1Below is the original README file from the descore.shar package.
   4des - fast & portable DES encryption & decryption.
   5Copyright (C) 1992  Dana L. How
   7This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
   8it under the terms of the GNU Library General Public License as published by
   9the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
  10(at your option) any later version.
  12This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
  13but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  15GNU Library General Public License for more details.
  17You should have received a copy of the GNU Library General Public License
  18along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
  19Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
  21Author's address:
  23$Id: README,v 1.15 1992/05/20 00:25:32 how E $
  26==>> To compile after untarring/unsharring, just `make' <<==
  29This package was designed with the following goals:
  301.      Highest possible encryption/decryption PERFORMANCE.
  312.      PORTABILITY to any byte-addressable host with a 32bit unsigned C type
  323.      Plug-compatible replacement for KERBEROS's low-level routines.
  34This second release includes a number of performance enhancements for
  35register-starved machines.  My discussions with Richard Outerbridge,, sparked a number of these enhancements.
  38To more rapidly understand the code in this package, inspect desSmallFips.i
  39(created by typing `make') BEFORE you tackle desCode.h.  The latter is set
  40up in a parameterized fashion so it can easily be modified by speed-daemon
  41hackers in pursuit of that last microsecond.  You will find it more
  42illuminating to inspect one specific implementation,
  43and then move on to the common abstract skeleton with this one in mind.
  46performance comparison to other available des code which i could
  47compile on a SPARCStation 1 (cc -O4, gcc -O2):
  49this code (byte-order independent):
  50   30us per encryption (options: 64k tables, no IP/FP)
  51   33us per encryption (options: 64k tables, FIPS standard bit ordering)
  52   45us per encryption (options:  2k tables, no IP/FP)
  53   48us per encryption (options:  2k tables, FIPS standard bit ordering)
  54  275us to set a new key (uses 1k of key tables)
  55        this has the quickest encryption/decryption routines i've seen.
  56        since i was interested in fast des filters rather than crypt(3)
  57        and password cracking, i haven't really bothered yet to speed up
  58        the key setting routine. also, i have no interest in re-implementing
  59        all the other junk in the mit kerberos des library, so i've just
  60        provided my routines with little stub interfaces so they can be
  61        used as drop-in replacements with mit's code or any of the mit-
  62        compatible packages below. (note that the first two timings above
  63        are highly variable because of cache effects).
  65kerberos des replacement from australia (version 1.95):
  66   53us per encryption (uses 2k of tables)
  67   96us to set a new key (uses 2.25k of key tables)
  68        so despite the author's inclusion of some of the performance
  69        improvements i had suggested to him, this package's
  70        encryption/decryption is still slower on the sparc and 68000.
  71        more specifically, 19-40% slower on the 68020 and 11-35% slower
  72        on the sparc,  depending on the compiler;
  73        in full gory detail (ALT_ECB is a libdes variant):
  74        compiler        machine         desCore libdes  ALT_ECB slower by
  75        gcc 2.1 -O2     Sun 3/110       304  uS 369.5uS 461.8uS  22%
  76        cc      -O1     Sun 3/110       336  uS 436.6uS 399.3uS  19%
  77        cc      -O2     Sun 3/110       360  uS 532.4uS 505.1uS  40%
  78        cc      -O4     Sun 3/110       365  uS 532.3uS 505.3uS  38%
  79        gcc 2.1 -O2     Sun 4/50         48  uS  53.4uS  57.5uS  11%
  80        cc      -O2     Sun 4/50         48  uS  64.6uS  64.7uS  35%
  81        cc      -O4     Sun 4/50         48  uS  64.7uS  64.9uS  35%
  82        (my time measurements are not as accurate as his).
  83   the comments in my first release of desCore on version 1.92:
  84   68us per encryption (uses 2k of tables)
  85   96us to set a new key (uses 2.25k of key tables)
  86        this is a very nice package which implements the most important
  87        of the optimizations which i did in my encryption routines.
