linux/Documentation/devices.txt
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   1
   2                    LINUX ALLOCATED DEVICES (2.6+ version)
   3
   4             Maintained by Alan Cox <device@lanana.org>
   5
   6                      Last revised: 6th April 2009
   7
   8This list is the Linux Device List, the official registry of allocated
   9device numbers and /dev directory nodes for the Linux operating
  10system.
  11
  12The latest version of this list is available from
  13http://www.lanana.org/docs/device-list/ or
  14ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/docs/device-list/.  This version may be
  15newer than the one distributed with the Linux kernel.
  16
  17The LaTeX version of this document is no longer maintained.
  18
  19This document is included by reference into the Filesystem Hierarchy
  20Standard (FHS).  The FHS is available from http://www.pathname.com/fhs/.
  21
  22Allocations marked (68k/Amiga) apply to Linux/68k on the Amiga
  23platform only.  Allocations marked (68k/Atari) apply to Linux/68k on
  24the Atari platform only.
  25
  26The symbol {2.6} means the allocation is obsolete and scheduled for
  27removal once kernel version 2.6 (or equivalent) is released. Some of these
  28allocations have already been removed.
  29
  30This document is in the public domain.  The author requests, however,
  31that semantically altered versions are not distributed without
  32permission of the author, assuming the author can be contacted without
  33an unreasonable effort.
  34
  35In particular, please don't sent patches for this list to Linus, at
  36least not without contacting me first.
  37
  38I do not have any information about these devices beyond what appears
  39on this list.  Any such information requests will be deleted without
  40reply.
  41
  42
  43          **** DEVICE DRIVERS AUTHORS PLEASE READ THIS ****
  44
  45To have a major number allocated, or a minor number in situations
  46where that applies (e.g. busmice), please contact me with the
  47appropriate device information.  Also, if you have additional
  48information regarding any of the devices listed below, or if I have
  49made a mistake, I would greatly appreciate a note.
  50
  51I do, however, make a few requests about the nature of your report.
  52This is necessary for me to be able to keep this list up to date and
  53correct in a timely manner.  First of all, *please* send it to the
  54correct address... <device@lanana.org>.  I receive hundreds of email
  55messages a day, so mail sent to other addresses may very well get lost
  56in the avalanche.  Please put in a descriptive subject, so I can find
  57your mail again should I need to.  Too many people send me email
  58saying just "device number request" in the subject.
  59
  60Second, please include a description of the device *in the same format
  61as this list*.  The reason for this is that it is the only way I have
  62found to ensure I have all the requisite information to publish your
  63device and avoid conflicts.
  64
  65Third, please don't assume that the distributed version of the list is
  66up to date.  Due to the number of registrations I have to maintain it
  67in "batch mode", so there is likely additional registrations that
  68haven't been listed yet.
  69
  70Fourth, remember that Linux now has extensive support for dynamic allocation
  71of device numbering and can use sysfs and udev to handle the naming needs.
  72There are still some exceptions in the serial and boot device area. Before
  73asking for a device number make sure you actually need one.
  74
  75Finally, sometimes I have to play "namespace police."  Please don't be
  76offended.  I often get submissions for /dev names that would be bound
  77to cause conflicts down the road.  I am trying to avoid getting in a
  78situation where we would have to suffer an incompatible forward
  79change.  Therefore, please consult with me *before* you make your
  80device names and numbers in any way public, at least to the point
  81where it would be at all difficult to get them changed.
  82
  83Your cooperation is appreciated.
  84
  85
  86  0             Unnamed devices (e.g. non-device mounts)
  87                  0 = reserved as null device number
  88                See block major 144, 145, 146 for expansion areas.
  89
  90  1 char        Memory devices
  91                  1 = /dev/mem          Physical memory access
  92                  2 = /dev/kmem         Kernel virtual memory access
  93                  3 = /dev/null         Null device
  94                  4 = /dev/port         I/O port access
  95                  5 = /dev/zero         Null byte source
  96                  6 = /dev/core         OBSOLETE - replaced by /proc/kcore
  97                  7 = /dev/full         Returns ENOSPC on write
  98                  8 = /dev/random       Nondeterministic random number gen.
  99                  9 = /dev/urandom      Faster, less secure random number gen.
 100                 10 = /dev/aio          Asynchronous I/O notification interface
 101                 11 = /dev/kmsg         Writes to this come out as printk's, reads
 102                                        export the buffered printk records.
 103                 12 = /dev/oldmem       Used by crashdump kernels to access
 104                                        the memory of the kernel that crashed.
 105
 106  1 block       RAM disk
 107                  0 = /dev/ram0         First RAM disk
 108                  1 = /dev/ram1         Second RAM disk
 109                    ...
 110                250 = /dev/initrd       Initial RAM disk
 111
 112                Older kernels had /dev/ramdisk (1, 1) here.
 113                /dev/initrd refers to a RAM disk which was preloaded
 114                by the boot loader; newer kernels use /dev/ram0 for
 115                the initrd.
 116
 117  2 char        Pseudo-TTY masters
 118                  0 = /dev/ptyp0        First PTY master
 119                  1 = /dev/ptyp1        Second PTY master
 120                    ...
 121                255 = /dev/ptyef        256th PTY master
 122
 123                Pseudo-tty's are named as follows:
 124                * Masters are "pty", slaves are "tty";
 125                * the fourth letter is one of pqrstuvwxyzabcde indicating
 126                  the 1st through 16th series of 16 pseudo-ttys each, and
 127                * the fifth letter is one of 0123456789abcdef indicating
 128                  the position within the series.
 129
 130                These are the old-style (BSD) PTY devices; Unix98
 131                devices are on major 128 and above and use the PTY
 132                master multiplex (/dev/ptmx) to acquire a PTY on
 133                demand.
 134
 135  2 block       Floppy disks
 136                  0 = /dev/fd0          Controller 0, drive 0, autodetect
 137                  1 = /dev/fd1          Controller 0, drive 1, autodetect
 138                  2 = /dev/fd2          Controller 0, drive 2, autodetect
 139                  3 = /dev/fd3          Controller 0, drive 3, autodetect
 140                128 = /dev/fd4          Controller 1, drive 0, autodetect
 141                129 = /dev/fd5          Controller 1, drive 1, autodetect
 142                130 = /dev/fd6          Controller 1, drive 2, autodetect
 143                131 = /dev/fd7          Controller 1, drive 3, autodetect
 144
 145                To specify format, add to the autodetect device number:
 146                  0 = /dev/fd?          Autodetect format
 147                  4 = /dev/fd?d360      5.25"  360K in a 360K  drive(1)
 148                 20 = /dev/fd?h360      5.25"  360K in a 1200K drive(1)
 149                 48 = /dev/fd?h410      5.25"  410K in a 1200K drive
 150                 64 = /dev/fd?h420      5.25"  420K in a 1200K drive
 151                 24 = /dev/fd?h720      5.25"  720K in a 1200K drive
 152                 80 = /dev/fd?h880      5.25"  880K in a 1200K drive(1)
 153                  8 = /dev/fd?h1200     5.25" 1200K in a 1200K drive(1)
 154                 40 = /dev/fd?h1440     5.25" 1440K in a 1200K drive(1)
 155                 56 = /dev/fd?h1476     5.25" 1476K in a 1200K drive
 156                 72 = /dev/fd?h1494     5.25" 1494K in a 1200K drive
 157                 92 = /dev/fd?h1600     5.25" 1600K in a 1200K drive(1)
 158
 159                 12 = /dev/fd?u360      3.5"   360K Double Density(2)
 160                 16 = /dev/fd?u720      3.5"   720K Double Density(1)
 161                120 = /dev/fd?u800      3.5"   800K Double Density(2)
 162                 52 = /dev/fd?u820      3.5"   820K Double Density
 163                 68 = /dev/fd?u830      3.5"   830K Double Density
 164                 84 = /dev/fd?u1040     3.5"  1040K Double Density(1)
 165                 88 = /dev/fd?u1120     3.5"  1120K Double Density(1)
 166                 28 = /dev/fd?u1440     3.5"  1440K High Density(1)
 167                124 = /dev/fd?u1600     3.5"  1600K High Density(1)
 168                 44 = /dev/fd?u1680     3.5"  1680K High Density(3)
 169                 60 = /dev/fd?u1722     3.5"  1722K High Density
 170                 76 = /dev/fd?u1743     3.5"  1743K High Density
 171                 96 = /dev/fd?u1760     3.5"  1760K High Density
 172                116 = /dev/fd?u1840     3.5"  1840K High Density(3)
 173                100 = /dev/fd?u1920     3.5"  1920K High Density(1)
 174                 32 = /dev/fd?u2880     3.5"  2880K Extra Density(1)
 175                104 = /dev/fd?u3200     3.5"  3200K Extra Density
 176                108 = /dev/fd?u3520     3.5"  3520K Extra Density
 177                112 = /dev/fd?u3840     3.5"  3840K Extra Density(1)
 178
 179                 36 = /dev/fd?CompaQ    Compaq 2880K drive; obsolete?
 180
 181                (1) Autodetectable format
 182                (2) Autodetectable format in a Double Density (720K) drive only
 183                (3) Autodetectable format in a High Density (1440K) drive only
 184
 185                NOTE: The letter in the device name (d, q, h or u)
 186                signifies the type of drive: 5.25" Double Density (d),
 187                5.25" Quad Density (q), 5.25" High Density (h) or 3.5"
 188                (any model, u).  The use of the capital letters D, H
 189                and E for the 3.5" models have been deprecated, since
 190                the drive type is insignificant for these devices.
 191
 192  3 char        Pseudo-TTY slaves
 193                  0 = /dev/ttyp0        First PTY slave
 194                  1 = /dev/ttyp1        Second PTY slave
 195                    ...
 196                255 = /dev/ttyef        256th PTY slave
 197
 198                These are the old-style (BSD) PTY devices; Unix98
 199                devices are on major 136 and above.
 200
 201  3 block       First MFM, RLL and IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
 202                  0 = /dev/hda          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 203                 64 = /dev/hdb          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 204
 205                For partitions, add to the whole disk device number:
 206                  0 = /dev/hd?          Whole disk
 207                  1 = /dev/hd?1         First partition
 208                  2 = /dev/hd?2         Second partition
 209                    ...
 210                 63 = /dev/hd?63        63rd partition
 211
 212                For Linux/i386, partitions 1-4 are the primary
 213                partitions, and 5 and above are logical partitions.
 214                Other versions of Linux use partitioning schemes
 215                appropriate to their respective architectures.
 216
 217  4 char        TTY devices
 218                  0 = /dev/tty0         Current virtual console
 219
 220                  1 = /dev/tty1         First virtual console
 221                    ...
 222                 63 = /dev/tty63        63rd virtual console
 223                 64 = /dev/ttyS0        First UART serial port
 224                    ...
 225                255 = /dev/ttyS191      192nd UART serial port
 226
 227                UART serial ports refer to 8250/16450/16550 series devices.
 228
 229                Older versions of the Linux kernel used this major
 230                number for BSD PTY devices.  As of Linux 2.1.115, this
 231                is no longer supported.  Use major numbers 2 and 3.
 232
 233  4 block       Aliases for dynamically allocated major devices to be used
 234                when its not possible to create the real device nodes
 235                because the root filesystem is mounted read-only.
 236
 237                  0 = /dev/root
 238
 239  5 char        Alternate TTY devices
 240                  0 = /dev/tty          Current TTY device
 241                  1 = /dev/console      System console
 242                  2 = /dev/ptmx         PTY master multiplex
 243                  3 = /dev/ttyprintk    User messages via printk TTY device
 244                 64 = /dev/cua0         Callout device for ttyS0
 245                    ...
 246                255 = /dev/cua191       Callout device for ttyS191
 247
 248                (5,1) is /dev/console starting with Linux 2.1.71.  See
 249                the section on terminal devices for more information
 250                on /dev/console.
 251
 252  6 char        Parallel printer devices
 253                  0 = /dev/lp0          Parallel printer on parport0
 254                  1 = /dev/lp1          Parallel printer on parport1
 255                    ...
 256
 257                Current Linux kernels no longer have a fixed mapping
 258                between parallel ports and I/O addresses.  Instead,
 259                they are redirected through the parport multiplex layer.
 260
 261  7 char        Virtual console capture devices
 262                  0 = /dev/vcs          Current vc text contents
 263                  1 = /dev/vcs1         tty1 text contents
 264                    ...
 265                 63 = /dev/vcs63        tty63 text contents
 266                128 = /dev/vcsa         Current vc text/attribute contents
 267                129 = /dev/vcsa1        tty1 text/attribute contents
 268                    ...
 269                191 = /dev/vcsa63       tty63 text/attribute contents
 270
 271                NOTE: These devices permit both read and write access.
 272
 273  7 block       Loopback devices
 274                  0 = /dev/loop0        First loop device
 275                  1 = /dev/loop1        Second loop device
 276                    ...
 277
 278                The loop devices are used to mount filesystems not
 279                associated with block devices.  The binding to the
 280                loop devices is handled by mount(8) or losetup(8).
 281
 282  8 block       SCSI disk devices (0-15)
 283                  0 = /dev/sda          First SCSI disk whole disk
 284                 16 = /dev/sdb          Second SCSI disk whole disk
 285                 32 = /dev/sdc          Third SCSI disk whole disk
 286                    ...
 287                240 = /dev/sdp          Sixteenth SCSI disk whole disk
 288
 289                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
 290                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
 291                partitions is 15.
 292
 293  9 char        SCSI tape devices
 294                  0 = /dev/st0          First SCSI tape, mode 0
 295                  1 = /dev/st1          Second SCSI tape, mode 0
 296                    ...
 297                 32 = /dev/st0l         First SCSI tape, mode 1
 298                 33 = /dev/st1l         Second SCSI tape, mode 1
 299                    ...
 300                 64 = /dev/st0m         First SCSI tape, mode 2
 301                 65 = /dev/st1m         Second SCSI tape, mode 2
 302                    ...
 303                 96 = /dev/st0a         First SCSI tape, mode 3
 304                 97 = /dev/st1a         Second SCSI tape, mode 3
 305                      ...
 306                128 = /dev/nst0         First SCSI tape, mode 0, no rewind
 307                129 = /dev/nst1         Second SCSI tape, mode 0, no rewind
 308                    ...
 309                160 = /dev/nst0l        First SCSI tape, mode 1, no rewind
 310                161 = /dev/nst1l        Second SCSI tape, mode 1, no rewind
 311                    ...
 312                192 = /dev/nst0m        First SCSI tape, mode 2, no rewind
 313                193 = /dev/nst1m        Second SCSI tape, mode 2, no rewind
 314                    ...
 315                224 = /dev/nst0a        First SCSI tape, mode 3, no rewind
 316                225 = /dev/nst1a        Second SCSI tape, mode 3, no rewind
 317                    ...
 318
 319                "No rewind" refers to the omission of the default
 320                automatic rewind on device close.  The MTREW or MTOFFL
 321                ioctl()'s can be used to rewind the tape regardless of
 322                the device used to access it.
 323
 324  9 block       Metadisk (RAID) devices
 325                  0 = /dev/md0          First metadisk group
 326                  1 = /dev/md1          Second metadisk group
 327                    ...
 328
 329                The metadisk driver is used to span a
 330                filesystem across multiple physical disks.
