linux/Documentation/filesystems/ntfs.txt
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   1The Linux NTFS filesystem driver
   2================================
   3
   4
   5Table of contents
   6=================
   7
   8- Overview
   9- Web site
  10- Features
  11- Supported mount options
  12- Known bugs and (mis-)features
  13- Using NTFS volume and stripe sets
  14  - The Device-Mapper driver
  15  - The Software RAID / MD driver
  16  - Limitations when using the MD driver
  17- ChangeLog
  18
  19
  20Overview
  21========
  22
  23Linux-NTFS comes with a number of user-space programs known as ntfsprogs.
  24These include mkntfs, a full-featured ntfs filesystem format utility,
  25ntfsundelete used for recovering files that were unintentionally deleted
  26from an NTFS volume and ntfsresize which is used to resize an NTFS partition.
  27See the web site for more information.
  28
  29To mount an NTFS 1.2/3.x (Windows NT4/2000/XP/2003) volume, use the file
  30system type 'ntfs'.  The driver currently supports read-only mode (with no
  31fault-tolerance, encryption or journalling) and very limited, but safe, write
  32support.
  33
  34For fault tolerance and raid support (i.e. volume and stripe sets), you can
  35use the kernel's Software RAID / MD driver.  See section "Using Software RAID
  36with NTFS" for details.
  37
  38
  39Web site
  40========
  41
  42There is plenty of additional information on the linux-ntfs web site
  43at http://www.linux-ntfs.org/
  44
  45The web site has a lot of additional information, such as a comprehensive
  46FAQ, documentation on the NTFS on-disk format, information on the Linux-NTFS
  47userspace utilities, etc.
  48
  49
  50Features
  51========
  52
  53- This is a complete rewrite of the NTFS driver that used to be in the 2.4 and
  54  earlier kernels.  This new driver implements NTFS read support and is
  55  functionally equivalent to the old ntfs driver and it also implements limited
  56  write support.  The biggest limitation at present is that files/directories
  57  cannot be created or deleted.  See below for the list of write features that
  58  are so far supported.  Another limitation is that writing to compressed files
  59  is not implemented at all.  Also, neither read nor write access to encrypted
  60  files is so far implemented.
  61- The new driver has full support for sparse files on NTFS 3.x volumes which
  62  the old driver isn't happy with.
  63- The new driver supports execution of binaries due to mmap() now being
  64  supported.
  65- The new driver supports loopback mounting of files on NTFS which is used by
  66  some Linux distributions to enable the user to run Linux from an NTFS
  67  partition by creating a large file while in Windows and then loopback
  68  mounting the file while in Linux and creating a Linux filesystem on it that
  69  is used to install Linux on it.
  70- A comparison of the two drivers using:
  71        time find . -type f -exec md5sum "{}" \;
  72  run three times in sequence with each driver (after a reboot) on a 1.4GiB
  73  NTFS partition, showed the new driver to be 20% faster in total time elapsed
  74  (from 9:43 minutes on average down to 7:53).  The time spent in user space
  75  was unchanged but the time spent in the kernel was decreased by a factor of
  76  2.5 (from 85 CPU seconds down to 33).
  77- The driver does not support short file names in general.  For backwards
  78  compatibility, we implement access to files using their short file names if
  79  they exist.  The driver will not create short file names however, and a
  80  rename will discard any existing short file name.
  81- The new driver supports exporting of mounted NTFS volumes via NFS.
  82- The new driver supports async io (aio).
  83- The new driver supports fsync(2), fdatasync(2), and msync(2).
  84- The new driver supports readv(2) and writev(2).
  85- The new driver supports access time updates (including mtime and ctime).
  86- The new driver supports truncate(2) and open(2) with O_TRUNC.  But at present
  87  only very limited support for highly fragmented files, i.e. ones which have
  88  their data attribute split across multiple extents, is included.  Another
  89  limitation is that at present truncate(2) will never create sparse files,
  90  since to mark a file sparse we need to modify the directory entry for the
  91  file and we do not implement directory modifications yet.