  88        it's a bit weak on common low-level optimizations which is why
  89        it's 39%-106% slower.  because he was interested in fast crypt(3) and
  90        password-cracking applications,  he also used the same ideas to
  91        speed up the key-setting routines with impressive results.
  92        (at some point i may do the same in my package).  he also implements
  93        the rest of the mit des library.
  94        (code from via comp.sources.misc)
  96fast crypt(3) package from denmark:
  97        the des routine here is buried inside a loop to do the
  98        crypt function and i didn't feel like ripping it out and measuring
  99        performance. his code takes 26 sparc instructions to compute one
 100        des iteration; above, Quick (64k) takes 21 and Small (2k) takes 37.
 101        he claims to use 280k of tables but the iteration calculation seems
 102        to use only 128k.  his tables and code are machine independent.
 103        (code from via alt.sources or comp.sources.misc)
 105swedish reimplementation of Kerberos des library
 106  108us per encryption (uses 34k worth of tables)
 107  134us to set a new key (uses 32k of key tables to get this speed!)
 108        the tables used seem to be machine-independent;
 109        he seems to have included a lot of special case code
 110        so that, e.g., `long' loads can be used instead of 4 `char' loads
 111        when the machine's architecture allows it.
 112        (code obtained from
 114crack 3.3c package from england:
 115        as in crypt above, the des routine is buried in a loop. it's
 116        also very modified for crypt.  his iteration code uses 16k
 117        of tables and appears to be slow.
 118        (code obtained from via alt.sources or comp.sources.misc)
 120``highly optimized'' and tweaked Kerberos/Athena code (byte-order dependent):
 121  165us per encryption (uses 6k worth of tables)
 122  478us to set a new key (uses <1k of key tables)
 123        so despite the comments in this code, it was possible to get
 124        faster code AND smaller tables, as well as making the tables
 125        machine-independent.
 126        (code obtained from
 128UC Berkeley code (depends on machine-endedness):
 129  226us per encryption
 13010848us to set a new key
 131        table sizes are unclear, but they don't look very small
 132        (code obtained from
 135motivation and history
 137a while ago i wanted some des routines and the routines documented on sun's
 138man pages either didn't exist or dumped core.  i had heard of kerberos,
 139and knew that it used des,  so i figured i'd use its routines.  but once
 140i got it and looked at the code,  it really set off a lot of pet peeves -
 141it was too convoluted, the code had been written without taking
 142advantage of the regular structure of operations such as IP, E, and FP
 143(i.e. the author didn't sit down and think before coding),
 144it was excessively slow,  the author had attempted to clarify the code
 145by adding MORE statements to make the data movement more `consistent'
 146instead of simplifying his implementation and cutting down on all data
 147movement (in particular, his use of L1, R1, L2, R2), and it was full of
 148idiotic `tweaks' for particular machines which failed to deliver significant
 149speedups but which did obfuscate everything.  so i took the test data
 150from his verification program and rewrote everything else.
 152a while later i ran across the great crypt(3) package mentioned above.
 153the fact that this guy was computing 2 sboxes per table lookup rather
 154than one (and using a MUCH larger table in the process) emboldened me to
 155do the same - it was a trivial change from which i had been scared away
 156by the larger table size.  in his case he didn't realize you don't need to keep
 157the working data in TWO forms, one for easy use of half the sboxes in
 158indexing, the other for easy use of the other half; instead you can keep
 159it in the form for the first half and use a simple rotate to get the other
 160half.  this means i have (almost) half the data manipulation and half
 161the table size.  in fairness though he might be encoding something particular
 162to crypt(3) in his tables - i didn't check.
 164i'm glad that i implemented it the way i did, because this C version is
 165portable (the ifdef's are performance enhancements) and it is faster
 166than versions hand-written in assembly for the sparc!
 169porting notes
 171one thing i did not want to do was write an enormous mess
 172which depended on endedness and other machine quirks,
 173and which necessarily produced different code and different lookup tables
 174for different machines.  see the kerberos code for an example
 175of what i didn't want to do; all their endedness-specific `optimizations'
 176obfuscate the code and in the end were slower than a simpler machine
 177independent approach.  however, there are always some portability
 178considerations of some kind, and i have included some options
 179for varying numbers of register variables.