 331
 332 10 char        Non-serial mice, misc features
 333                  0 = /dev/logibm       Logitech bus mouse
 334                  1 = /dev/psaux        PS/2-style mouse port
 335                  2 = /dev/inportbm     Microsoft Inport bus mouse
 336                  3 = /dev/atibm        ATI XL bus mouse
 337                  4 = /dev/jbm          J-mouse
 338                  4 = /dev/amigamouse   Amiga mouse (68k/Amiga)
 339                  5 = /dev/atarimouse   Atari mouse
 340                  6 = /dev/sunmouse     Sun mouse
 341                  7 = /dev/amigamouse1  Second Amiga mouse
 342                  8 = /dev/smouse       Simple serial mouse driver
 343                  9 = /dev/pc110pad     IBM PC-110 digitizer pad
 344                 10 = /dev/adbmouse     Apple Desktop Bus mouse
 345                 11 = /dev/vrtpanel     Vr41xx embedded touch panel
 346                 13 = /dev/vpcmouse     Connectix Virtual PC Mouse
 347                 14 = /dev/touchscreen/ucb1x00  UCB 1x00 touchscreen
 348                 15 = /dev/touchscreen/mk712    MK712 touchscreen
 349                128 = /dev/beep         Fancy beep device
 350                129 =
 351                130 = /dev/watchdog     Watchdog timer port
 352                131 = /dev/temperature  Machine internal temperature
 353                132 = /dev/hwtrap       Hardware fault trap
 354                133 = /dev/exttrp       External device trap
 355                134 = /dev/apm_bios     Advanced Power Management BIOS
 356                135 = /dev/rtc          Real Time Clock
 357                139 = /dev/openprom     SPARC OpenBoot PROM
 358                140 = /dev/relay8       Berkshire Products Octal relay card
 359                141 = /dev/relay16      Berkshire Products ISO-16 relay card
 360                142 =
 361                143 = /dev/pciconf      PCI configuration space
 362                144 = /dev/nvram        Non-volatile configuration RAM
 363                145 = /dev/hfmodem      Soundcard shortwave modem control
 364                146 = /dev/graphics     Linux/SGI graphics device
 365                147 = /dev/opengl       Linux/SGI OpenGL pipe
 366                148 = /dev/gfx          Linux/SGI graphics effects device
 367                149 = /dev/input/mouse  Linux/SGI Irix emulation mouse
 368                150 = /dev/input/keyboard Linux/SGI Irix emulation keyboard
 369                151 = /dev/led          Front panel LEDs
 370                152 = /dev/kpoll        Kernel Poll Driver
 371                153 = /dev/mergemem     Memory merge device
 372                154 = /dev/pmu          Macintosh PowerBook power manager
 373                155 = /dev/isictl       MultiTech ISICom serial control
 374                156 = /dev/lcd          Front panel LCD display
 375                157 = /dev/ac           Applicom Intl Profibus card
 376                158 = /dev/nwbutton     Netwinder external button
 377                159 = /dev/nwdebug      Netwinder debug interface
 378                160 = /dev/nwflash      Netwinder flash memory
 379                161 = /dev/userdma      User-space DMA access
 380                162 = /dev/smbus        System Management Bus
 381                163 = /dev/lik          Logitech Internet Keyboard
 382                164 = /dev/ipmo         Intel Intelligent Platform Management
 383                165 = /dev/vmmon        VMware virtual machine monitor
 384                166 = /dev/i2o/ctl      I2O configuration manager
 385                167 = /dev/specialix_sxctl Specialix serial control
 386                168 = /dev/tcldrv       Technology Concepts serial control
 387                169 = /dev/specialix_rioctl Specialix RIO serial control
 388                170 = /dev/thinkpad/thinkpad    IBM Thinkpad devices
 389                171 = /dev/srripc       QNX4 API IPC manager
 390                172 = /dev/usemaclone   Semaphore clone device
 391                173 = /dev/ipmikcs      Intelligent Platform Management
 392                174 = /dev/uctrl        SPARCbook 3 microcontroller
 393                175 = /dev/agpgart      AGP Graphics Address Remapping Table
 394                176 = /dev/gtrsc        Gorgy Timing radio clock
 395                177 = /dev/cbm          Serial CBM bus
 396                178 = /dev/jsflash      JavaStation OS flash SIMM
 397                179 = /dev/xsvc         High-speed shared-mem/semaphore service
 398                180 = /dev/vrbuttons    Vr41xx button input device
 399                181 = /dev/toshiba      Toshiba laptop SMM support
 400                182 = /dev/perfctr      Performance-monitoring counters
 401                183 = /dev/hwrng        Generic random number generator
 402                184 = /dev/cpu/microcode CPU microcode update interface
 403                186 = /dev/atomicps     Atomic shapshot of process state data
 404                187 = /dev/irnet        IrNET device
 405                188 = /dev/smbusbios    SMBus BIOS
 406                189 = /dev/ussp_ctl     User space serial port control
 407                190 = /dev/crash        Mission Critical Linux crash dump facility
 408                191 = /dev/pcl181       <information missing>
 409                192 = /dev/nas_xbus     NAS xbus LCD/buttons access
 410                193 = /dev/d7s          SPARC 7-segment display
 411                194 = /dev/zkshim       Zero-Knowledge network shim control
 412                195 = /dev/elographics/e2201    Elographics touchscreen E271-2201
 413                198 = /dev/sexec        Signed executable interface
 414                199 = /dev/scanners/cuecat :CueCat barcode scanner
 415                200 = /dev/net/tun      TAP/TUN network device
 416                201 = /dev/button/gulpb Transmeta GULP-B buttons
 417                202 = /dev/emd/ctl      Enhanced Metadisk RAID (EMD) control
 418                204 = /dev/video/em8300         EM8300 DVD decoder control
 419                205 = /dev/video/em8300_mv      EM8300 DVD decoder video
 420                206 = /dev/video/em8300_ma      EM8300 DVD decoder audio
 421                207 = /dev/video/em8300_sp      EM8300 DVD decoder subpicture
 422                208 = /dev/compaq/cpqphpc       Compaq PCI Hot Plug Controller
 423                209 = /dev/compaq/cpqrid        Compaq Remote Insight Driver
 424                210 = /dev/impi/bt      IMPI coprocessor block transfer
 425                211 = /dev/impi/smic    IMPI coprocessor stream interface
 426                212 = /dev/watchdogs/0  First watchdog device
 427                213 = /dev/watchdogs/1  Second watchdog device
 428                214 = /dev/watchdogs/2  Third watchdog device
 429                215 = /dev/watchdogs/3  Fourth watchdog device
 430                216 = /dev/fujitsu/apanel       Fujitsu/Siemens application panel
 431                217 = /dev/ni/natmotn           National Instruments Motion
 432                218 = /dev/kchuid       Inter-process chuid control
 433                219 = /dev/modems/mwave MWave modem firmware upload
 434                220 = /dev/mptctl       Message passing technology (MPT) control
 435                221 = /dev/mvista/hssdsi        Montavista PICMG hot swap system driver
 436                222 = /dev/mvista/hasi          Montavista PICMG high availability
 437                223 = /dev/input/uinput         User level driver support for input
 438                224 = /dev/tpm          TCPA TPM driver
 439                225 = /dev/pps          Pulse Per Second driver
 440                226 = /dev/systrace     Systrace device
 441                227 = /dev/mcelog       X86_64 Machine Check Exception driver
 442                228 = /dev/hpet         HPET driver
 443                229 = /dev/fuse         Fuse (virtual filesystem in user-space)
 444                230 = /dev/midishare    MidiShare driver
 445                231 = /dev/snapshot     System memory snapshot device
 446                232 = /dev/kvm          Kernel-based virtual machine (hardware virtualization extensions)
 447                233 = /dev/kmview       View-OS A process with a view
 448                234 = /dev/btrfs-control        Btrfs control device
 449                235 = /dev/autofs       Autofs control device
 450                236 = /dev/mapper/control       Device-Mapper control device
 451                237 = /dev/loop-control Loopback control device
 452                238 = /dev/vhost-net    Host kernel accelerator for virtio net
 453
 454                240-254                 Reserved for local use
 455                255                     Reserved for MISC_DYNAMIC_MINOR
 456
 457 11 char        Raw keyboard device     (Linux/SPARC only)
 458                  0 = /dev/kbd          Raw keyboard device
 459
 460 11 char        Serial Mux device       (Linux/PA-RISC only)
 461                  0 = /dev/ttyB0        First mux port
 462                  1 = /dev/ttyB1        Second mux port
 463                    ...
 464
 465 11 block       SCSI CD-ROM devices
 466                  0 = /dev/scd0         First SCSI CD-ROM
 467                  1 = /dev/scd1         Second SCSI CD-ROM
 468                    ...
 469
 470                The prefix /dev/sr (instead of /dev/scd) has been deprecated.
 471
 472 12 char        QIC-02 tape
 473                  2 = /dev/ntpqic11     QIC-11, no rewind-on-close
 474                  3 = /dev/tpqic11      QIC-11, rewind-on-close
 475                  4 = /dev/ntpqic24     QIC-24, no rewind-on-close
 476                  5 = /dev/tpqic24      QIC-24, rewind-on-close
 477                  6 = /dev/ntpqic120    QIC-120, no rewind-on-close
 478                  7 = /dev/tpqic120     QIC-120, rewind-on-close
 479                  8 = /dev/ntpqic150    QIC-150, no rewind-on-close
 480                  9 = /dev/tpqic150     QIC-150, rewind-on-close
 481
 482                The device names specified are proposed -- if there
 483                are "standard" names for these devices, please let me know.
 484
 485 12 block
 486
 487 13 char        Input core
 488                  0 = /dev/input/js0    First joystick
 489                  1 = /dev/input/js1    Second joystick
 490                    ...
 491                 32 = /dev/input/mouse0 First mouse
 492                 33 = /dev/input/mouse1 Second mouse
 493                    ...
 494                 63 = /dev/input/mice   Unified mouse
 495                 64 = /dev/input/event0 First event queue
 496                 65 = /dev/input/event1 Second event queue
 497                    ...
 498
 499                Each device type has 5 bits (32 minors).
 500
 501 13 block       8-bit MFM/RLL/IDE controller
 502                  0 = /dev/xda          First XT disk whole disk
 503                 64 = /dev/xdb          Second XT disk whole disk
 504
 505                Partitions are handled in the same way as IDE disks
 506                (see major number 3).
 507
 508 14 char        Open Sound System (OSS)
 509                  0 = /dev/mixer        Mixer control
 510                  1 = /dev/sequencer    Audio sequencer
 511                  2 = /dev/midi00       First MIDI port
 512                  3 = /dev/dsp          Digital audio
 513                  4 = /dev/audio        Sun-compatible digital audio
 514                  6 =
 515                  7 = /dev/audioctl     SPARC audio control device
 516                  8 = /dev/sequencer2   Sequencer -- alternate device
 517                 16 = /dev/mixer1       Second soundcard mixer control
 518                 17 = /dev/patmgr0      Sequencer patch manager
 519                 18 = /dev/midi01       Second MIDI port
 520                 19 = /dev/dsp1         Second soundcard digital audio
 521                 20 = /dev/audio1       Second soundcard Sun digital audio
 522                 33 = /dev/patmgr1      Sequencer patch manager
 523                 34 = /dev/midi02       Third MIDI port
 524                 50 = /dev/midi03       Fourth MIDI port
 525
 526 14 block
 527
 528 15 char        Joystick
 529                  0 = /dev/js0          First analog joystick
 530                  1 = /dev/js1          Second analog joystick
 531                    ...
 532                128 = /dev/djs0         First digital joystick
 533                129 = /dev/djs1         Second digital joystick
 534                    ...
 535 15 block       Sony CDU-31A/CDU-33A CD-ROM
 536                  0 = /dev/sonycd       Sony CDU-31a CD-ROM
 537
 538 16 char        Non-SCSI scanners
 539                  0 = /dev/gs4500       Genius 4500 handheld scanner
 540
 541 16 block       GoldStar CD-ROM
 542                  0 = /dev/gscd         GoldStar CD-ROM
 543
 544 17 char        OBSOLETE (was Chase serial card)
 545                  0 = /dev/ttyH0        First Chase port
 546                  1 = /dev/ttyH1        Second Chase port
 547                    ...
 548 17 block       Optics Storage CD-ROM
 549                  0 = /dev/optcd        Optics Storage CD-ROM
 550
 551 18 char        OBSOLETE (was Chase serial card - alternate devices)
 552                  0 = /dev/cuh0         Callout device for ttyH0
 553                  1 = /dev/cuh1         Callout device for ttyH1
 554                    ...
 555 18 block       Sanyo CD-ROM
 556                  0 = /dev/sjcd         Sanyo CD-ROM
 557
 558 19 char        Cyclades serial card
 559                  0 = /dev/ttyC0        First Cyclades port
 560                    ...
 561                 31 = /dev/ttyC31       32nd Cyclades port
 562
 563 19 block       "Double" compressed disk
 564                  0 = /dev/double0      First compressed disk
 565                    ...
 566                  7 = /dev/double7      Eighth compressed disk
 567                128 = /dev/cdouble0     Mirror of first compressed disk
 568                    ...
 569                135 = /dev/cdouble7     Mirror of eighth compressed disk
 570
 571                See the Double documentation for the meaning of the
 572                mirror devices.
 573
 574 20 char        Cyclades serial card - alternate devices
 575                  0 = /dev/cub0         Callout device for ttyC0
 576                    ...
 577                 31 = /dev/cub31        Callout device for ttyC31
 578
 579 20 block       Hitachi CD-ROM (under development)
 580                  0 = /dev/hitcd        Hitachi CD-ROM
 581
 582 21 char        Generic SCSI access
 583                  0 = /dev/sg0          First generic SCSI device
 584                  1 = /dev/sg1          Second generic SCSI device
 585                    ...
 586
 587                Most distributions name these /dev/sga, /dev/sgb...;
 588                this sets an unnecessary limit of 26 SCSI devices in
 589                the system and is counter to standard Linux
 590                device-naming practice.
 591
 592 21 block       Acorn MFM hard drive interface
 593                  0 = /dev/mfma         First MFM drive whole disk
 594                 64 = /dev/mfmb         Second MFM drive whole disk
 595
 596                This device is used on the ARM-based Acorn RiscPC.
 597                Partitions are handled the same way as for IDE disks
 598                (see major number 3).
 599
 600 22 char        Digiboard serial card
 601                  0 = /dev/ttyD0        First Digiboard port
 602                  1 = /dev/ttyD1        Second Digiboard port
 603                    ...
 604 22 block       Second IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
 605                  0 = /dev/hdc          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 606                 64 = /dev/hdd          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 607
 608                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
 609                interface (see major number 3).
 610
 611 23 char        Digiboard serial card - alternate devices
 612                  0 = /dev/cud0         Callout device for ttyD0
 613                  1 = /dev/cud1         Callout device for ttyD1
 614                      ...
 615 23 block       Mitsumi proprietary CD-ROM
 616                  0 = /dev/mcd          Mitsumi CD-ROM
 617
 618 24 char        Stallion serial card
 619                  0 = /dev/ttyE0        Stallion port 0 card 0
 620                  1 = /dev/ttyE1        Stallion port 1 card 0
 621                    ...
 622                 64 = /dev/ttyE64       Stallion port 0 card 1
 623                 65 = /dev/ttyE65       Stallion port 1 card 1
 624                      ...
 625                128 = /dev/ttyE128      Stallion port 0 card 2
 626                129 = /dev/ttyE129      Stallion port 1 card 2
 627                    ...
 628                192 = /dev/ttyE192      Stallion port 0 card 3
 629                193 = /dev/ttyE193      Stallion port 1 card 3
 630                    ...