  92- The new driver supports write(2) which can both overwrite existing data and
  93  extend the file size so that you can write beyond the existing data.  Also,
  94  writing into sparse regions is supported and the holes are filled in with
  95  clusters.  But at present only limited support for highly fragmented files,
  96  i.e. ones which have their data attribute split across multiple extents, is
  97  included.  Another limitation is that write(2) will never create sparse
  98  files, since to mark a file sparse we need to modify the directory entry for
  99  the file and we do not implement directory modifications yet.
 100
 101Supported mount options
 102=======================
 103
 104In addition to the generic mount options described by the manual page for the
 105mount command (man 8 mount, also see man 5 fstab), the NTFS driver supports the
 106following mount options:
 107
 108iocharset=name          Deprecated option.  Still supported but please use
 109                        nls=name in the future.  See description for nls=name.
 110
 111nls=name                Character set to use when returning file names.
 112                        Unlike VFAT, NTFS suppresses names that contain
 113                        unconvertible characters.  Note that most character
 114                        sets contain insufficient characters to represent all
 115                        possible Unicode characters that can exist on NTFS.
 116                        To be sure you are not missing any files, you are
 117                        advised to use nls=utf8 which is capable of
 118                        representing all Unicode characters.
 119
 120utf8=<bool>             Option no longer supported.  Currently mapped to
 121                        nls=utf8 but please use nls=utf8 in the future and
 122                        make sure utf8 is compiled either as module or into
 123                        the kernel.  See description for nls=name.
 124
 125uid=
 126gid=
 127umask=                  Provide default owner, group, and access mode mask.
 128                        These options work as documented in mount(8).  By
 129                        default, the files/directories are owned by root and
 130                        he/she has read and write permissions, as well as
 131                        browse permission for directories.  No one else has any
 132                        access permissions.  I.e. the mode on all files is by
 133                        default rw------- and for directories rwx------, a
 134                        consequence of the default fmask=0177 and dmask=0077.
 135                        Using a umask of zero will grant all permissions to
 136                        everyone, i.e. all files and directories will have mode
 137                        rwxrwxrwx.
 138
 139fmask=
 140dmask=                  Instead of specifying umask which applies both to
 141                        files and directories, fmask applies only to files and
 142                        dmask only to directories.
 143
 144sloppy=<BOOL>           If sloppy is specified, ignore unknown mount options.
 145                        Otherwise the default behaviour is to abort mount if
 146                        any unknown options are found.
 147
 148show_sys_files=<BOOL>   If show_sys_files is specified, show the system files
 149                        in directory listings.  Otherwise the default behaviour
 150                        is to hide the system files.
 151                        Note that even when show_sys_files is specified, "$MFT"
 152                        will not be visible due to bugs/mis-features in glibc.
 153                        Further, note that irrespective of show_sys_files, all
 154                        files are accessible by name, i.e. you can always do
 155                        "ls -l \$UpCase" for example to specifically show the
 156                        system file containing the Unicode upcase table.
 157
 158case_sensitive=<BOOL>   If case_sensitive is specified, treat all file names as
 159                        case sensitive and create file names in the POSIX
 160                        namespace.  Otherwise the default behaviour is to treat
 161                        file names as case insensitive and to create file names
 162                        in the WIN32/LONG name space.  Note, the Linux NTFS
 163                        driver will never create short file names and will
 164                        remove them on rename/delete of the corresponding long
 165                        file name.
 166                        Note that files remain accessible via their short file
 167                        name, if it exists.  If case_sensitive, you will need
 168                        to provide the correct case of the short file name.
 169
 170disable_sparse=<BOOL>   If disable_sparse is specified, creation of sparse
 171                        regions, i.e. holes, inside files is disabled for the
 172                        volume (for the duration of this mount only).  By
 173                        default, creation of sparse regions is enabled, which
 174                        is consistent with the behaviour of traditional Unix
 175                        filesystems.
 176
 177errors=opt              What to do when critical filesystem errors are found.
 178                        Following values can be used for "opt":
 179                          continue: DEFAULT, try to clean-up as much as
 180                                    possible, e.g. marking a corrupt inode as
 181                                    bad so it is no longer accessed, and then
 182                                    continue.
 183                          recover:  At present only supported is recovery of
 184                                    the boot sector from the backup copy.
 185                                    If read-only mount, the recovery is done
 186                                    in memory only and not written to disk.