 180perhaps some will still regard the result as a mess!
 1821) i assume everything is byte addressable, although i don't actually
 183   depend on the byte order, and that bytes are 8 bits.
 184   i assume word pointers can be freely cast to and from char pointers.
 185   note that 99% of C programs make these assumptions.
 186   i always use unsigned char's if the high bit could be set.
 1872) the typedef `word' means a 32 bit unsigned integral type.
 188   if `unsigned long' is not 32 bits, change the typedef in desCore.h.
 189   i assume sizeof(word) == 4 EVERYWHERE.
 191the (worst-case) cost of my NOT doing endedness-specific optimizations
 192in the data loading and storing code surrounding the key iterations
 193is less than 12%.  also, there is the added benefit that
 194the input and output work areas do not need to be word-aligned.
 197OPTIONAL performance optimizations
 1991) you should define one of `i386,' `vax,' `mc68000,' or `sparc,'
 200   whichever one is closest to the capabilities of your machine.
 201   see the start of desCode.h to see exactly what this selection implies.
 202   note that if you select the wrong one, the des code will still work;
 203   these are just performance tweaks.
 2042) for those with functional `asm' keywords: you should change the
 205   ROR and ROL macros to use machine rotate instructions if you have them.
 206   this will save 2 instructions and a temporary per use,
 207   or about 32 to 40 instructions per en/decryption.
 208   note that gcc is smart enough to translate the ROL/R macros into
 209   machine rotates!
 211these optimizations are all rather persnickety, yet with them you should
 212be able to get performance equal to assembly-coding, except that:
 2131) with the lack of a bit rotate operator in C, rotates have to be synthesized
 214   from shifts.  so access to `asm' will speed things up if your machine
 215   has rotates, as explained above in (3) (not necessary if you use gcc).
 2162) if your machine has less than 12 32-bit registers i doubt your compiler will
 217   generate good code.
 218   `i386' tries to configure the code for a 386 by only declaring 3 registers
 219   (it appears that gcc can use ebx, esi and edi to hold register variables).
 220   however, if you like assembly coding, the 386 does have 7 32-bit registers,
 221   and if you use ALL of them, use `scaled by 8' address modes with displacement
 222   and other tricks, you can get reasonable routines for DesQuickCore... with
 223   about 250 instructions apiece.  For DesSmall... it will help to rearrange
 224   des_keymap, i.e., now the sbox # is the high part of the index and
 225   the 6 bits of data is the low part; it helps to exchange these.
 226   since i have no way to conveniently test it i have not provided my
 227   shoehorned 386 version.  note that with this release of desCore, gcc is able
 228   to put everything in registers(!), and generate about 370 instructions apiece
 229   for the DesQuickCore... routines!
 231coding notes
 233the en/decryption routines each use 6 necessary register variables,
 234with 4 being actively used at once during the inner iterations.
 235if you don't have 4 register variables get a new machine.
 236up to 8 more registers are used to hold constants in some configurations.
 238i assume that the use of a constant is more expensive than using a register:
 239a) additionally, i have tried to put the larger constants in registers.
 240   registering priority was by the following:
 241        anything more than 12 bits (bad for RISC and CISC)
 242        greater than 127 in value (can't use movq or byte immediate on CISC)
 243        9-127 (may not be able to use CISC shift immediate or add/sub quick),
 244        1-8 were never registered, being the cheapest constants.
 245b) the compiler may be too stupid to realize table and table+256 should
 246   be assigned to different constant registers and instead repetitively
 247   do the arithmetic, so i assign these to explicit `m' register variables
 248   when possible and helpful.
 250i assume that indexing is cheaper or equivalent to auto increment/decrement,
 251where the index is 7 bits unsigned or smaller.
 252this assumption is reversed for 68k and vax.
 254i assume that addresses can be cheaply formed from two registers,
 255or from a register and a small constant.
 256for the 68000, the `two registers and small offset' form is used sparingly.