 631 24 block       Sony CDU-535 CD-ROM
 632                  0 = /dev/cdu535       Sony CDU-535 CD-ROM
 633
 634 25 char        Stallion serial card - alternate devices
 635                  0 = /dev/cue0         Callout device for ttyE0
 636                  1 = /dev/cue1         Callout device for ttyE1
 637                    ...
 638                 64 = /dev/cue64        Callout device for ttyE64
 639                 65 = /dev/cue65        Callout device for ttyE65
 640                    ...
 641                128 = /dev/cue128       Callout device for ttyE128
 642                129 = /dev/cue129       Callout device for ttyE129
 643                    ...
 644                192 = /dev/cue192       Callout device for ttyE192
 645                193 = /dev/cue193       Callout device for ttyE193
 646                      ...
 647 25 block       First Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM
 648                  0 = /dev/sbpcd0       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 0 unit 0
 649                  1 = /dev/sbpcd1       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 0 unit 1
 650                  2 = /dev/sbpcd2       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 0 unit 2
 651                  3 = /dev/sbpcd3       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 0 unit 3
 652
 653 26 char
 654
 655 26 block       Second Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM
 656                  0 = /dev/sbpcd4       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 1 unit 0
 657                  1 = /dev/sbpcd5       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 1 unit 1
 658                  2 = /dev/sbpcd6       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 1 unit 2
 659                  3 = /dev/sbpcd7       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 1 unit 3
 660
 661 27 char        QIC-117 tape
 662                  0 = /dev/qft0         Unit 0, rewind-on-close
 663                  1 = /dev/qft1         Unit 1, rewind-on-close
 664                  2 = /dev/qft2         Unit 2, rewind-on-close
 665                  3 = /dev/qft3         Unit 3, rewind-on-close
 666                  4 = /dev/nqft0        Unit 0, no rewind-on-close
 667                  5 = /dev/nqft1        Unit 1, no rewind-on-close
 668                  6 = /dev/nqft2        Unit 2, no rewind-on-close
 669                  7 = /dev/nqft3        Unit 3, no rewind-on-close
 670                 16 = /dev/zqft0        Unit 0, rewind-on-close, compression
 671                 17 = /dev/zqft1        Unit 1, rewind-on-close, compression
 672                 18 = /dev/zqft2        Unit 2, rewind-on-close, compression
 673                 19 = /dev/zqft3        Unit 3, rewind-on-close, compression
 674                 20 = /dev/nzqft0       Unit 0, no rewind-on-close, compression
 675                 21 = /dev/nzqft1       Unit 1, no rewind-on-close, compression
 676                 22 = /dev/nzqft2       Unit 2, no rewind-on-close, compression
 677                 23 = /dev/nzqft3       Unit 3, no rewind-on-close, compression
 678                 32 = /dev/rawqft0      Unit 0, rewind-on-close, no file marks
 679                 33 = /dev/rawqft1      Unit 1, rewind-on-close, no file marks
 680                 34 = /dev/rawqft2      Unit 2, rewind-on-close, no file marks
 681                 35 = /dev/rawqft3      Unit 3, rewind-on-close, no file marks
 682                 36 = /dev/nrawqft0     Unit 0, no rewind-on-close, no file marks
 683                 37 = /dev/nrawqft1     Unit 1, no rewind-on-close, no file marks
 684                 38 = /dev/nrawqft2     Unit 2, no rewind-on-close, no file marks
 685                 39 = /dev/nrawqft3     Unit 3, no rewind-on-close, no file marks
 686
 687 27 block       Third Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM
 688                  0 = /dev/sbpcd8       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 2 unit 0
 689                  1 = /dev/sbpcd9       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 2 unit 1
 690                  2 = /dev/sbpcd10      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 2 unit 2
 691                  3 = /dev/sbpcd11      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 2 unit 3
 692
 693 28 char        Stallion serial card - card programming
 694                  0 = /dev/staliomem0   First Stallion card I/O memory
 695                  1 = /dev/staliomem1   Second Stallion card I/O memory
 696                  2 = /dev/staliomem2   Third Stallion card I/O memory
 697                  3 = /dev/staliomem3   Fourth Stallion card I/O memory
 698
 699 28 char        Atari SLM ACSI laser printer (68k/Atari)
 700                  0 = /dev/slm0         First SLM laser printer
 701                  1 = /dev/slm1         Second SLM laser printer
 702                    ...
 703 28 block       Fourth Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM
 704                  0 = /dev/sbpcd12      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 3 unit 0
 705                  1 = /dev/sbpcd13      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 3 unit 1
 706                  2 = /dev/sbpcd14      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 3 unit 2
 707                  3 = /dev/sbpcd15      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 3 unit 3
 708
 709 28 block       ACSI disk (68k/Atari)
 710                  0 = /dev/ada          First ACSI disk whole disk
 711                 16 = /dev/adb          Second ACSI disk whole disk
 712                 32 = /dev/adc          Third ACSI disk whole disk
 713                    ...
 714                240 = /dev/adp          16th ACSI disk whole disk
 715
 716                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
 717                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
 718                partitions is 15, like SCSI.
 719
 720 29 char        Universal frame buffer
 721                  0 = /dev/fb0          First frame buffer
 722                  1 = /dev/fb1          Second frame buffer
 723                    ...
 724                 31 = /dev/fb31         32nd frame buffer
 725
 726 29 block       Aztech/Orchid/Okano/Wearnes CD-ROM
 727                  0 = /dev/aztcd        Aztech CD-ROM
 728
 729 30 char        iBCS-2 compatibility devices
 730                  0 = /dev/socksys      Socket access
 731                  1 = /dev/spx          SVR3 local X interface
 732                 32 = /dev/inet/ip      Network access
 733                 33 = /dev/inet/icmp
 734                 34 = /dev/inet/ggp
 735                 35 = /dev/inet/ipip
 736                 36 = /dev/inet/tcp
 737                 37 = /dev/inet/egp
 738                 38 = /dev/inet/pup
 739                 39 = /dev/inet/udp
 740                 40 = /dev/inet/idp
 741                 41 = /dev/inet/rawip
 742
 743                Additionally, iBCS-2 requires the following links:
 744
 745                /dev/ip -> /dev/inet/ip
 746                /dev/icmp -> /dev/inet/icmp
 747                /dev/ggp -> /dev/inet/ggp
 748                /dev/ipip -> /dev/inet/ipip
 749                /dev/tcp -> /dev/inet/tcp
 750                /dev/egp -> /dev/inet/egp
 751                /dev/pup -> /dev/inet/pup
 752                /dev/udp -> /dev/inet/udp
 753                /dev/idp -> /dev/inet/idp
 754                /dev/rawip -> /dev/inet/rawip
 755                /dev/inet/arp -> /dev/inet/udp
 756                /dev/inet/rip -> /dev/inet/udp
 757                /dev/nfsd -> /dev/socksys
 758                /dev/X0R -> /dev/null (? apparently not required ?)
 759
 760 30 block       Philips LMS CM-205 CD-ROM
 761                  0 = /dev/cm205cd      Philips LMS CM-205 CD-ROM
 762
 763                /dev/lmscd is an older name for this device.  This
 764                driver does not work with the CM-205MS CD-ROM.
 765
 766 31 char        MPU-401 MIDI
 767                  0 = /dev/mpu401data   MPU-401 data port
 768                  1 = /dev/mpu401stat   MPU-401 status port
 769
 770 31 block       ROM/flash memory card
 771                  0 = /dev/rom0         First ROM card (rw)
 772                      ...
 773                  7 = /dev/rom7         Eighth ROM card (rw)
 774                  8 = /dev/rrom0        First ROM card (ro)
 775                    ...
 776                 15 = /dev/rrom7        Eighth ROM card (ro)
 777                 16 = /dev/flash0       First flash memory card (rw)
 778                    ...
 779                 23 = /dev/flash7       Eighth flash memory card (rw)
 780                 24 = /dev/rflash0      First flash memory card (ro)
 781                    ...
 782                 31 = /dev/rflash7      Eighth flash memory card (ro)
 783
 784                The read-write (rw) devices support back-caching
 785                written data in RAM, as well as writing to flash RAM
 786                devices.  The read-only devices (ro) support reading
 787                only.
 788
 789 32 char        Specialix serial card
 790                  0 = /dev/ttyX0        First Specialix port
 791                  1 = /dev/ttyX1        Second Specialix port
 792                    ...
 793 32 block       Philips LMS CM-206 CD-ROM
 794                  0 = /dev/cm206cd      Philips LMS CM-206 CD-ROM
 795
 796 33 char        Specialix serial card - alternate devices
 797                  0 = /dev/cux0         Callout device for ttyX0
 798                  1 = /dev/cux1         Callout device for ttyX1
 799                    ...
 800 33 block       Third IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
 801                  0 = /dev/hde          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 802                 64 = /dev/hdf          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 803
 804                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
 805                interface (see major number 3).
 806
 807 34 char        Z8530 HDLC driver
 808                  0 = /dev/scc0         First Z8530, first port
 809                  1 = /dev/scc1         First Z8530, second port
 810                  2 = /dev/scc2         Second Z8530, first port
 811                  3 = /dev/scc3         Second Z8530, second port
 812                    ...
 813
 814                In a previous version these devices were named
 815                /dev/sc1 for /dev/scc0, /dev/sc2 for /dev/scc1, and so
 816                on.
 817
 818 34 block       Fourth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
 819                  0 = /dev/hdg          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 820                 64 = /dev/hdh          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 821
 822                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
 823                interface (see major number 3).
 824
 825 35 char        tclmidi MIDI driver
 826                  0 = /dev/midi0        First MIDI port, kernel timed
 827                  1 = /dev/midi1        Second MIDI port, kernel timed
 828                  2 = /dev/midi2        Third MIDI port, kernel timed
 829                  3 = /dev/midi3        Fourth MIDI port, kernel timed
 830                 64 = /dev/rmidi0       First MIDI port, untimed
 831                 65 = /dev/rmidi1       Second MIDI port, untimed
 832                 66 = /dev/rmidi2       Third MIDI port, untimed
 833                 67 = /dev/rmidi3       Fourth MIDI port, untimed
 834                128 = /dev/smpte0       First MIDI port, SMPTE timed
 835                129 = /dev/smpte1       Second MIDI port, SMPTE timed
 836                130 = /dev/smpte2       Third MIDI port, SMPTE timed
 837                131 = /dev/smpte3       Fourth MIDI port, SMPTE timed
 838
 839 35 block       Slow memory ramdisk
 840                  0 = /dev/slram        Slow memory ramdisk
 841
 842 36 char        Netlink support
 843                  0 = /dev/route        Routing, device updates, kernel to user
 844                  1 = /dev/skip         enSKIP security cache control
 845                  3 = /dev/fwmonitor    Firewall packet copies
 846                 16 = /dev/tap0         First Ethertap device
 847                    ...
 848                 31 = /dev/tap15        16th Ethertap device
 849
 850 36 block       OBSOLETE (was MCA ESDI hard disk)
 851
 852 37 char        IDE tape
 853                  0 = /dev/ht0          First IDE tape
 854                  1 = /dev/ht1          Second IDE tape
 855                    ...
 856                128 = /dev/nht0         First IDE tape, no rewind-on-close
 857                129 = /dev/nht1         Second IDE tape, no rewind-on-close
 858                    ...
 859
 860                Currently, only one IDE tape drive is supported.
 861
 862 37 block       Zorro II ramdisk
 863                  0 = /dev/z2ram        Zorro II ramdisk
 864
 865 38 char        Myricom PCI Myrinet board
 866                  0 = /dev/mlanai0      First Myrinet board
 867                  1 = /dev/mlanai1      Second Myrinet board
 868                    ...
 869
 870                This device is used for status query, board control
 871                and "user level packet I/O."  This board is also
 872                accessible as a standard networking "eth" device.
 873
 874 38 block       OBSOLETE (was Linux/AP+)
 875
 876 39 char        ML-16P experimental I/O board
 877                  0 = /dev/ml16pa-a0    First card, first analog channel
 878                  1 = /dev/ml16pa-a1    First card, second analog channel
 879                    ...
 880                 15 = /dev/ml16pa-a15   First card, 16th analog channel
 881                 16 = /dev/ml16pa-d     First card, digital lines
 882                 17 = /dev/ml16pa-c0    First card, first counter/timer
 883                 18 = /dev/ml16pa-c1    First card, second counter/timer
 884                 19 = /dev/ml16pa-c2    First card, third counter/timer
 885                 32 = /dev/ml16pb-a0    Second card, first analog channel
 886                 33 = /dev/ml16pb-a1    Second card, second analog channel
 887                    ...
 888                 47 = /dev/ml16pb-a15   Second card, 16th analog channel
 889                 48 = /dev/ml16pb-d     Second card, digital lines
 890                 49 = /dev/ml16pb-c0    Second card, first counter/timer
 891                 50 = /dev/ml16pb-c1    Second card, second counter/timer
 892                 51 = /dev/ml16pb-c2    Second card, third counter/timer
 893                      ...
 894 39 block
 895
 896 40 char
 897
 898 40 block
 899
 900 41 char        Yet Another Micro Monitor
 901                  0 = /dev/yamm         Yet Another Micro Monitor
 902
 903 41 block
 904
 905 42 char        Demo/sample use
 906
 907 42 block       Demo/sample use
 908
 909                This number is intended for use in sample code, as
 910                well as a general "example" device number.  It
 911                should never be used for a device driver that is being
 912                distributed; either obtain an official number or use
 913                the local/experimental range.  The sudden addition or
 914                removal of a driver with this number should not cause
 915                ill effects to the system (bugs excepted.)
 916
 917                IN PARTICULAR, ANY DISTRIBUTION WHICH CONTAINS A
 918                DEVICE DRIVER USING MAJOR NUMBER 42 IS NONCOMPLIANT.
 919
 920 43 char        isdn4linux virtual modem
 921                  0 = /dev/ttyI0        First virtual modem
 922                    ...
 923                 63 = /dev/ttyI63       64th virtual modem
 924
 925 43 block       Network block devices
 926                  0 = /dev/nb0          First network block device
 927                  1 = /dev/nb1          Second network block device
 928                    ...
 929
 930                Network Block Device is somehow similar to loopback
 931                devices: If you read from it, it sends packet across
 932                network asking server for data. If you write to it, it
 933                sends packet telling server to write. It could be used
 934                to mounting filesystems over the net, swapping over
 935                the net, implementing block device in userland etc.
 936
 937 44 char        isdn4linux virtual modem - alternate devices
 938                  0 = /dev/cui0         Callout device for ttyI0
 939                    ...
 940                 63 = /dev/cui63        Callout device for ttyI63
 941
 942 44 block       Flash Translation Layer (FTL) filesystems
 943                  0 = /dev/ftla         FTL on first Memory Technology Device
 944                 16 = /dev/ftlb         FTL on second Memory Technology Device
 945                 32 = /dev/ftlc         FTL on third Memory Technology Device
 946                    ...
 947                240 = /dev/ftlp         FTL on 16th Memory Technology Device
 948
 949                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
 950                disks (see major number 3) except that the partition
 951                limit is 15 rather than 63 per disk (same as SCSI.)
 952
 953 45 char        isdn4linux ISDN BRI driver
 954                  0 = /dev/isdn0        First virtual B channel raw data
 955                    ...
 956                 63 = /dev/isdn63       64th virtual B channel raw data
 957                 64 = /dev/isdnctrl0    First channel control/debug
 958                    ...