 187                        Note that the options are additive, i.e. specifying:
 188                           errors=continue,errors=recover
 189                        means the driver will attempt to recover and if that
 190                        fails it will clean-up as much as possible and
 191                        continue.
 192
 193mft_zone_multiplier=    Set the MFT zone multiplier for the volume (this
 194                        setting is not persistent across mounts and can be
 195                        changed from mount to mount but cannot be changed on
 196                        remount).  Values of 1 to 4 are allowed, 1 being the
 197                        default.  The MFT zone multiplier determines how much
 198                        space is reserved for the MFT on the volume.  If all
 199                        other space is used up, then the MFT zone will be
 200                        shrunk dynamically, so this has no impact on the
 201                        amount of free space.  However, it can have an impact
 202                        on performance by affecting fragmentation of the MFT.
 203                        In general use the default.  If you have a lot of small
 204                        files then use a higher value.  The values have the
 205                        following meaning:
 206                              Value          MFT zone size (% of volume size)
 207                                1               12.5%
 208                                2               25%
 209                                3               37.5%
 210                                4               50%
 211                        Note this option is irrelevant for read-only mounts.
 212
 213
 214Known bugs and (mis-)features
 215=============================
 216
 217- The link count on each directory inode entry is set to 1, due to Linux not
 218  supporting directory hard links.  This may well confuse some user space
 219  applications, since the directory names will have the same inode numbers.
 220  This also speeds up ntfs_read_inode() immensely.  And we haven't found any
 221  problems with this approach so far.  If you find a problem with this, please
 222  let us know.
 223
 224
 225Please send bug reports/comments/feedback/abuse to the Linux-NTFS development
 226list at sourceforge: linux-ntfs-dev@lists.sourceforge.net
 227
 228
 229Using NTFS volume and stripe sets
 230=================================
 231
 232For support of volume and stripe sets, you can either use the kernel's
 233Device-Mapper driver or the kernel's Software RAID / MD driver.  The former is
 234the recommended one to use for linear raid.  But the latter is required for
 235raid level 5.  For striping and mirroring, either driver should work fine.
 236
 237
 238The Device-Mapper driver
 239------------------------
 240
 241You will need to create a table of the components of the volume/stripe set and
 242how they fit together and load this into the kernel using the dmsetup utility
 243(see man 8 dmsetup).
 244
 245Linear volume sets, i.e. linear raid, has been tested and works fine.  Even
 246though untested, there is no reason why stripe sets, i.e. raid level 0, and
 247mirrors, i.e. raid level 1 should not work, too.  Stripes with parity, i.e.
 248raid level 5, unfortunately cannot work yet because the current version of the
 249Device-Mapper driver does not support raid level 5.  You may be able to use the
 250Software RAID / MD driver for raid level 5, see the next section for details.
 251
 252To create the table describing your volume you will need to know each of its
 253components and their sizes in sectors, i.e. multiples of 512-byte blocks.
 254
 255For NT4 fault tolerant volumes you can obtain the sizes using fdisk.  So for
 256example if one of your partitions is /dev/hda2 you would do:
 257
 258$ fdisk -ul /dev/hda
 259
 260Disk /dev/hda: 81.9 GB, 81964302336 bytes
 261255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 9964 cylinders, total 160086528 sectors
 262Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
 263
 264   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
 265   /dev/hda1   *          63     4209029     2104483+  83  Linux
 266   /dev/hda2         4209030    37768814    16779892+  86  NTFS
 267   /dev/hda3        37768815    46170809     4200997+  83  Linux
 268
 269And you would know that /dev/hda2 has a size of 37768814 - 4209030 + 1 =
 27033559785 sectors.
 271
 272For Win2k and later dynamic disks, you can for example use the ldminfo utility
 273which is part of the Linux LDM tools (the latest version at the time of
 274writing is linux-ldm-0.0.8.tar.bz2).  You can download it from:
 275        http://www.linux-ntfs.org/
 276Simply extract the downloaded archive (tar xvjf linux-ldm-0.0.8.tar.bz2), go
 277into it (cd linux-ldm-0.0.8) and change to the test directory (cd test).  You
 278will find the precompiled (i386) ldminfo utility there.  NOTE: You will not be
 279able to compile this yourself easily so use the binary version!