 257all index scaling is done explicitly - no hidden shifts by log2(sizeof).
 259the code is written so that even a dumb compiler
 260should never need more than one hidden temporary,
 261increasing the chance that everything will fit in the registers.
 263(actually, there are some code fragments now which do require two temps,
 264but fixing it would either break the structure of the macros or
 265require declaring another temporary).
 268special efficient data format
 270bits are manipulated in this arrangement most of the time (S7 S5 S3 S1):
 271        003130292827xxxx242322212019xxxx161514131211xxxx080706050403xxxx
 272(the x bits are still there, i'm just emphasizing where the S boxes are).
 273bits are rotated left 4 when computing S6 S4 S2 S0:
 274        282726252423xxxx201918171615xxxx121110090807xxxx040302010031xxxx
 275the rightmost two bits are usually cleared so the lower byte can be used
 276as an index into an sbox mapping table. the next two x'd bits are set
 277to various values to access different parts of the tables.
 280how to use the routines
 283        pointer to 8 byte area of type DesData
 284        used to hold keys and input/output blocks to des.
 286        pointer to 128 byte area of type DesKeys
 287        used to hold full 768-bit key.
 288        must be long-aligned.
 291        call this before using any other routine with `Quick' in its name.
 292        it generates the special 64k table these routines need.
 294        frees this table
 296DesMethod(m, k)
 297        m points to a 128byte block, k points to an 8 byte des key
 298        which must have odd parity (or -1 is returned) and which must
 299        not be a (semi-)weak key (or -2 is returned).
 300        normally DesMethod() returns 0.
 301        m is filled in from k so that when one of the routines below
 302        is called with m, the routine will act like standard des
 303        en/decryption with the key k. if you use DesMethod,
 304        you supply a standard 56bit key; however, if you fill in
 305        m yourself, you will get a 768bit key - but then it won't
 306        be standard.  it's 768bits not 1024 because the least significant
 307        two bits of each byte are not used.  note that these two bits
 308        will be set to magic constants which speed up the encryption/decryption
 309        on some machines.  and yes, each byte controls
 310        a specific sbox during a specific iteration.
 311        you really shouldn't use the 768bit format directly;  i should
 312        provide a routine that converts 128 6-bit bytes (specified in
 313        S-box mapping order or something) into the right format for you.
 314        this would entail some byte concatenation and rotation.
 316Des{Small|Quick}{Fips|Core}{Encrypt|Decrypt}(d, m, s)
 317        performs des on the 8 bytes at s into the 8 bytes at d. (d,s: char *).
 318        uses m as a 768bit key as explained above.
 319        the Encrypt|Decrypt choice is obvious.
 320        Fips|Core determines whether a completely standard FIPS initial
 321        and final permutation is done; if not, then the data is loaded
 322        and stored in a nonstandard bit order (FIPS w/o IP/FP).
 323        Fips slows down Quick by 10%, Small by 9%.
 324        Small|Quick determines whether you use the normal routine
 325        or the crazy quick one which gobbles up 64k more of memory.
 326        Small is 50% slower then Quick, but Quick needs 32 times as much
 327        memory.  Quick is included for programs that do nothing but DES,
 328        e.g., encryption filters, etc.
 331Getting it to compile on your machine
 333there are no machine-dependencies in the code (see porting),
 334except perhaps the `now()' macro in desTest.c.
 335ALL generated tables are machine independent.
 336you should edit the Makefile with the appropriate optimization flags
 337for your compiler (MAX optimization).
 340Speeding up kerberos (and/or its des library)
 342note that i have included a kerberos-compatible interface in desUtil.c
 343through the functions des_key_sched() and des_ecb_encrypt().
 344to use these with kerberos or kerberos-compatible code put desCore.a
 345ahead of the kerberos-compatible library on your linker's command line.
 346you should not need to #include desCore.h;  just include the header
 347file provided with the kerberos library.
 349Other uses
 351the macros in desCode.h would be very useful for putting inline des
 352functions in more complicated encryption routines.
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