 959                127 = /dev/isdnctrl63   64th channel control/debug
 960
 961                128 = /dev/ippp0        First SyncPPP device
 962                    ...
 963                191 = /dev/ippp63       64th SyncPPP device
 964
 965                255 = /dev/isdninfo     ISDN monitor interface
 966
 967 45 block       Parallel port IDE disk devices
 968                  0 = /dev/pda          First parallel port IDE disk
 969                 16 = /dev/pdb          Second parallel port IDE disk
 970                 32 = /dev/pdc          Third parallel port IDE disk
 971                 48 = /dev/pdd          Fourth parallel port IDE disk
 972
 973                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
 974                disks (see major number 3) except that the partition
 975                limit is 15 rather than 63 per disk.
 976
 977 46 char        Comtrol Rocketport serial card
 978                  0 = /dev/ttyR0        First Rocketport port
 979                  1 = /dev/ttyR1        Second Rocketport port
 980                    ...
 981 46 block       Parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM devices
 982                  0 = /dev/pcd0         First parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM
 983                  1 = /dev/pcd1         Second parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM
 984                  2 = /dev/pcd2         Third parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM
 985                  3 = /dev/pcd3         Fourth parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM
 986
 987 47 char        Comtrol Rocketport serial card - alternate devices
 988                  0 = /dev/cur0         Callout device for ttyR0
 989                  1 = /dev/cur1         Callout device for ttyR1
 990                    ...
 991 47 block       Parallel port ATAPI disk devices
 992                  0 = /dev/pf0          First parallel port ATAPI disk
 993                  1 = /dev/pf1          Second parallel port ATAPI disk
 994                  2 = /dev/pf2          Third parallel port ATAPI disk
 995                  3 = /dev/pf3          Fourth parallel port ATAPI disk
 996
 997                This driver is intended for floppy disks and similar
 998                devices and hence does not support partitioning.
 999
1000 48 char        SDL RISCom serial card
1001                  0 = /dev/ttyL0        First RISCom port
1002                  1 = /dev/ttyL1        Second RISCom port
1003                    ...
1004 48 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; first controller
1005                  0 = /dev/rd/c0d0      First disk, whole disk
1006                  8 = /dev/rd/c0d1      Second disk, whole disk
1007                    ...
1008                248 = /dev/rd/c0d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1009
1010                For partitions add:
1011                  0 = /dev/rd/c?d?      Whole disk
1012                  1 = /dev/rd/c?d?p1    First partition
1013                    ...
1014                  7 = /dev/rd/c?d?p7    Seventh partition
1015
1016 49 char        SDL RISCom serial card - alternate devices
1017                  0 = /dev/cul0         Callout device for ttyL0
1018                  1 = /dev/cul1         Callout device for ttyL1
1019                    ...
1020 49 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; second controller
1021                  0 = /dev/rd/c1d0      First disk, whole disk
1022                  8 = /dev/rd/c1d1      Second disk, whole disk
1023                    ...
1024                248 = /dev/rd/c1d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1025
1026                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1027
1028 50 char        Reserved for GLINT
1029
1030 50 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; third controller
1031                  0 = /dev/rd/c2d0      First disk, whole disk
1032                  8 = /dev/rd/c2d1      Second disk, whole disk
1033                    ...
1034                248 = /dev/rd/c2d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1035
1036 51 char        Baycom radio modem OR Radio Tech BIM-XXX-RS232 radio modem
1037                  0 = /dev/bc0          First Baycom radio modem
1038                  1 = /dev/bc1          Second Baycom radio modem
1039                    ...
1040 51 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; fourth controller
1041                  0 = /dev/rd/c3d0      First disk, whole disk
1042                  8 = /dev/rd/c3d1      Second disk, whole disk
1043                    ...
1044                248 = /dev/rd/c3d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1045
1046                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1047
1048 52 char        Spellcaster DataComm/BRI ISDN card
1049                  0 = /dev/dcbri0       First DataComm card
1050                  1 = /dev/dcbri1       Second DataComm card
1051                  2 = /dev/dcbri2       Third DataComm card
1052                  3 = /dev/dcbri3       Fourth DataComm card
1053
1054 52 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; fifth controller
1055                  0 = /dev/rd/c4d0      First disk, whole disk
1056                  8 = /dev/rd/c4d1      Second disk, whole disk
1057                    ...
1058                248 = /dev/rd/c4d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1059
1060                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1061
1062 53 char        BDM interface for remote debugging MC683xx microcontrollers
1063                  0 = /dev/pd_bdm0      PD BDM interface on lp0
1064                  1 = /dev/pd_bdm1      PD BDM interface on lp1
1065                  2 = /dev/pd_bdm2      PD BDM interface on lp2
1066                  4 = /dev/icd_bdm0     ICD BDM interface on lp0
1067                  5 = /dev/icd_bdm1     ICD BDM interface on lp1
1068                  6 = /dev/icd_bdm2     ICD BDM interface on lp2
1069
1070                This device is used for the interfacing to the MC683xx
1071                microcontrollers via Background Debug Mode by use of a
1072                Parallel Port interface. PD is the Motorola Public
1073                Domain Interface and ICD is the commercial interface
1074                by P&E.
1075
1076 53 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; sixth controller
1077                  0 = /dev/rd/c5d0      First disk, whole disk
1078                  8 = /dev/rd/c5d1      Second disk, whole disk
1079                    ...
1080                248 = /dev/rd/c5d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1081
1082                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1083
1084 54 char        Electrocardiognosis Holter serial card
1085                  0 = /dev/holter0      First Holter port
1086                  1 = /dev/holter1      Second Holter port
1087                  2 = /dev/holter2      Third Holter port
1088
1089                A custom serial card used by Electrocardiognosis SRL
1090                <mseritan@ottonel.pub.ro> to transfer data from Holter
1091                24-hour heart monitoring equipment.
1092
1093 54 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; seventh controller
1094                  0 = /dev/rd/c6d0      First disk, whole disk
1095                  8 = /dev/rd/c6d1      Second disk, whole disk
1096                    ...
1097                248 = /dev/rd/c6d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1098
1099                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1100
1101 55 char        DSP56001 digital signal processor
1102                  0 = /dev/dsp56k       First DSP56001
1103
1104 55 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; eighth controller
1105                  0 = /dev/rd/c7d0      First disk, whole disk
1106                  8 = /dev/rd/c7d1      Second disk, whole disk
1107                    ...
1108                248 = /dev/rd/c7d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1109
1110                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1111
1112 56 char        Apple Desktop Bus
1113                  0 = /dev/adb          ADB bus control
1114
1115                Additional devices will be added to this number, all
1116                starting with /dev/adb.
1117
1118 56 block       Fifth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1119                  0 = /dev/hdi          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1120                 64 = /dev/hdj          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1121
1122                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1123                interface (see major number 3).
1124
1125 57 char        Hayes ESP serial card
1126                  0 = /dev/ttyP0        First ESP port
1127                  1 = /dev/ttyP1        Second ESP port
1128                    ...
1129
1130 57 block       Sixth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1131                  0 = /dev/hdk          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1132                 64 = /dev/hdl          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1133
1134                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1135                interface (see major number 3).
1136
1137 58 char        Hayes ESP serial card - alternate devices
1138                  0 = /dev/cup0         Callout device for ttyP0
1139                  1 = /dev/cup1         Callout device for ttyP1
1140                    ...
1141
1142 58 block       Reserved for logical volume manager
1143
1144 59 char        sf firewall package
1145                  0 = /dev/firewall     Communication with sf kernel module
1146
1147 59 block       Generic PDA filesystem device
1148                  0 = /dev/pda0         First PDA device
1149                  1 = /dev/pda1         Second PDA device
1150                    ...
1151
1152                The pda devices are used to mount filesystems on
1153                remote pda's (basically slow handheld machines with
1154                proprietary OS's and limited memory and storage
1155                running small fs translation drivers) through serial /
1156                IRDA / parallel links.
1157
1158                NAMING CONFLICT -- PROPOSED REVISED NAME /dev/rpda0 etc
1159
1160 60-63 char     LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
1161
1162 60-63 block    LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
1163                Allocated for local/experimental use.  For devices not
1164                assigned official numbers, these ranges should be
1165                used in order to avoid conflicting with future assignments.
1166
1167 64 char        ENskip kernel encryption package
1168                  0 = /dev/enskip       Communication with ENskip kernel module
1169
1170 64 block       Scramdisk/DriveCrypt encrypted devices
1171                  0 = /dev/scramdisk/master    Master node for ioctls
1172                  1 = /dev/scramdisk/1         First encrypted device
1173                  2 = /dev/scramdisk/2         Second encrypted device
1174                  ...
1175                255 = /dev/scramdisk/255       255th encrypted device
1176
1177                The filename of the encrypted container and the passwords
1178                are sent via ioctls (using the sdmount tool) to the master
1179                node which then activates them via one of the
1180                /dev/scramdisk/x nodes for loop mounting (all handled
1181                through the sdmount tool).
1182
1183                Requested by: andy@scramdisklinux.org
1184
1185 65 char        Sundance "plink" Transputer boards (obsolete, unused)
1186                  0 = /dev/plink0       First plink device
1187                  1 = /dev/plink1       Second plink device
1188                  2 = /dev/plink2       Third plink device
1189                  3 = /dev/plink3       Fourth plink device
1190                 64 = /dev/rplink0      First plink device, raw
1191                 65 = /dev/rplink1      Second plink device, raw
1192                 66 = /dev/rplink2      Third plink device, raw
1193                 67 = /dev/rplink3      Fourth plink device, raw
1194                128 = /dev/plink0d      First plink device, debug
1195                129 = /dev/plink1d      Second plink device, debug
1196                130 = /dev/plink2d      Third plink device, debug
1197                131 = /dev/plink3d      Fourth plink device, debug
1198                192 = /dev/rplink0d     First plink device, raw, debug
1199                193 = /dev/rplink1d     Second plink device, raw, debug
1200                194 = /dev/rplink2d     Third plink device, raw, debug
1201                195 = /dev/rplink3d     Fourth plink device, raw, debug
1202
1203                This is a commercial driver; contact James Howes
1204                <jth@prosig.demon.co.uk> for information.
1205
1206 65 block       SCSI disk devices (16-31)
1207                  0 = /dev/sdq          17th SCSI disk whole disk
1208                 16 = /dev/sdr          18th SCSI disk whole disk
1209                 32 = /dev/sds          19th SCSI disk whole disk
1210                    ...
1211                240 = /dev/sdaf         32nd SCSI disk whole disk
1212
1213                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1214                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1215                partitions is 15.
1216
1217 66 char        YARC PowerPC PCI coprocessor card
1218                  0 = /dev/yppcpci0     First YARC card
1219                  1 = /dev/yppcpci1     Second YARC card
1220                    ...
1221
1222 66 block       SCSI disk devices (32-47)
1223                  0 = /dev/sdag         33th SCSI disk whole disk
1224                 16 = /dev/sdah         34th SCSI disk whole disk
1225                 32 = /dev/sdai         35th SCSI disk whole disk
1226                    ...
1227                240 = /dev/sdav         48nd SCSI disk whole disk
1228
1229                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1230                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1231                partitions is 15.
1232
1233 67 char        Coda network file system
1234                  0 = /dev/cfs0         Coda cache manager
1235
1236                See http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu for information about Coda.
1237
1238 67 block       SCSI disk devices (48-63)
1239                  0 = /dev/sdaw         49th SCSI disk whole disk
1240                 16 = /dev/sdax         50th SCSI disk whole disk
1241                 32 = /dev/sday         51st SCSI disk whole disk
1242                    ...
1243                240 = /dev/sdbl         64th SCSI disk whole disk
1244
1245                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1246                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1247                partitions is 15.
1248
1249 68 char        CAPI 2.0 interface
1250                  0 = /dev/capi20       Control device
1251                  1 = /dev/capi20.00    First CAPI 2.0 application
1252                  2 = /dev/capi20.01    Second CAPI 2.0 application
1253                    ...
1254                 20 = /dev/capi20.19    19th CAPI 2.0 application
1255
1256                ISDN CAPI 2.0 driver for use with CAPI 2.0
1257                applications; currently supports the AVM B1 card.
1258
1259 68 block       SCSI disk devices (64-79)
1260                  0 = /dev/sdbm         65th SCSI disk whole disk
1261                 16 = /dev/sdbn         66th SCSI disk whole disk
1262                 32 = /dev/sdbo         67th SCSI disk whole disk
1263                    ...
1264                240 = /dev/sdcb         80th SCSI disk whole disk
1265
1266                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1267                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1268                partitions is 15.
1269
1270 69 char        MA16 numeric accelerator card
1271                  0 = /dev/ma16         Board memory access
1272
1273 69 block       SCSI disk devices (80-95)
1274                  0 = /dev/sdcc         81st SCSI disk whole disk
1275                 16 = /dev/sdcd         82nd SCSI disk whole disk
1276                 32 = /dev/sdce         83th SCSI disk whole disk
1277                    ...
1278                240 = /dev/sdcr         96th SCSI disk whole disk
1279
1280                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1281                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1282                partitions is 15.
1283
1284 70 char        SpellCaster Protocol Services Interface
1285                  0 = /dev/apscfg       Configuration interface
1286                  1 = /dev/apsauth      Authentication interface
1287                  2 = /dev/apslog       Logging interface
1288                  3 = /dev/apsdbg       Debugging interface
1289                 64 = /dev/apsisdn      ISDN command interface
1290                 65 = /dev/apsasync     Async command interface
1291                128 = /dev/apsmon       Monitor interface
1292
1293 70 block       SCSI disk devices (96-111)
1294                  0 = /dev/sdcs         97th SCSI disk whole disk
1295                 16 = /dev/sdct         98th SCSI disk whole disk
1296                 32 = /dev/sdcu         99th SCSI disk whole disk
1297                    ...
1298                240 = /dev/sddh         112nd SCSI disk whole disk
1299
1300                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1301                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1302                partitions is 15.
1303
1304 71 char        Computone IntelliPort II serial card
1305                  0 = /dev/ttyF0        IntelliPort II board 0, port 0
1306                  1 = /dev/ttyF1        IntelliPort II board 0, port 1
1307                    ...
1308                 63 = /dev/ttyF63       IntelliPort II board 0, port 63
1309                 64 = /dev/ttyF64       IntelliPort II board 1, port 0
1310                 65 = /dev/ttyF65       IntelliPort II board 1, port 1
1311                    ...
1312                127 = /dev/ttyF127      IntelliPort II board 1, port 63
1313                128 = /dev/ttyF128      IntelliPort II board 2, port 0
1314                129 = /dev/ttyF129      IntelliPort II board 2, port 1
1315                    ...
1316                191 = /dev/ttyF191      IntelliPort II board 2, port 63
1317                192 = /dev/ttyF192      IntelliPort II board 3, port 0
1318                193 = /dev/ttyF193      IntelliPort II board 3, port 1
1319                    ...
1320                255 = /dev/ttyF255      IntelliPort II board 3, port 63
1321
1322 71 block       SCSI disk devices (112-127)
1323                  0 = /dev/sddi         113th SCSI disk whole disk
1324                 16 = /dev/sddj         114th SCSI disk whole disk
1325                 32 = /dev/sddk         115th SCSI disk whole disk
1326                    ...
1327                240 = /dev/sddx         128th SCSI disk whole disk
1328
1329                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1330                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1331                partitions is 15.
1332
1333 72 char        Computone IntelliPort II serial card - alternate devices
1334                  0 = /dev/cuf0         Callout device for ttyF0
1335                  1 = /dev/cuf1         Callout device for ttyF1
1336                    ...