 280
 281Then you would use ldminfo in dump mode to obtain the necessary information:
 282
 283$ ./ldminfo --dump /dev/hda
 284
 285This would dump the LDM database found on /dev/hda which describes all of your
 286dynamic disks and all the volumes on them.  At the bottom you will see the
 287VOLUME DEFINITIONS section which is all you really need.  You may need to look
 288further above to determine which of the disks in the volume definitions is
 289which device in Linux.  Hint: Run ldminfo on each of your dynamic disks and
 290look at the Disk Id close to the top of the output for each (the PRIVATE HEADER
 291section).  You can then find these Disk Ids in the VBLK DATABASE section in the
 292<Disk> components where you will get the LDM Name for the disk that is found in
 293the VOLUME DEFINITIONS section.
 294
 295Note you will also need to enable the LDM driver in the Linux kernel.  If your
 296distribution did not enable it, you will need to recompile the kernel with it
 297enabled.  This will create the LDM partitions on each device at boot time.  You
 298would then use those devices (for /dev/hda they would be /dev/hda1, 2, 3, etc)
 299in the Device-Mapper table.
 300
 301You can also bypass using the LDM driver by using the main device (e.g.
 302/dev/hda) and then using the offsets of the LDM partitions into this device as
 303the "Start sector of device" when creating the table.  Once again ldminfo would
 304give you the correct information to do this.
 305
 306Assuming you know all your devices and their sizes things are easy.
 307
 308For a linear raid the table would look like this (note all values are in
 309512-byte sectors):
 310
 311--- cut here ---
 312# Offset into   Size of this    Raid type       Device          Start sector
 313# volume        device                                          of device
 3140               1028161         linear          /dev/hda1       0
 3151028161         3903762         linear          /dev/hdb2       0
 3164931923         2103211         linear          /dev/hdc1       0
 317--- cut here ---
 318
 319For a striped volume, i.e. raid level 0, you will need to know the chunk size
 320you used when creating the volume.  Windows uses 64kiB as the default, so it
 321will probably be this unless you changes the defaults when creating the array.
 322
 323For a raid level 0 the table would look like this (note all values are in
 324512-byte sectors):
 325
 326--- cut here ---
 327# Offset   Size     Raid     Number   Chunk  1st        Start   2nd       Start
 328# into     of the   type     of       size   Device     in      Device    in
 329# volume   volume            stripes                    device            device
 3300          2056320  striped  2        128    /dev/hda1  0       /dev/hdb1 0
 331--- cut here ---
 332
 333If there are more than two devices, just add each of them to the end of the
 334line.
 335
 336Finally, for a mirrored volume, i.e. raid level 1, the table would look like
 337this (note all values are in 512-byte sectors):
 338
 339--- cut here ---
 340# Ofs Size   Raid   Log  Number Region Should Number Source  Start Target Start
 341# in  of the type   type of log size   sync?  of     Device  in    Device in
 342# vol volume             params              mirrors         Device       Device
 3430    2056320 mirror core 2      16     nosync 2    /dev/hda1 0   /dev/hdb1 0
 344--- cut here ---
 345
 346If you are mirroring to multiple devices you can specify further targets at the
 347end of the line.
 348
 349Note the "Should sync?" parameter "nosync" means that the two mirrors are
 350already in sync which will be the case on a clean shutdown of Windows.  If the
 351mirrors are not clean, you can specify the "sync" option instead of "nosync"
 352and the Device-Mapper driver will then copy the entirety of the "Source Device"
 353to the "Target Device" or if you specified multiple target devices to all of
 354them.
 355
 356Once you have your table, save it in a file somewhere (e.g. /etc/ntfsvolume1),
 357and hand it over to dmsetup to work with, like so:
 358
 359$ dmsetup create myvolume1 /etc/ntfsvolume1
 360
 361You can obviously replace "myvolume1" with whatever name you like.
