships between PCI devices and which DMA engine  controls
  23them.
  24
  25What is RMRR?
  26-------------
  27
  28There are some devices the BIOS controls, for e.g USB devices to perform
  29PS2 emulation. The regions of memory used for these devices are marked
  30reserved in the e820 map. When we turn on DMA translation, DMA to those
  31regions will fail. Hence BIOS uses RMRR to specify these regions along with
  32devices that need to access these regions. OS is expected to setup
  33unity mappings for these regions for these devices to access these regions.
  34
  35How is IOVA generated?
  36---------------------
  37
  38Well behaved drivers call pci_map_*() calls before sending command to device
  39that needs to perform DMA. Once DMA is completed and mapping is no longer
  40required, device performs a pci_unmap_*() calls to unmap the region.
  41
  42The Intel IOMMU driver allocates a virtual address per domain. Each PCIE
  43device has its own domain (hence protection). Devices under p2p bridges
  44share the virtual address with all devices under the p2p bridge due to
  45transaction id aliasing for p2p bridges.
  46
  47IOVA generation is pretty generic. We used the same technique as vmalloc()
  48but these are not global address spaces, but separate for each domain.
  49Different DMA engines may support different number of domains.
  50
  51We also allocate guard pages with each mapping, so we can attempt to catch
  52any overflow that might happen.
  53
  54
  55Graphics Problems?
  56------------------
  57If you encounter issues with graphics devices, you can try adding
  58option intel_iommu=igfx_off to turn off the integrated graphics engine.
  59If this fixes anything, please ensure you file a bug reporting the problem.
  60
  61Some exceptions to IOVA
  62-----------------------
  63Interrupt ranges are not address translated, (0xfee00000 - 0xfeefffff).
  64The same is true for peer to peer transactions. Hence we reserve the
  65address from PCI MMIO ranges so they are not allocated for IOVA addresses.
  66
  67
  68Fault reporting
  69---------------
  70When errors are reported, the DMA engine signals via an interrupt. The fault
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  68Fault reporting
  69---------------
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