1337                 63 = /dev/cuf63        Callout device for ttyF63
1338                 64 = /dev/cuf64        Callout device for ttyF64
1339                 65 = /dev/cuf65        Callout device for ttyF65
1340                    ...
1341                127 = /dev/cuf127       Callout device for ttyF127
1342                128 = /dev/cuf128       Callout device for ttyF128
1343                129 = /dev/cuf129       Callout device for ttyF129
1344                    ...
1345                191 = /dev/cuf191       Callout device for ttyF191
1346                192 = /dev/cuf192       Callout device for ttyF192
1347                193 = /dev/cuf193       Callout device for ttyF193
1348                    ...
1349                255 = /dev/cuf255       Callout device for ttyF255
1350
1351 72 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, first controller
1352                  0 = /dev/ida/c0d0     First logical drive whole disk
1353                 16 = /dev/ida/c0d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1354                    ...
1355                240 = /dev/ida/c0d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1356
1357                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1358                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1359                partitions is 15.
1360
1361 73 char        Computone IntelliPort II serial card - control devices
1362                  0 = /dev/ip2ipl0      Loadware device for board 0
1363                  1 = /dev/ip2stat0     Status device for board 0
1364                  4 = /dev/ip2ipl1      Loadware device for board 1
1365                  5 = /dev/ip2stat1     Status device for board 1
1366                  8 = /dev/ip2ipl2      Loadware device for board 2
1367                  9 = /dev/ip2stat2     Status device for board 2
1368                 12 = /dev/ip2ipl3      Loadware device for board 3
1369                 13 = /dev/ip2stat3     Status device for board 3
1370
1371 73 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, second controller
1372                  0 = /dev/ida/c1d0     First logical drive whole disk
1373                 16 = /dev/ida/c1d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1374                    ...
1375                240 = /dev/ida/c1d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1376
1377                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1378                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1379                partitions is 15.
1380
1381 74 char        SCI bridge
1382                  0 = /dev/SCI/0        SCI device 0
1383                  1 = /dev/SCI/1        SCI device 1
1384                    ...
1385
1386                Currently for Dolphin Interconnect Solutions' PCI-SCI
1387                bridge.
1388
1389 74 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, third controller
1390                  0 = /dev/ida/c2d0     First logical drive whole disk
1391                 16 = /dev/ida/c2d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1392                    ...
1393                240 = /dev/ida/c2d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1394
1395                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1396                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1397                partitions is 15.
1398
1399 75 char        Specialix IO8+ serial card
1400                  0 = /dev/ttyW0        First IO8+ port, first card
1401                  1 = /dev/ttyW1        Second IO8+ port, first card
1402                    ...
1403                  8 = /dev/ttyW8        First IO8+ port, second card
1404                    ...
1405
1406 75 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, fourth controller
1407                  0 = /dev/ida/c3d0     First logical drive whole disk
1408                 16 = /dev/ida/c3d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1409                    ...
1410                240 = /dev/ida/c3d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1411
1412                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1413                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1414                partitions is 15.
1415
1416 76 char        Specialix IO8+ serial card - alternate devices
1417                  0 = /dev/cuw0         Callout device for ttyW0
1418                  1 = /dev/cuw1         Callout device for ttyW1
1419                    ...
1420                  8 = /dev/cuw8         Callout device for ttyW8
1421                    ...
1422
1423 76 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, fifth controller
1424                  0 = /dev/ida/c4d0     First logical drive whole disk
1425                 16 = /dev/ida/c4d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1426                    ...
1427                240 = /dev/ida/c4d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1428
1429                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1430                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1431                partitions is 15.
1432
1433
1434 77 char        ComScire Quantum Noise Generator
1435                  0 = /dev/qng          ComScire Quantum Noise Generator
1436
1437 77 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, sixth controller
1438                  0 = /dev/ida/c5d0     First logical drive whole disk
1439                 16 = /dev/ida/c5d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1440                    ...
1441                240 = /dev/ida/c5d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1442
1443                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1444                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1445                partitions is 15.
1446
1447 78 char        PAM Software's multimodem boards
1448                  0 = /dev/ttyM0        First PAM modem
1449                  1 = /dev/ttyM1        Second PAM modem
1450                    ...
1451
1452 78 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, seventh controller
1453                  0 = /dev/ida/c6d0     First logical drive whole disk
1454                 16 = /dev/ida/c6d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1455                    ...
1456                240 = /dev/ida/c6d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1457
1458                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1459                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1460                partitions is 15.
1461
1462 79 char        PAM Software's multimodem boards - alternate devices
1463                  0 = /dev/cum0         Callout device for ttyM0
1464                  1 = /dev/cum1         Callout device for ttyM1
1465                    ...
1466
1467 79 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, eighth controller
1468                  0 = /dev/ida/c7d0     First logical drive whole disk
1469                 16 = /dev/ida/c7d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1470                    ...
1471                240 = /dev/ida/c715     16th logical drive whole disk
1472
1473                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1474                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1475                partitions is 15.
1476
1477 80 char        Photometrics AT200 CCD camera
1478                  0 = /dev/at200        Photometrics AT200 CCD camera
1479
1480 80 block       I2O hard disk
1481                  0 = /dev/i2o/hda      First I2O hard disk, whole disk
1482                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdb      Second I2O hard disk, whole disk
1483                    ...
1484                240 = /dev/i2o/hdp      16th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1485
1486                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1487                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1488                partitions is 15.
1489
1490 81 char        video4linux
1491                  0 = /dev/video0       Video capture/overlay device
1492                    ...
1493                 63 = /dev/video63      Video capture/overlay device
1494                 64 = /dev/radio0       Radio device
1495                    ...
1496                127 = /dev/radio63      Radio device
1497                224 = /dev/vbi0         Vertical blank interrupt
1498                    ...
1499                255 = /dev/vbi31        Vertical blank interrupt
1500
1501 81 block       I2O hard disk
1502                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdq      17th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1503                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdr      18th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1504                    ...
1505                240 = /dev/i2o/hdaf     32nd I2O hard disk, whole disk
1506
1507                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1508                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1509                partitions is 15.
1510
1511 82 char        WiNRADiO communications receiver card
1512                  0 = /dev/winradio0    First WiNRADiO card
1513                  1 = /dev/winradio1    Second WiNRADiO card
1514                    ...
1515
1516                The driver and documentation may be obtained from
1517                http://www.winradio.com/
1518
1519 82 block       I2O hard disk
1520                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdag     33rd I2O hard disk, whole disk
1521                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdah     34th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1522                    ...
1523                240 = /dev/i2o/hdav     48th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1524
1525                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1526                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1527                partitions is 15.
1528
1529 83 char        Matrox mga_vid video driver
1530                 0 = /dev/mga_vid0      1st video card
1531                 1 = /dev/mga_vid1      2nd video card
1532                 2 = /dev/mga_vid2      3rd video card
1533                  ...
1534                15 = /dev/mga_vid15     16th video card
1535
1536 83 block       I2O hard disk
1537                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdaw     49th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1538                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdax     50th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1539                    ...
1540                240 = /dev/i2o/hdbl     64th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1541
1542                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1543                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1544                partitions is 15.
1545
1546 84 char        Ikon 1011[57] Versatec Greensheet Interface
1547                  0 = /dev/ihcp0        First Greensheet port
1548                  1 = /dev/ihcp1        Second Greensheet port
1549
1550 84 block       I2O hard disk
1551                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdbm     65th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1552                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdbn     66th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1553                    ...
1554                240 = /dev/i2o/hdcb     80th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1555
1556                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1557                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1558                partitions is 15.
1559
1560 85 char        Linux/SGI shared memory input queue
1561                  0 = /dev/shmiq        Master shared input queue
1562                  1 = /dev/qcntl0       First device pushed
1563                  2 = /dev/qcntl1       Second device pushed
1564                    ...
1565
1566 85 block       I2O hard disk
1567                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdcc     81st I2O hard disk, whole disk
1568                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdcd     82nd I2O hard disk, whole disk
1569                    ...
1570                240 = /dev/i2o/hdcr     96th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1571
1572                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1573                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1574                partitions is 15.
1575
1576 86 char        SCSI media changer
1577                  0 = /dev/sch0         First SCSI media changer
1578                  1 = /dev/sch1         Second SCSI media changer
1579                    ...
1580
1581 86 block       I2O hard disk
1582                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdcs     97th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1583                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdct     98th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1584                    ...
1585                240 = /dev/i2o/hddh     112th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1586
1587                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1588                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1589                partitions is 15.
1590
1591 87 char        Sony Control-A1 stereo control bus
1592                  0 = /dev/controla0    First device on chain
1593                  1 = /dev/controla1    Second device on chain
1594                    ...
1595
1596 87 block       I2O hard disk
1597                  0 = /dev/i2o/hddi     113rd I2O hard disk, whole disk
1598                 16 = /dev/i2o/hddj     114th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1599                    ...
1600                240 = /dev/i2o/hddx     128th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1601
1602                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1603                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1604                partitions is 15.
1605
1606 88 char        COMX synchronous serial card
1607                  0 = /dev/comx0        COMX channel 0
1608                  1 = /dev/comx1        COMX channel 1
1609                    ...
1610
1611 88 block       Seventh IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1612                  0 = /dev/hdm          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1613                 64 = /dev/hdn          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1614
1615                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1616                interface (see major number 3).
1617
1618 89 char        I2C bus interface
1619                  0 = /dev/i2c-0        First I2C adapter
1620                  1 = /dev/i2c-1        Second I2C adapter
1621                    ...
1622
1623 89 block       Eighth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1624                  0 = /dev/hdo          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1625                 64 = /dev/hdp          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1626
1627                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1628                interface (see major number 3).
1629
1630 90 char        Memory Technology Device (RAM, ROM, Flash)
1631                  0 = /dev/mtd0         First MTD (rw)
1632                  1 = /dev/mtdr0        First MTD (ro)
1633                    ...
1634                 30 = /dev/mtd15        16th MTD (rw)
1635                 31 = /dev/mtdr15       16th MTD (ro)
1636
1637 90 block       Ninth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1638                  0 = /dev/hdq          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1639                 64 = /dev/hdr          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1640
1641                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1642                interface (see major number 3).
1643
1644 91 char        CAN-Bus devices
1645                  0 = /dev/can0         First CAN-Bus controller
1646                  1 = /dev/can1         Second CAN-Bus controller
1647                    ...
1648
1649 91 block       Tenth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1650                  0 = /dev/hds          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1651                 64 = /dev/hdt          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1652
1653                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1654                interface (see major number 3).
1655
1656 92 char        Reserved for ith Kommunikationstechnik MIC ISDN card
1657
1658 92 block       PPDD encrypted disk driver
1659                  0 = /dev/ppdd0        First encrypted disk
1660                  1 = /dev/ppdd1        Second encrypted disk
1661                    ...
1662
1663                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1664                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1665                partitions is 15.
1666
1667 93 char
1668
1669 93 block       NAND Flash Translation Layer filesystem
1670                  0 = /dev/nftla        First NFTL layer
1671                 16 = /dev/nftlb        Second NFTL layer
1672                    ...
1673                240 = /dev/nftlp        16th NTFL layer
1674
1675 94 char
1676
1677 94 block       IBM S/390 DASD block storage
1678                  0 = /dev/dasda First DASD device, major
1679                  1 = /dev/dasda1 First DASD device, block 1
1680                  2 = /dev/dasda2 First DASD device, block 2
1681                  3 = /dev/dasda3 First DASD device, block 3
1682                  4 = /dev/dasdb Second DASD device, major
1683                  5 = /dev/dasdb1 Second DASD device, block 1
1684                  6 = /dev/dasdb2 Second DASD device, block 2
1685                  7 = /dev/dasdb3 Second DASD device, block 3
1686                    ...
1687
1688 95 char        IP filter
1689                  0 = /dev/ipl          Filter control device/log file
1690                  1 = /dev/ipnat        NAT control device/log file
1691                  2 = /dev/ipstate      State information log file
1692                  3 = /dev/ipauth       Authentication control device/log file
1693                    ...
1694
1695 96 char        Parallel port ATAPI tape devices
1696                  0 = /dev/pt0          First parallel port ATAPI tape
1697                  1 = /dev/pt1          Second parallel port ATAPI tape
1698                    ...
1699                128 = /dev/npt0         First p.p. ATAPI tape, no rewind
1700                129 = /dev/npt1         Second p.p. ATAPI tape, no rewind
1701                    ...
1702
1703 96 block       Inverse NAND Flash Translation Layer
1704                  0 = /dev/inftla First INFTL layer
1705                 16 = /dev/inftlb Second INFTL layer
1706                    ...
1707                240 = /dev/inftlp       16th INTFL layer
1708
1709 97 char        Parallel port generic ATAPI interface
1710                  0 = /dev/pg0          First parallel port ATAPI device
1711                  1 = /dev/pg1          Second parallel port ATAPI device
1712                  2 = /dev/pg2          Third parallel port ATAPI device
1713                  3 = /dev/pg3          Fourth parallel port ATAPI device
1714
1715                These devices support the same API as the generic SCSI
1716                devices.
1717
1718 98 char        Control and Measurement Device (comedi)
1719                  0 = /dev/comedi0      First comedi device
1720                  1 = /dev/comedi1      Second comedi device
1721                    ...
1722
1723                See http://stm.lbl.gov/comedi.
1724
1725 98 block       User-mode virtual block device
1726                  0 = /dev/ubda         First user-mode block device
1727                 16 = /dev/udbb         Second user-mode block device
1728                    ...
1729
1730                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1731                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1732                partitions is 15.
1733
1734                This device is used by the user-mode virtual kernel port.
1735
1736 99 char        Raw parallel ports
1737                  0 = /dev/parport0     First parallel port
1738                  1 = /dev/parport1     Second parallel port
1739                    ...
1740
1741 99 block       JavaStation flash disk
1742                  0 = /dev/jsfd         JavaStation flash disk
1743
1744100 char        Telephony for Linux
1745                  0 = /dev/phone0       First telephony device
1746                  1 = /dev/phone1       Second telephony device
1747                    ...
1748
1749101 char        Motorola DSP 56xxx board
1750                  0 = /dev/mdspstat     Status information
1751                  1 = /dev/mdsp1        First DSP board I/O controls
1752                    ...
1753                 16 = /dev/mdsp16       16th DSP board I/O controls
1754
1755101 block       AMI HyperDisk RAID controller
1756                  0 = /dev/amiraid/ar0  First array whole disk
1757                 16 = /dev/amiraid/ar1  Second array whole disk
1758                    ...
1759                240 = /dev/amiraid/ar15 16th array whole disk
1760
1761                For each device, partitions are added as:
1762                  0 = /dev/amiraid/ar?    Whole disk
1763                  1 = /dev/amiraid/ar?p1  First partition
1764                  2 = /dev/amiraid/ar?p2  Second partition
1765                    ...
1766                 15 = /dev/amiraid/ar?p15 15th partition
1767
1768102 char
1769
1770102 block       Compressed block device
1771                  0 = /dev/cbd/a        First compressed block device, whole device
1772                 16 = /dev/cbd/b        Second compressed block device, whole device
1773                    ...
1774                240 = /dev/cbd/p        16th compressed block device, whole device
1775
1776                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1777                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1778                partitions is 15.