 362
 363If it all worked, you will now have the device /dev/device-mapper/myvolume1
 364which you can then just use as an argument to the mount command as usual to
 365mount the ntfs volume.  For example:
 366
 367$ mount -t ntfs -o ro /dev/device-mapper/myvolume1 /mnt/myvol1
 368
 369(You need to create the directory /mnt/myvol1 first and of course you can use
 370anything you like instead of /mnt/myvol1 as long as it is an existing
 371directory.)
 372
 373It is advisable to do the mount read-only to see if the volume has been setup
 374correctly to avoid the possibility of causing damage to the data on the ntfs
 375volume.
 376
 377
 378The Software RAID / MD driver
 379-----------------------------
 380
 381An alternative to using the Device-Mapper driver is to use the kernel's
 382Software RAID / MD driver.  For which you need to set up your /etc/raidtab
 383appropriately (see man 5 raidtab).
 384
 385Linear volume sets, i.e. linear raid, as well as stripe sets, i.e. raid level
 3860, have been tested and work fine (though see section "Limitations when using
 387the MD driver with NTFS volumes" especially if you want to use linear raid).
 388Even though untested, there is no reason why mirrors, i.e. raid level 1, and
 389stripes with parity, i.e. raid level 5, should not work, too.
 390
 391You have to use the "persistent-superblock 0" option for each raid-disk in the
 392NTFS volume/stripe you are configuring in /etc/raidtab as the persistent
 393superblock used by the MD driver would damage the NTFS volume.
 394
 395Windows by default uses a stripe chunk size of 64k, so you probably want the
 396"chunk-size 64k" option for each raid-disk, too.
 397
 398For example, if you have a stripe set consisting of two partitions /dev/hda5
 399and /dev/hdb1 your /etc/raidtab would look like this:
 400
 401raiddev /dev/md0
 402        raid-level      0
 403        nr-raid-disks   2
 404        nr-spare-disks  0
 405        persistent-superblock   0
 406        chunk-size      64k
 407        device          /dev/hda5
 408        raid-disk       0
 409        device          /dev/hdb1
 410        raid-disk       1
 411
 412For linear raid, just change the raid-level above to "raid-level linear", for
 413mirrors, change it to "raid-level 1", and for stripe sets with parity, change
 414it to "raid-level 5".
 415
 416Note for stripe sets with parity you will also need to tell the MD driver
 417which parity algorithm to use by specifying the option "parity-algorithm
 418which", where you need to replace "which" with the name of the algorithm to
 419use (see man 5 raidtab for available algorithms) and you will have to try the
 420different available algorithms until you find one that works.  Make sure you
 421are working read-only when playing with this as you may damage your data
 422otherwise.  If you find which algorithm works please let us know (email the
 423linux-ntfs developers list linux-ntfs-dev@lists.sourceforge.net or drop in on
 424IRC in channel #ntfs on the irc.freenode.net network) so we can update this
 425documentation.
 426
 427Once the raidtab is setup, run for example raid0run -a to start all devices or
 428raid0run /dev/md0 to start a particular md device, in this case /dev/md0.
 429
 430Then just use the mount command as usual to mount the ntfs volume using for
 431example:        mount -t ntfs -o ro /dev/md0 /mnt/myntfsvolume
 432
 433It is advisable to do the mount read-only to see if the md volume has been
 434setup correctly to avoid the possibility of causing damage to the data on the
 435ntfs volume.
 436
 437
 438Limitations when using the Software RAID / MD driver
 439-----------------------------------------------------
 440
 441Using the md driver will not work properly if any of your NTFS partitions have
 442an odd number of sectors.  This is especially important for linear raid as all
 443data after the first partition with an odd number of sectors will be offset by
 444one or more sectors so if you mount such a partition with write support you
 445will cause massive damage to the data on the volume which will only become
 446apparent when you try to use the volume again under Windows.
 447
 448So when using linear raid, make sure that all your partitions have an even
 449number of sectors BEFORE attempting to use it.  You have been warned!
 450
 451Even better is to simply use the Device-Mapper for linear raid and then you do
 452not have this problem with odd numbers of sectors.
 453
 454
 455ChangeLog
 456=========
 457
 458Note, a technical ChangeLog aimed at kernel hackers is in fs/ntfs/ChangeLog.
 459
 4602.1.30:
 461        - Fix writev() (it kept writing the first segment over and over again
 462          instead of moving onto subsequent segments).
 463        - Fix crash in ntfs_mft_record_alloc() when mapping the new extent mft
 464          record failed.
 4652.1.29:
 466        - Fix a deadlock when mounting read-write.
 4672.1.28:
 468        - Fix a deadlock.
 4692.1.27:
 470        - Implement page migration support so the kernel can move memory used
 471          by NTFS files and directories around for management purposes.
 472        - Add support for writing to sparse files created with Windows XP SP2.
 473        - Many minor improvements and bug fixes.
 4742.1.26:
 475        - Implement support for sector sizes above 512 bytes (up to the maximum
 476          supported by NTFS which is 4096 bytes).
 477        - Enhance support for NTFS volumes which were supported by Windows but
 478          not by Linux due to invalid attribute list attribute flags.
 479        - A few minor updates and bug fixes.
 4802.1.25:
 481        - Write support is now extended with write(2) being able to both
 482          overwrite existing file data and to extend files.  Also, if a write
 483          to a sparse region occurs, write(2) will fill in the hole.  Note,
 484          mmap(2) based writes still do not support writing into holes or
 485          writing beyond the initialized size.
 486        - Write support has a new feature and that is that truncate(2) and
 487          open(2) with O_TRUNC are now implemented thus files can be both made
 488          smaller and larger.
 489        - Note: Both write(2) and truncate(2)/open(2) with O_TRUNC still have
 490          limitations in that they
 491          - only provide limited support for highly fragmented files.
 492          - only work on regular, i.e. uncompressed and unencrypted files.
 493          - never create sparse files although this will change once directory
 494            operations are implemented.
 495        - Lots of bug fixes and enhancements across the board.
 4962.1.24:
 497        - Support journals ($LogFile) which have been modified by chkdsk.  This
 498          means users can boot into Windows after we marked the volume dirty.
 499          The Windows boot will run chkdsk and then reboot.  The user can then
 500          immediately boot into Linux rather than having to do a full Windows
 501          boot first before rebooting into Linux and we will recognize such a
 502          journal and empty it as it is clean by definition.
 503        - Support journals ($LogFile) with only one restart page as well as
 504          journals with two different restart pages.  We sanity check both and
 505          either use the only sane one or the more recent one of the two in the
 506          case that both are valid.
 507        - Lots of bug fixes and enhancements across the board.
 5082.1.23:
 509        - Stamp the user space journal, aka transaction log, aka $UsnJrnl, if
 510          it is present and active thus telling Windows and applications using
 511          the transaction log that changes can have happened on the volume
 512          which are not recorded in $UsnJrnl.
 513        - Detect the case when Windows has been hibernated (suspended to disk)
 514          and if this is the case do not allow (re)mounting read-write to
 515          prevent data corruption when you boot back into the suspended
 516          Windows session.
 517        - Implement extension of resident files using the normal file write
 518          code paths, i.e. most very small files can be extended to be a little
 519          bit bigger but not by much.
 520        - Add new mount option "disable_sparse".  (See list of mount options
 521          above for details.)
 522        - Improve handling of ntfs volumes with errors and strange boot sectors
 523          in particular.
 524        - Fix various bugs including a nasty deadlock that appeared in recent
 525          kernels (around 2.6.11-2.6.12 timeframe).
 5262.1.22:
 527        - Improve handling of ntfs volumes with errors.
 528        - Fix various bugs and race conditions.
 5292.1.21:
 530        - Fix several race conditions and various other bugs.
 531        - Many internal cleanups, code reorganization, optimizations, and mft
 532          and index record writing code rewritten to fit in with the changes.
 533        - Update Documentation/filesystems/ntfs.txt with instructions on how to
 534          use the Device-Mapper driver with NTFS ftdisk/LDM raid.
 5352.1.20:
 536        - Fix two stupid bugs introduced in 2.1.18 release.
 5372.1.19:
 538        - Minor bugfix in handling of the default upcase table.
 539        - Many internal cleanups and improvements.  Many thanks to Linus
 540          Torvalds and Al Viro for the help and advice with the sparse
 541          annotations and cleanups.
 5422.1.18:
 543        - Fix scheduling latencies at mount time.  (Ingo Molnar)
 544        - Fix endianness bug in a little traversed portion of the attribute
 545          lookup code.