1779
1780103 char        Arla network file system
1781                  0 = /dev/nnpfs0       First NNPFS device
1782                  1 = /dev/nnpfs1       Second NNPFS device
1783
1784                Arla is a free clone of the Andrew File System, AFS.
1785                The NNPFS device gives user mode filesystem
1786                implementations a kernel presence for caching and easy
1787                mounting.  For more information about the project,
1788                write to <arla-drinkers@stacken.kth.se> or see
1789                http://www.stacken.kth.se/project/arla/
1790
1791103 block       Audit device
1792                  0 = /dev/audit        Audit device
1793
1794104 char        Flash BIOS support
1795
1796104 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, first controller
1797                  0 = /dev/cciss/c0d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1798                 16 = /dev/cciss/c0d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1799                    ...
1800                240 = /dev/cciss/c0d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1801
1802                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1803                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1804                partitions is 15.
1805
1806105 char        Comtrol VS-1000 serial controller
1807                  0 = /dev/ttyV0        First VS-1000 port
1808                  1 = /dev/ttyV1        Second VS-1000 port
1809                    ...
1810
1811105 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, second controller
1812                  0 = /dev/cciss/c1d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1813                 16 = /dev/cciss/c1d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1814                    ...
1815                240 = /dev/cciss/c1d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1816
1817                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1818                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1819                partitions is 15.
1820
1821106 char        Comtrol VS-1000 serial controller - alternate devices
1822                  0 = /dev/cuv0         First VS-1000 port
1823                  1 = /dev/cuv1         Second VS-1000 port
1824                    ...
1825
1826106 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, third controller
1827                  0 = /dev/cciss/c2d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1828                 16 = /dev/cciss/c2d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1829                    ...
1830                240 = /dev/cciss/c2d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1831
1832                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1833                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1834                partitions is 15.
1835
1836107 char        3Dfx Voodoo Graphics device
1837                  0 = /dev/3dfx         Primary 3Dfx graphics device
1838
1839107 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, fourth controller
1840                  0 = /dev/cciss/c3d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1841                 16 = /dev/cciss/c3d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1842                    ...
1843                240 = /dev/cciss/c3d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1844
1845                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1846                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1847                partitions is 15.
1848
1849108 char        Device independent PPP interface
1850                  0 = /dev/ppp          Device independent PPP interface
1851
1852108 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, fifth controller
1853                  0 = /dev/cciss/c4d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1854                 16 = /dev/cciss/c4d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1855                    ...
1856                240 = /dev/cciss/c4d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1857
1858                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1859                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1860                partitions is 15.
1861
1862109 char        Reserved for logical volume manager
1863
1864109 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, sixth controller
1865                  0 = /dev/cciss/c5d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1866                 16 = /dev/cciss/c5d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1867                    ...
1868                240 = /dev/cciss/c5d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1869
1870                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1871                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1872                partitions is 15.
1873
1874110 char        miroMEDIA Surround board
1875                  0 = /dev/srnd0        First miroMEDIA Surround board
1876                  1 = /dev/srnd1        Second miroMEDIA Surround board
1877                    ...
1878
1879110 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, seventh controller
1880                  0 = /dev/cciss/c6d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1881                 16 = /dev/cciss/c6d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1882                    ...
1883                240 = /dev/cciss/c6d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1884
1885                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1886                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1887                partitions is 15.
1888
1889111 char
1890
1891111 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, eighth controller
1892                  0 = /dev/cciss/c7d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1893                 16 = /dev/cciss/c7d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1894                    ...
1895                240 = /dev/cciss/c7d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1896
1897                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1898                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1899                partitions is 15.
1900
1901112 char        ISI serial card
1902                  0 = /dev/ttyM0        First ISI port
1903                  1 = /dev/ttyM1        Second ISI port
1904                    ...
1905
1906                There is currently a device-naming conflict between
1907                these and PAM multimodems (major 78).
1908
1909112 block       IBM iSeries virtual disk
1910                  0 = /dev/iseries/vda  First virtual disk, whole disk
1911                  8 = /dev/iseries/vdb  Second virtual disk, whole disk
1912                    ...
1913                200 = /dev/iseries/vdz  26th virtual disk, whole disk
1914                208 = /dev/iseries/vdaa 27th virtual disk, whole disk
1915                    ...
1916                248 = /dev/iseries/vdaf 32nd virtual disk, whole disk
1917
1918                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1919                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1920                partitions is 7.
1921
1922113 char        ISI serial card - alternate devices
1923                  0 = /dev/cum0         Callout device for ttyM0
1924                  1 = /dev/cum1         Callout device for ttyM1
1925                    ...
1926
1927113 block       IBM iSeries virtual CD-ROM
1928                  0 = /dev/iseries/vcda First virtual CD-ROM
1929                  1 = /dev/iseries/vcdb Second virtual CD-ROM
1930                    ...
1931
1932114 char        Picture Elements ISE board
1933                  0 = /dev/ise0         First ISE board
1934                  1 = /dev/ise1         Second ISE board
1935                    ...
1936                128 = /dev/isex0        Control node for first ISE board
1937                129 = /dev/isex1        Control node for second ISE board
1938                    ...
1939
1940                The ISE board is an embedded computer, optimized for
1941                image processing. The /dev/iseN nodes are the general
1942                I/O access to the board, the /dev/isex0 nodes command
1943                nodes used to control the board.
1944
1945114 block       IDE BIOS powered software RAID interfaces such as the
1946                Promise Fastrak
1947
1948                  0 = /dev/ataraid/d0
1949                  1 = /dev/ataraid/d0p1
1950                  2 = /dev/ataraid/d0p2
1951                  ...
1952                 16 = /dev/ataraid/d1
1953                 17 = /dev/ataraid/d1p1
1954                 18 = /dev/ataraid/d1p2
1955                  ...
1956                255 = /dev/ataraid/d15p15
1957
1958                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1959                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1960                partitions is 15.
1961
1962115 char        TI link cable devices (115 was formerly the console driver speaker)
1963                  0 = /dev/tipar0    Parallel cable on first parallel port
1964                  ...
1965                  7 = /dev/tipar7    Parallel cable on seventh parallel port
1966
1967                  8 = /dev/tiser0    Serial cable on first serial port
1968                  ...
1969                 15 = /dev/tiser7    Serial cable on seventh serial port
1970
1971                 16 = /dev/tiusb0    First USB cable
1972                  ...
1973                 47 = /dev/tiusb31   32nd USB cable
1974
1975115 block       NetWare (NWFS) Devices (0-255)
1976
1977                The NWFS (NetWare) devices are used to present a
1978                collection of NetWare Mirror Groups or NetWare
1979                Partitions as a logical storage segment for
1980                use in mounting NetWare volumes.  A maximum of
1981                256 NetWare volumes can be supported in a single
1982                machine.
1983
1984                http://cgfa.telepac.pt/ftp2/kernel.org/linux/kernel/people/jmerkey/nwfs/
1985
1986                0 = /dev/nwfs/v0    First NetWare (NWFS) Logical Volume
1987                1 = /dev/nwfs/v1    Second NetWare (NWFS) Logical Volume
1988                2 = /dev/nwfs/v2    Third NetWare (NWFS) Logical Volume
1989                      ...
1990                255 = /dev/nwfs/v255    Last NetWare (NWFS) Logical Volume
1991
1992116 char        Advanced Linux Sound Driver (ALSA)
1993
1994116 block       MicroMemory battery backed RAM adapter (NVRAM)
1995                Supports 16 boards, 15 partitions each.
1996                Requested by neilb at cse.unsw.edu.au.
1997
1998                 0 = /dev/umem/d0      Whole of first board
1999                 1 = /dev/umem/d0p1    First partition of first board
2000                 2 = /dev/umem/d0p2    Second partition of first board
2001                15 = /dev/umem/d0p15   15th partition of first board
2002
2003                16 = /dev/umem/d1      Whole of second board
2004                17 = /dev/umem/d1p1    First partition of second board
2005                    ...
2006                255= /dev/umem/d15p15  15th partition of 16th board.
2007
2008117 char        COSA/SRP synchronous serial card
2009                  0 = /dev/cosa0c0      1st board, 1st channel
2010                  1 = /dev/cosa0c1      1st board, 2nd channel
2011                    ...
2012                 16 = /dev/cosa1c0      2nd board, 1st channel
2013                 17 = /dev/cosa1c1      2nd board, 2nd channel
2014                    ...
2015
2016117 block       Enterprise Volume Management System (EVMS)
2017
2018                The EVMS driver uses a layered, plug-in model to provide
2019                unparalleled flexibility and extensibility in managing
2020                storage.  This allows for easy expansion or customization
2021                of various levels of volume management.  Requested by
2022                Mark Peloquin (peloquin at us.ibm.com).
2023
2024                Note: EVMS populates and manages all the devnodes in
2025                /dev/evms.
2026
2027                http://sf.net/projects/evms
2028
2029                  0 = /dev/evms/block_device   EVMS block device
2030                  1 = /dev/evms/legacyname1    First EVMS legacy device
2031                  2 = /dev/evms/legacyname2    Second EVMS legacy device
2032                    ...
2033                    Both ranges can grow (down or up) until they meet.
2034                    ...
2035                254 = /dev/evms/EVMSname2      Second EVMS native device
2036                255 = /dev/evms/EVMSname1      First EVMS native device
2037
2038                Note: legacyname(s) are derived from the normal legacy
2039                device names.  For example, /dev/hda5 would become
2040                /dev/evms/hda5.
2041
2042118 char        IBM Cryptographic Accelerator
2043                  0 = /dev/ica  Virtual interface to all IBM Crypto Accelerators
2044                  1 = /dev/ica0 IBMCA Device 0
2045                  2 = /dev/ica1 IBMCA Device 1
2046                    ...
2047
2048119 char        VMware virtual network control
2049                  0 = /dev/vnet0        1st virtual network
2050                  1 = /dev/vnet1        2nd virtual network
2051                    ...
2052
2053120-127 char    LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
2054
2055120-127 block   LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
2056                Allocated for local/experimental use.  For devices not
2057                assigned official numbers, these ranges should be
2058                used in order to avoid conflicting with future assignments.
2059
2060128-135 char    Unix98 PTY masters
2061
2062                These devices should not have corresponding device
2063                nodes; instead they should be accessed through the
2064                /dev/ptmx cloning interface.
2065
2066128 block       SCSI disk devices (128-143)
2067                  0 = /dev/sddy         129th SCSI disk whole disk
2068                 16 = /dev/sddz         130th SCSI disk whole disk
2069                 32 = /dev/sdea         131th SCSI disk whole disk
2070                    ...
2071                240 = /dev/sden         144th SCSI disk whole disk
2072
2073                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2074                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2075                partitions is 15.
2076
2077129 block       SCSI disk devices (144-159)
2078                  0 = /dev/sdeo         145th SCSI disk whole disk
2079                 16 = /dev/sdep         146th SCSI disk whole disk
2080                 32 = /dev/sdeq         147th SCSI disk whole disk
2081                    ...
2082                240 = /dev/sdfd         160th SCSI disk whole disk
2083
2084                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2085                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2086                partitions is 15.
2087
2088130 char        (Misc devices)
2089
2090130 block       SCSI disk devices (160-175)
2091                  0 = /dev/sdfe         161st SCSI disk whole disk
2092                 16 = /dev/sdff         162nd SCSI disk whole disk
2093                 32 = /dev/sdfg         163rd SCSI disk whole disk
2094                    ...
2095                240 = /dev/sdft         176th SCSI disk whole disk
2096
2097                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2098                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2099                partitions is 15.
2100
2101131 block       SCSI disk devices (176-191)
2102                  0 = /dev/sdfu         177th SCSI disk whole disk
2103                 16 = /dev/sdfv         178th SCSI disk whole disk
2104                 32 = /dev/sdfw         179th SCSI disk whole disk
2105                    ...
2106                240 = /dev/sdgj         192nd SCSI disk whole disk
2107
2108                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2109                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2110                partitions is 15.
2111
2112132 block       SCSI disk devices (192-207)
2113                  0 = /dev/sdgk         193rd SCSI disk whole disk
2114                 16 = /dev/sdgl         194th SCSI disk whole disk
2115                 32 = /dev/sdgm         195th SCSI disk whole disk
2116                    ...
2117                240 = /dev/sdgz         208th SCSI disk whole disk
2118
2119                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2120                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2121                partitions is 15.
2122
2123133 block       SCSI disk devices (208-223)
2124                  0 = /dev/sdha         209th SCSI disk whole disk
2125                 16 = /dev/sdhb         210th SCSI disk whole disk
2126                 32 = /dev/sdhc         211th SCSI disk whole disk
2127                    ...
2128                240 = /dev/sdhp         224th SCSI disk whole disk
2129
2130                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2131                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2132                partitions is 15.
2133
2134134 block       SCSI disk devices (224-239)
2135                  0 = /dev/sdhq         225th SCSI disk whole disk
2136                 16 = /dev/sdhr         226th SCSI disk whole disk
2137                 32 = /dev/sdhs         227th SCSI disk whole disk
2138                    ...
2139                240 = /dev/sdif         240th SCSI disk whole disk
2140
2141                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2142                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2143                partitions is 15.
2144
2145135 block       SCSI disk devices (240-255)
2146                  0 = /dev/sdig         241st SCSI disk whole disk
2147                 16 = /dev/sdih         242nd SCSI disk whole disk
2148                 32 = /dev/sdih         243rd SCSI disk whole disk
2149                    ...
2150                240 = /dev/sdiv         256th SCSI disk whole disk
2151
2152                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2153                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2154                partitions is 15.
2155
2156136-143 char    Unix98 PTY slaves
2157                  0 = /dev/pts/0        First Unix98 pseudo-TTY
2158                  1 = /dev/pts/1        Second Unix98 pseudo-TTY
2159                    ...
2160
2161                These device nodes are automatically generated with
2162                the proper permissions and modes by mounting the
2163                devpts filesystem onto /dev/pts with the appropriate
2164                mount options (distribution dependent, however, on
2165                *most* distributions the appropriate options are
2166                "mode=0620,gid=<gid of the "tty" group>".)
2167
2168136 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; ninth controller
2169                  0 = /dev/rd/c8d0      First disk, whole disk
2170                  8 = /dev/rd/c8d1      Second disk, whole disk
2171                    ...
2172                248 = /dev/rd/c8d31     32nd disk, whole disk
2173
2174                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2175
2176137 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; tenth controller
2177                  0 = /dev/rd/c9d0      First disk, whole disk
2178                  8 = /dev/rd/c9d1      Second disk, whole disk
2179                    ...
2180                248 = /dev/rd/c9d31     32nd disk, whole disk
2181
2182                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2183
2184138 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; eleventh controller
2185                  0 = /dev/rd/c10d0     First disk, whole disk
2186                  8 = /dev/rd/c10d1     Second disk, whole disk
2187                    ...
2188                248 = /dev/rd/c10d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2189
2190                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2191
2192139 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; twelfth controller
2193                  0 = /dev/rd/c11d0     First disk, whole disk
2194                  8 = /dev/rd/c11d1     Second disk, whole disk
2195                    ...
2196                248 = /dev/rd/c11d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2197
2198                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2199
2200140 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; thirteenth controller
2201                  0 = /dev/rd/c12d0     First disk, whole disk
2202                  8 = /dev/rd/c12d1     Second disk, whole disk
2203                    ...
2204                248 = /dev/rd/c12d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2205
2206                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2207
2208141 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; fourteenth controller
2209                  0 = /dev/rd/c13d0     First disk, whole disk
2210                  8 = /dev/rd/c13d1     Second disk, whole disk
2211                    ...