 5462.1.17:
 547        - Fix bugs in mount time error code paths.
 5482.1.16:
 549        - Implement access time updates (including mtime and ctime).
 550        - Implement fsync(2), fdatasync(2), and msync(2) system calls.
 551        - Enable the readv(2) and writev(2) system calls.
 552        - Enable access via the asynchronous io (aio) API by adding support for
 553          the aio_read(3) and aio_write(3) functions.
 5542.1.15:
 555        - Invalidate quotas when (re)mounting read-write.
 556          NOTE:  This now only leave user space journalling on the side.  (See
 557          note for version 2.1.13, below.)
 5582.1.14:
 559        - Fix an NFSd caused deadlock reported by several users.
 5602.1.13:
 561        - Implement writing of inodes (access time updates are not implemented
 562          yet so mounting with -o noatime,nodiratime is enforced).
 563        - Enable writing out of resident files so you can now overwrite any
 564          uncompressed, unencrypted, nonsparse file as long as you do not
 565          change the file size.
 566        - Add housekeeping of ntfs system files so that ntfsfix no longer needs
 567          to be run after writing to an NTFS volume.
 568          NOTE:  This still leaves quota tracking and user space journalling on
 569          the side but they should not cause data corruption.  In the worst
 570          case the charged quotas will be out of date ($Quota) and some
 571          userspace applications might get confused due to the out of date
 572          userspace journal ($UsnJrnl).
 5732.1.12:
 574        - Fix the second fix to the decompression engine from the 2.1.9 release
 575          and some further internals cleanups.
 5762.1.11:
 577        - Driver internal cleanups.
 5782.1.10:
 579        - Force read-only (re)mounting of volumes with unsupported volume
 580          flags and various cleanups.
 5812.1.9:
 582        - Fix two bugs in handling of corner cases in the decompression engine.
 5832.1.8:
 584        - Read the $MFT mirror and compare it to the $MFT and if the two do not
 585          match, force a read-only mount and do not allow read-write remounts.
 586        - Read and parse the $LogFile journal and if it indicates that the
 587          volume was not shutdown cleanly, force a read-only mount and do not
 588          allow read-write remounts.  If the $LogFile indicates a clean
 589          shutdown and a read-write (re)mount is requested, empty $LogFile to
 590          ensure that Windows cannot cause data corruption by replaying a stale
 591          journal after Linux has written to the volume.
 592        - Improve time handling so that the NTFS time is fully preserved when
 593          converted to kernel time and only up to 99 nano-seconds are lost when
 594          kernel time is converted to NTFS time.
 5952.1.7:
 596        - Enable NFS exporting of mounted NTFS volumes.
 5972.1.6:
 598        - Fix minor bug in handling of compressed directories that fixes the
 599          erroneous "du" and "stat" output people reported.
 6002.1.5:
 601        - Minor bug fix in attribute list attribute handling that fixes the
 602          I/O errors on "ls" of certain fragmented files found by at least two
 603          people running Windows XP.
 6042.1.4:
 605        - Minor update allowing compilation with all gcc versions (well, the
 606          ones the kernel can be compiled with anyway).
 6072.1.3:
 608        - Major bug fixes for reading files and volumes in corner cases which
 609          were being hit by Windows 2k/XP users.
 6102.1.2:
 611        - Major bug fixes alleviating the hangs in statfs experienced by some
 612          users.
 6132.1.1:
 614        - Update handling of compressed files so people no longer get the
 615          frequently reported warning messages about initialized_size !=
 616          data_size.
 6172.1.0:
 618        - Add configuration option for developmental write support.
 619        - Initial implementation of file overwriting. (Writes to resident files
 620          are not written out to disk yet, so avoid writing to files smaller
 621          than about 1kiB.)
 622        - Intercept/abort changes in file size as they are not implemented yet.
 6232.0.25:
 624        - Minor bugfixes in error code paths and small cleanups.
 6252.0.24:
 626        - Small internal cleanups.
 627        - Support for sendfile system call. (Christoph Hellwig)
 6282.0.23:
 629        - Massive internal locking changes to mft record locking. Fixes
 630          various race conditions and deadlocks.
 631        - Fix ntfs over loopback for compressed files by adding an
 632          optimization barrier. (gcc was screwing up otherwise ?)
 633        Thanks go to Christoph Hellwig for pointing these two out:
 634        - Remove now unused function fs/ntfs/malloc.h::vmalloc_nofs().
 635        - Fix ntfs_free() for ia64 and parisc.
 6362.0.22:
 637        - Small internal cleanups.
 6382.0.21:
 639        These only affect 32-bit architectures:
 640        - Check for, and refuse to mount too large volumes (maximum is 2TiB).
 641        - Check for, and refuse to open too large files and directories
 642          (maximum is 16TiB).
 6432.0.20:
 644        - Support non-resident directory index bitmaps. This means we now cope
 645          with huge directories without problems.
 646        - Fix a page leak that manifested itself in some cases when reading
 647          directory contents.
 648        - Internal cleanups.
 6492.0.19:
 650        - Fix race condition and improvements in block i/o interface.
 651        - Optimization when reading compressed files.
 6522.0.18:
 653        - Fix race condition in reading of compressed files.
 6542.0.17:
 655        - Cleanups and optimizations.
 6562.0.16:
 657        - Fix stupid bug introduced in 2.0.15 in new attribute inode API.
 658        - Big internal cleanup replacing the mftbmp access hacks by using the
 659          new attribute inode API instead.
 6602.0.15:
 661        - Bug fix in parsing of remount options.
 662        - Internal changes implementing attribute (fake) inodes allowing all
 663          attribute i/o to go via the page cache and to use all the normal
 664          vfs/mm functionality.
 6652.0.14:
 666        - Internal changes improving run list merging code and minor locking
 667          change to not rely on BKL in ntfs_statfs().
 6682.0.13:
 669        - Internal changes towards using iget5_locked() in preparation for
 670          fake inodes and small cleanups to ntfs_volume structure.
 6712.0.12:
 672        - Internal cleanups in address space operations made possible by the
 673          changes introduced in the previous release.
 6742.0.11:
 675        - Internal updates and cleanups introducing the first step towards
 676          fake inode based attribute i/o.
 6772.0.10:
 678        - Microsoft says that the maximum number of inodes is 2^32 - 1. Update
 679          the driver accordingly to only use 32-bits to store inode numbers on
 680          32-bit architectures. This improves the speed of the driver a little.
 6812.0.9:
 682        - Change decompression engine to use a single buffer. This should not
 683          affect performance except perhaps on the most heavy i/o on SMP
 684          systems when accessing multiple compressed files from multiple
 685          devices simultaneously.
 686        - Minor updates and cleanups.
 6872.0.8:
 688        - Remove now obsolete show_inodes and posix mount option(s).
 689        - Restore show_sys_files mount option.
 690        - Add new mount option case_sensitive, to determine if the driver
 691          treats file names as case sensitive or not.
 692        - Mostly drop support for short file names (for backwards compatibility
 693          we only support accessing files via their short file name if one
 694          exists).
 695        - Fix dcache aliasing issues wrt short/long file names.
 696        - Cleanups and minor fixes.
 6972.0.7:
 698        - Just cleanups.
 6992.0.6:
 700        - Major bugfix to make compatible with other kernel changes. This fixes
 701          the hangs/oopses on umount.
 702        - Locking cleanup in directory operations (remove BKL usage).
 7032.0.5:
 704        - Major buffer overflow bug fix.
 705        - Minor cleanups and updates for kernel 2.5.12.
 7062.0.4:
 707        - Cleanups and updates for kernel 2.5.11.
 7082.0.3:
 709        - Small bug fixes, cleanups, and performance improvements.
 7102.0.2:
 711        - Use default fmask of 0177 so that files are no executable by default.
 712          If you want owner executable files, just use fmask=0077.
 713        - Update for kernel 2.5.9 but preserve backwards compatibility with
 714          kernel 2.5.7.
 715        - Minor bug fixes, cleanups, and updates.
 7162.0.1:
 717        - Minor updates, primarily set the executable bit by default on files
 718          so they can be executed.
 7192.0.0:
 720        - Started ChangeLog.
 721
 722
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