2212                248 = /dev/rd/c13d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2213
2214                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2215
2216142 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; fifteenth controller
2217                  0 = /dev/rd/c14d0     First disk, whole disk
2218                  8 = /dev/rd/c14d1     Second disk, whole disk
2219                    ...
2220                248 = /dev/rd/c14d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2221
2222                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2223
2224143 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; sixteenth controller
2225                  0 = /dev/rd/c15d0     First disk, whole disk
2226                  8 = /dev/rd/c15d1     Second disk, whole disk
2227                    ...
2228                248 = /dev/rd/c15d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2229
2230                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2231
2232144 char        Encapsulated PPP
2233                  0 = /dev/pppox0       First PPP over Ethernet
2234                    ...
2235                 63 = /dev/pppox63      64th PPP over Ethernet
2236
2237                This is primarily used for ADSL.
2238
2239                The SST 5136-DN DeviceNet interface driver has been
2240                relocated to major 183 due to an unfortunate conflict.
2241
2242144 block       Expansion Area #1 for more non-device (e.g. NFS) mounts
2243                  0 = mounted device 256
2244                255 = mounted device 511
2245
2246145 char        SAM9407-based soundcard
2247                  0 = /dev/sam0_mixer
2248                  1 = /dev/sam0_sequencer
2249                  2 = /dev/sam0_midi00
2250                  3 = /dev/sam0_dsp
2251                  4 = /dev/sam0_audio
2252                  6 = /dev/sam0_sndstat
2253                 18 = /dev/sam0_midi01
2254                 34 = /dev/sam0_midi02
2255                 50 = /dev/sam0_midi03
2256                 64 = /dev/sam1_mixer
2257                    ...
2258                128 = /dev/sam2_mixer
2259                    ...
2260                192 = /dev/sam3_mixer
2261                    ...
2262
2263                Device functions match OSS, but offer a number of
2264                addons, which are sam9407 specific.  OSS can be
2265                operated simultaneously, taking care of the codec.
2266
2267145 block       Expansion Area #2 for more non-device (e.g. NFS) mounts
2268                  0 = mounted device 512
2269                255 = mounted device 767
2270
2271146 char        SYSTRAM SCRAMNet mirrored-memory network
2272                  0 = /dev/scramnet0    First SCRAMNet device
2273                  1 = /dev/scramnet1    Second SCRAMNet device
2274                    ...
2275
2276146 block       Expansion Area #3 for more non-device (e.g. NFS) mounts
2277                  0 = mounted device 768
2278                255 = mounted device 1023
2279
2280147 char        Aureal Semiconductor Vortex Audio device
2281                  0 = /dev/aureal0      First Aureal Vortex
2282                  1 = /dev/aureal1      Second Aureal Vortex
2283                    ...
2284
2285147 block       Distributed Replicated Block Device (DRBD)
2286                  0 = /dev/drbd0        First DRBD device
2287                  1 = /dev/drbd1        Second DRBD device
2288                    ...
2289
2290148 char        Technology Concepts serial card
2291                  0 = /dev/ttyT0        First TCL port
2292                  1 = /dev/ttyT1        Second TCL port
2293                    ...
2294
2295149 char        Technology Concepts serial card - alternate devices
2296                  0 = /dev/cut0         Callout device for ttyT0
2297                  1 = /dev/cut0         Callout device for ttyT1
2298                    ...
2299
2300150 char        Real-Time Linux FIFOs
2301                  0 = /dev/rtf0         First RTLinux FIFO
2302                  1 = /dev/rtf1         Second RTLinux FIFO
2303                    ...
2304
2305151 char        DPT I2O SmartRaid V controller
2306                  0 = /dev/dpti0        First DPT I2O adapter
2307                  1 = /dev/dpti1        Second DPT I2O adapter
2308                    ...
2309
2310152 char        EtherDrive Control Device
2311                  0 = /dev/etherd/ctl   Connect/Disconnect an EtherDrive
2312                  1 = /dev/etherd/err   Monitor errors
2313                  2 = /dev/etherd/raw   Raw AoE packet monitor
2314
2315152 block       EtherDrive Block Devices
2316                  0 = /dev/etherd/0     EtherDrive 0
2317                    ...
2318                255 = /dev/etherd/255   EtherDrive 255
2319
2320153 char        SPI Bus Interface (sometimes referred to as MicroWire)
2321                  0 = /dev/spi0         First SPI device on the bus
2322                  1 = /dev/spi1         Second SPI device on the bus
2323                    ...
2324                 15 = /dev/spi15        Sixteenth SPI device on the bus
2325
2326153 block       Enhanced Metadisk RAID (EMD) storage units
2327                  0 = /dev/emd/0        First unit
2328                  1 = /dev/emd/0p1      Partition 1 on First unit
2329                  2 = /dev/emd/0p2      Partition 2 on First unit
2330                    ...
2331                 15 = /dev/emd/0p15     Partition 15 on First unit
2332
2333                 16 = /dev/emd/1        Second unit
2334                 32 = /dev/emd/2        Third unit
2335                    ...
2336                240 = /dev/emd/15       Sixteenth unit
2337
2338                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2339                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2340                partitions is 15.
2341
2342154 char        Specialix RIO serial card
2343                  0 = /dev/ttySR0       First RIO port
2344                    ...
2345                255 = /dev/ttySR255     256th RIO port
2346
2347155 char        Specialix RIO serial card - alternate devices
2348                  0 = /dev/cusr0        Callout device for ttySR0
2349                    ...
2350                255 = /dev/cusr255      Callout device for ttySR255
2351
2352156 char        Specialix RIO serial card
2353                  0 = /dev/ttySR256     257th RIO port
2354                    ...
2355                255 = /dev/ttySR511     512th RIO port
2356
2357157 char        Specialix RIO serial card - alternate devices
2358                  0 = /dev/cusr256      Callout device for ttySR256
2359                    ...
2360                255 = /dev/cusr511      Callout device for ttySR511
2361
2362158 char        Dialogic GammaLink fax driver
2363                  0 = /dev/gfax0        GammaLink channel 0
2364                  1 = /dev/gfax1        GammaLink channel 1
2365                    ...
2366
2367159 char        RESERVED
2368
2369159 block       RESERVED
2370
2371160 char        General Purpose Instrument Bus (GPIB)
2372                  0 = /dev/gpib0        First GPIB bus
2373                  1 = /dev/gpib1        Second GPIB bus
2374                    ...
2375
2376160 block       Carmel 8-port SATA Disks on First Controller
2377                  0 = /dev/carmel/0     SATA disk 0 whole disk
2378                  1 = /dev/carmel/0p1   SATA disk 0 partition 1
2379                    ...
2380                 31 = /dev/carmel/0p31  SATA disk 0 partition 31
2381
2382                 32 = /dev/carmel/1     SATA disk 1 whole disk
2383                 64 = /dev/carmel/2     SATA disk 2 whole disk
2384                    ...
2385                224 = /dev/carmel/7     SATA disk 7 whole disk
2386
2387                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2388                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2389                partitions is 31.
2390
2391161 char        IrCOMM devices (IrDA serial/parallel emulation)
2392                  0 = /dev/ircomm0      First IrCOMM device
2393                  1 = /dev/ircomm1      Second IrCOMM device
2394                    ...
2395                 16 = /dev/irlpt0       First IrLPT device
2396                 17 = /dev/irlpt1       Second IrLPT device
2397                    ...
2398
2399161 block       Carmel 8-port SATA Disks on Second Controller
2400                  0 = /dev/carmel/8     SATA disk 8 whole disk
2401                  1 = /dev/carmel/8p1   SATA disk 8 partition 1
2402                    ...
2403                 31 = /dev/carmel/8p31  SATA disk 8 partition 31
2404
2405                 32 = /dev/carmel/9     SATA disk 9 whole disk
2406                 64 = /dev/carmel/10    SATA disk 10 whole disk
2407                    ...
2408                224 = /dev/carmel/15    SATA disk 15 whole disk
2409
2410                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2411                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2412                partitions is 31.
2413
2414162 char        Raw block device interface
2415                  0 = /dev/rawctl       Raw I/O control device
2416                  1 = /dev/raw/raw1     First raw I/O device
2417                  2 = /dev/raw/raw2     Second raw I/O device
2418                    ...
2419                 max minor number of raw device is set by kernel config
2420                 MAX_RAW_DEVS or raw module parameter 'max_raw_devs'
2421
2422163 char
2423
2424164 char        Chase Research AT/PCI-Fast serial card
2425                  0 = /dev/ttyCH0       AT/PCI-Fast board 0, port 0
2426                    ...
2427                 15 = /dev/ttyCH15      AT/PCI-Fast board 0, port 15
2428                 16 = /dev/ttyCH16      AT/PCI-Fast board 1, port 0
2429                    ...
2430                 31 = /dev/ttyCH31      AT/PCI-Fast board 1, port 15
2431                 32 = /dev/ttyCH32      AT/PCI-Fast board 2, port 0
2432                    ...
2433                 47 = /dev/ttyCH47      AT/PCI-Fast board 2, port 15
2434                 48 = /dev/ttyCH48      AT/PCI-Fast board 3, port 0
2435                    ...
2436                 63 = /dev/ttyCH63      AT/PCI-Fast board 3, port 15
2437
2438165 char        Chase Research AT/PCI-Fast serial card - alternate devices
2439                  0 = /dev/cuch0        Callout device for ttyCH0
2440                    ...
2441                 63 = /dev/cuch63       Callout device for ttyCH63
2442
2443166 char        ACM USB modems
2444                  0 = /dev/ttyACM0      First ACM modem
2445                  1 = /dev/ttyACM1      Second ACM modem
2446                    ...
2447
2448167 char        ACM USB modems - alternate devices
2449                  0 = /dev/cuacm0       Callout device for ttyACM0
2450                  1 = /dev/cuacm1       Callout device for ttyACM1
2451                    ...
2452
2453168 char        Eracom CSA7000 PCI encryption adaptor
2454                  0 = /dev/ecsa0        First CSA7000
2455                  1 = /dev/ecsa1        Second CSA7000
2456                    ...
2457
2458169 char        Eracom CSA8000 PCI encryption adaptor
2459                  0 = /dev/ecsa8-0      First CSA8000
2460                  1 = /dev/ecsa8-1      Second CSA8000
2461                    ...
2462
2463170 char        AMI MegaRAC remote access controller
2464                  0 = /dev/megarac0     First MegaRAC card
2465                  1 = /dev/megarac1     Second MegaRAC card
2466                    ...
2467
2468171 char        Reserved for IEEE 1394 (Firewire)
2469
2470172 char        Moxa Intellio serial card
2471                  0 = /dev/ttyMX0       First Moxa port
2472                  1 = /dev/ttyMX1       Second Moxa port
2473                    ...
2474                127 = /dev/ttyMX127     128th Moxa port
2475                128 = /dev/moxactl      Moxa control port
2476
2477173 char        Moxa Intellio serial card - alternate devices
2478                  0 = /dev/cumx0        Callout device for ttyMX0
2479                  1 = /dev/cumx1        Callout device for ttyMX1
2480                    ...
2481                127 = /dev/cumx127      Callout device for ttyMX127
2482
2483174 char        SmartIO serial card
2484                  0 = /dev/ttySI0       First SmartIO port
2485                  1 = /dev/ttySI1       Second SmartIO port
2486                    ...
2487
2488175 char        SmartIO serial card - alternate devices
2489                  0 = /dev/cusi0        Callout device for ttySI0
2490                  1 = /dev/cusi1        Callout device for ttySI1
2491                    ...
2492
2493176 char        nCipher nFast PCI crypto accelerator
2494                  0 = /dev/nfastpci0    First nFast PCI device
2495                  1 = /dev/nfastpci1    First nFast PCI device
2496                    ...
2497
2498177 char        TI PCILynx memory spaces
2499                  0 = /dev/pcilynx/aux0  AUX space of first PCILynx card
2500                    ...
2501                 15 = /dev/pcilynx/aux15 AUX space of 16th PCILynx card
2502                 16 = /dev/pcilynx/rom0  ROM space of first PCILynx card
2503                    ...
2504                 31 = /dev/pcilynx/rom15 ROM space of 16th PCILynx card
2505                 32 = /dev/pcilynx/ram0  RAM space of first PCILynx card
2506                    ...
2507                 47 = /dev/pcilynx/ram15 RAM space of 16th PCILynx card
2508
2509178 char        Giganet cLAN1xxx virtual interface adapter
2510                  0 = /dev/clanvi0      First cLAN adapter
2511                  1 = /dev/clanvi1      Second cLAN adapter
2512                    ...
2513
2514179 block       MMC block devices
2515                  0 = /dev/mmcblk0      First SD/MMC card
2516                  1 = /dev/mmcblk0p1    First partition on first MMC card
2517                  8 = /dev/mmcblk1      Second SD/MMC card
2518                    ...
2519
2520                The start of next SD/MMC card can be configured with
2521                CONFIG_MMC_BLOCK_MINORS, or overridden at boot/modprobe
2522                time using the mmcblk.perdev_minors option. That would
2523                bump the offset between each card to be the configured
2524                value instead of the default 8.
2525
2526179 char        CCube DVXChip-based PCI products
2527                  0 = /dev/dvxirq0      First DVX device
2528                  1 = /dev/dvxirq1      Second DVX device
2529                    ...
2530
2531180 char        USB devices
2532                  0 = /dev/usb/lp0      First USB printer
2533                    ...
2534                 15 = /dev/usb/lp15     16th USB printer
2535                 48 = /dev/usb/scanner0 First USB scanner
2536                    ...
2537                 63 = /dev/usb/scanner15 16th USB scanner
2538                 64 = /dev/usb/rio500   Diamond Rio 500
2539                 65 = /dev/usb/usblcd   USBLCD Interface (info@usblcd.de)
2540                 66 = /dev/usb/cpad0    Synaptics cPad (mouse/LCD)
2541                 96 = /dev/usb/hiddev0  1st USB HID device
2542                    ...
2543                111 = /dev/usb/hiddev15 16th USB HID device
2544                112 = /dev/usb/auer0    1st auerswald ISDN device
2545                    ...
2546                127 = /dev/usb/auer15   16th auerswald ISDN device
2547                128 = /dev/usb/brlvgr0  First Braille Voyager device
2548                    ...
2549                131 = /dev/usb/brlvgr3  Fourth Braille Voyager device
2550                132 = /dev/usb/idmouse  ID Mouse (fingerprint scanner) device
2551                133 = /dev/usb/sisusbvga1       First SiSUSB VGA device
2552                    ...
2553                140 = /dev/usb/sisusbvga8       Eighth SISUSB VGA device
2554                144 = /dev/usb/lcd      USB LCD device
2555                160 = /dev/usb/legousbtower0    1st USB Legotower device
2556                    ...
2557                175 = /dev/usb/legousbtower15   16th USB Legotower device
2558                176 = /dev/usb/usbtmc1  First USB TMC device
2559                   ...
2560                191 = /dev/usb/usbtmc16 16th USB TMC device
2561                192 = /dev/usb/yurex1   First USB Yurex device
2562                   ...
2563                209 = /dev/usb/yurex16  16th USB Yurex device
2564                240 = /dev/usb/dabusb0  First daubusb device
2565                    ...
2566                243 = /dev/usb/dabusb3  Fourth dabusb device
2567
2568180 block       USB block devices
2569                  0 = /dev/uba          First USB block device
2570                  8 = /dev/ubb          Second USB block device
2571                 16 = /dev/ubc          Third USB block device
2572                    ...
2573
2574181 char        Conrad Electronic parallel port radio clocks
2575                  0 = /dev/pcfclock0    First Conrad radio clock
2576                  1 = /dev/pcfclock1    Second Conrad radio clock
2577                    ...
2578
2579182 char        Picture Elements THR2 binarizer
2580                  0 = /dev/pethr0       First THR2 board
2581                  1 = /dev/pethr1       Second THR2 board
2582                    ...
2583
2584183 char        SST 5136-DN DeviceNet interface
2585                  0 = /dev/ss5136dn0    First DeviceNet interface
2586                  1 = /dev/ss5136dn1    Second DeviceNet interface
2587                    ...
2588
2589                This device used to be assigned to major number 144.
2590                It had to be moved due to an unfortunate conflict.
2591
2592184 char        Picture Elements' video simulator/sender
2593                  0 = /dev/pevss0       First sender board
2594                  1 = /dev/pevss1       Second sender board
2595                    ...
2596
2597185 char        InterMezzo high availability file system
2598                  0 = /dev/intermezzo0  First cache manager
2599                  1 = /dev/intermezzo1  Second cache manager
2600                    ...
2601
2602                See http://web.archive.org/web/20080115195241/
2603                http://inter-mezzo.org/index.html
2604
2605186 char        Object-based storage control device
2606                  0 = /dev/obd0         First obd control device
2607                  1 = /dev/obd1         Second obd control device
2608                    ...
2609
2610                See ftp://ftp.lustre.org/pub/obd for code and information.
2611
2612187 char        DESkey hardware encryption device
2613                  0 = /dev/deskey0      First DES key
2614                  1 = /dev/deskey1      Second DES key
2615                    ...
2616
2617188 char        USB serial converters
2618                  0 = /dev/ttyUSB0      First USB serial converter
2619                  1 = /dev/ttyUSB1      Second USB serial converter
2620                    ...
2621
2622189 char        USB serial converters - alternate devices
2623                  0 = /dev/cuusb0       Callout device for ttyUSB0
2624                  1 = /dev/cuusb1       Callout device for ttyUSB1
2625                    ...
2626
2627190 char        Kansas City tracker/tuner card
2628                  0 = /dev/kctt0        First KCT/T card
2629                  1 = /dev/kctt1        Second KCT/T card
2630                    ...
2631
2632191 char        Reserved for PCMCIA
2633
2634192 char        Kernel profiling interface
2635                  0 = /dev/profile      Profiling control device
2636                  1 = /dev/profile0     Profiling device for CPU 0
2637                  2 = /dev/profile1     Profiling device for CPU 1
2638                    ...
2639
2640193 char        Kernel event-tracing interface
2641                  0 = /dev/trace        Tracing control device
2642                  1 = /dev/trace0       Tracing device for CPU 0
2643                  2 = /dev/trace1       Tracing device for CPU 1
2644                    ...
2645
2646194 char        linVideoStreams (LINVS)
2647                  0 = /dev/mvideo/status0       Video compression status
2648                  1 = /dev/mvideo/stream0       Video stream
2649                  2 = /dev/mvideo/frame0        Single compressed frame
2650                  3 = /dev/mvideo/rawframe0     Raw uncompressed frame
2651                  4 = /dev/mvideo/codec0        Direct codec access
2652                  5 = /dev/mvideo/video4linux0  Video4Linux compatibility
2653
2654                 16 = /dev/mvideo/status1       Second device
2655                    ...
2656                 32 = /dev/mvideo/status2       Third device
2657                    ...
2658                    ...
2659                240 = /dev/mvideo/status15      16th device
2660                    ...
2661
2662195 char        Nvidia graphics devices
2663                  0 = /dev/nvidia0              First Nvidia card
2664                  1 = /dev/nvidia1              Second Nvidia card
2665                    ...
2666                255 = /dev/nvidiactl            Nvidia card control device
2667
2668196 char        Tormenta T1 card
2669                  0 = /dev/tor/0                Master control channel for all cards
2670                  1 = /dev/tor/1                First DS0
2671                  2 = /dev/tor/2                Second DS0
2672                    ...
2673                 48 = /dev/tor/48               48th DS0
2674                 49 = /dev/tor/49               First pseudo-channel
2675                 50 = /dev/tor/50               Second pseudo-channel
2676                    ...
2677
2678197 char        OpenTNF tracing facility
2679                  0 = /dev/tnf/t0               Trace 0 data extraction
2680                  1 = /dev/tnf/t1               Trace 1 data extraction
2681                    ...
2682                128 = /dev/tnf/status           Tracing facility status
2683                130 = /dev/tnf/trace            Tracing device
2684
2685198 char        Total Impact TPMP2 quad coprocessor PCI card
2686                  0 = /dev/tpmp2/0              First card
2687                  1 = /dev/tpmp2/1              Second card
2688                    ...
2689
2690199 char        Veritas volume manager (VxVM) volumes
2691                  0 = /dev/vx/rdsk/*/*          First volume
2692                  1 = /dev/vx/rdsk/*/*          Second volume
2693                    ...
2694
2695199 block       Veritas volume manager (VxVM) volumes
2696                  0 = /dev/vx/dsk/*/*           First volume
2697                  1 = /dev/vx/dsk/*/*           Second volume
2698                    ...
2699
2700                The namespace in these directories is maintained by
2701                the user space VxVM software.
2702
2703200 char        Veritas VxVM configuration interface
2704                  0 = /dev/vx/config            Configuration access node
2705                  1 = /dev/vx/trace             Volume i/o trace access node
2706                  2 = /dev/vx/iod               Volume i/o daemon access node
2707                  3 = /dev/vx/info              Volume information access node
2708                  4 = /dev/vx/task              Volume tasks access node
2709                  5 = /dev/vx/taskmon           Volume tasks monitor daemon
2710
2711201 char        Veritas VxVM dynamic multipathing driver
2712                  0 = /dev/vx/rdmp/*            First multipath device
2713                  1 = /dev/vx/rdmp/*            Second multipath device
2714                    ...
2715201 block       Veritas VxVM dynamic multipathing driver
2716                  0 = /dev/vx/dmp/*             First multipath device
2717                  1 = /dev/vx/dmp/*             Second multipath device
2718                    ...
2719
2720                The namespace in these directories is maintained by
2721                the user space VxVM software.
2722
2723202 char        CPU model-specific registers
2724                  0 = /dev/cpu/0/msr            MSRs on CPU 0
2725                  1 = /dev/cpu/1/msr            MSRs on CPU 1
2726                    ...
2727
2728202 block       Xen Virtual Block Device
2729                  0 = /dev/xvda       First Xen VBD whole disk
2730                  16 = /dev/xvdb      Second Xen VBD whole disk
2731                  32 = /dev/xvdc      Third Xen VBD whole disk
2732                    ...
2733                  240 = /dev/xvdp     Sixteenth Xen VBD whole disk
2734
2735                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2736                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2737                partitions is 15.
2738
2739203 char        CPU CPUID information
2740                  0 = /dev/cpu/0/cpuid          CPUID on CPU 0
2741                  1 = /dev/cpu/1/cpuid          CPUID on CPU 1
2742                    ...
2743
2744204 char        Low-density serial ports
2745                  0 = /dev/ttyLU0               LinkUp Systems L72xx UART - port 0
2746                  1 = /dev/ttyLU1               LinkUp Systems L72xx UART - port 1
2747                  2 = /dev/ttyLU2               LinkUp Systems L72xx UART - port 2
2748                  3 = /dev/ttyLU3               LinkUp Systems L72xx UART - port 3
2749                  4 = /dev/ttyFB0               Intel Footbridge (ARM)
2750                  5 = /dev/ttySA0               StrongARM builtin serial port 0
2751                  6 = /dev/ttySA1               StrongARM builtin serial port 1
2752                  7 = /dev/ttySA2               StrongARM builtin serial port 2
2753                  8 = /dev/ttySC0               SCI serial port (SuperH) - port 0
2754                  9 = /dev/ttySC1               SCI serial port (SuperH) - port 1
2755                 10 = /dev/ttySC2               SCI serial port (SuperH) - port 2
2756                 11 = /dev/ttySC3               SCI serial port (SuperH) - port 3
2757                 12 = /dev/ttyFW0               Firmware console - port 0
2758                 13 = /dev/ttyFW1               Firmware console - port 1
2759                 14 = /dev/ttyFW2               Firmware console - port 2
2760                 15 = /dev/ttyFW3               Firmware console - port 3
2761                 16 = /dev/ttyAM0               ARM "AMBA" serial port 0
2762                    ...
2763                 31 = /dev/ttyAM15              ARM "AMBA" serial port 15
2764                 32 = /dev/ttyDB0               DataBooster serial port 0
2765                    ...
2766                 39 = /dev/ttyDB7               DataBooster serial port 7
2767                 40 = /dev/ttySG0               SGI Altix console port
2768                 41 = /dev/ttySMX0              Motorola i.MX - port 0
2769                 42 = /dev/ttySMX1              Motorola i.MX - port 1
2770                 43 = /dev/ttySMX2              Motorola i.MX - port 2
2771                 44 = /dev/ttyMM0               Marvell MPSC - port 0
2772                 45 = /dev/ttyMM1               Marvell MPSC - port 1
2773                 46 = /dev/ttyCPM0              PPC CPM (SCC or SMC) - port 0
2774                    ...
2775                 47 = /dev/ttyCPM5              PPC CPM (SCC or SMC) - port 5
2776                 50 = /dev/ttyIOC0              Altix serial card
2777                    ...
2778                 81 = /dev/ttyIOC31             Altix serial card
2779                 82 = /dev/ttyVR0               NEC VR4100 series SIU
2780                 83 = /dev/ttyVR1               NEC VR4100 series DSIU
2781                 84 = /dev/ttyIOC84             Altix ioc4 serial card
2782                    ...
2783                 115 = /dev/ttyIOC115           Altix ioc4 serial card
2784                 116 = /dev/ttySIOC0            Altix ioc3 serial card
2785                    ...
2786                 147 = /dev/ttySIOC31           Altix ioc3 serial card
2787                 148 = /dev/ttyPSC0             PPC PSC - port 0
2788                    ...
2789                 153 = /dev/ttyPSC5             PPC PSC - port 5
2790                 154 = /dev/ttyAT0              ATMEL serial port 0
2791                    ...
2792                 169 = /dev/ttyAT15             ATMEL serial port 15
2793                 170 = /dev/ttyNX0              Hilscher netX serial port 0
2794                    ...
2795                 185 = /dev/ttyNX15             Hilscher netX serial port 15
2796                 186 = /dev/ttyJ0               JTAG1 DCC protocol based serial port emulation
2797                 187 = /dev/ttyUL0              Xilinx uartlite - port 0
2798                    ...
2799                 190 = /dev/ttyUL3              Xilinx uartlite - port 3
2800                 191 = /dev/xvc0                Xen virtual console - port 0
2801                 192 = /dev/ttyPZ0              pmac_zilog - port 0
2802                    ...
2803                 195 = /dev/ttyPZ3              pmac_zilog - port 3
2804                 196 = /dev/ttyTX0              TX39/49 serial port 0
2805                    ...
2806                 204 = /dev/ttyTX7              TX39/49 serial port 7
2807                 205 = /dev/ttySC0              SC26xx serial port 0
2808                 206 = /dev/ttySC1              SC26xx serial port 1
2809                 207 = /dev/ttySC2              SC26xx serial port 2
2810                 208 = /dev/ttySC3              SC26xx serial port 3
2811                 209 = /dev/ttyMAX0             MAX3100 serial port 0
2812                 210 = /dev/ttyMAX1             MAX3100 serial port 1
2813                 211 = /dev/ttyMAX2             MAX3100 serial port 2
2814                 212 = /dev/ttyMAX3             MAX3100 serial port 3
2815
2816205 char        Low-density serial ports (alternate device)
2817                  0 = /dev/culu0                Callout device for ttyLU0
2818                  1 = /dev/culu1                Callout device for ttyLU1
2819                  2 = /dev/culu2                Callout device for ttyLU2
2820                  3 = /dev/culu3                Callout device for ttyLU3
2821                  4 = /dev/cufb0                Callout device for ttyFB0
2822                  5 = /dev/cusa0                Callout device for ttySA0
2823                  6 = /dev/cusa1                Callout device for ttySA1
2824                  7 = /dev/cusa2                Callout device for ttySA2
2825                  8 = /dev/cusc0                Callout device for ttySC0
2826                  9 = /dev/cusc1                Callout device for ttySC1
2827                 10 = /dev/cusc2                Callout device for ttySC2
2828                 11 = /dev/cusc3                Callout device for ttySC3
2829                 12 = /dev/cufw0                Callout device for ttyFW0
2830                 13 = /dev/cufw1                Callout device for ttyFW1
2831                 14 = /dev/cufw2                Callout device for ttyFW2
2832                 15 = /dev/cufw3                Callout device for ttyFW3
2833                 16 = /dev/cuam0                Callout device for ttyAM0
2834                    ...
2835                 31 = /dev/cuam15               Callout device for ttyAM15
2836                 32 = /dev/cudb0                Callout device for ttyDB0
2837                    ...
2838                 39 = /dev/cudb7                Callout device for ttyDB7
2839                 40 = /dev/cusg0                Callout device for ttySG0
2840                 41 = /dev/ttycusmx0            Callout device for ttySMX0
2841                 42 = /dev/ttycusmx1            Callout device for ttySMX1
2842                 43 = /dev/ttycusmx2            Callout device for ttySMX2
2843                 46 = /dev/cucpm0               Callout device for ttyCPM0
2844                    ...
2845                 49 = /dev/cucpm5               Callout device for ttyCPM5
2846                 50 = /dev/cuioc40              Callout device for ttyIOC40
2847                    ...
2848                 81 = /dev/cuioc431             Callout device for ttyIOC431
2849                 82 = /dev/cuvr0                Callout device for ttyVR0
2850                 83 = /dev/cuvr1                Callout device for ttyVR1
2851
2852206 char        OnStream SC-x0 tape devices
2853                  0 = /dev/osst0                First OnStream SCSI tape, mode 0
2854                  1 = /dev/osst1                Second OnStream SCSI tape, mode 0
2855                    ...
2856                 32 = /dev/osst0l               First OnStream SCSI tape, mode 1
2857                 33 = /dev/osst1l               Second OnStream SCSI tape, mode 1
2858                    ...
2859                 64 = /dev/osst0m               First OnStream SCSI tape, mode 2
2860                 65 = /dev/osst1m               Second OnStream SCSI tape, mode 2
2861                    ...
2862                 96 = /dev/osst0a               First OnStream SCSI tape, mode 3
2863                 97 = /dev/osst1a               Second OnStream SCSI tape, mode 3
2864                    ...
2865                128 = /dev/nosst0               No rewind version of /dev/osst0
2866                129 = /dev/nosst1               No rewind version of /dev/osst1
2867                    ...
2868                160 = /dev/nosst0l              No rewind version of /dev/osst0l
2869                161 = /dev/nosst1l              No rewind version of /dev/osst1l
2870                    ...
2871                192 = /dev/nosst0m              No rewind version of /dev/osst0m
2872                193 = /dev/nosst1m              No rewind version of /dev/osst1m
2873                    ...
2874                224 = /dev/nosst0a              No rewind version of /dev/osst0a
2875                225 = /dev/nosst1a              No rewind version of /dev/osst1a
2876                    ...
2877
2878                The OnStream SC-x0 SCSI tapes do not support the
2879                standard SCSI SASD command set and therefore need
2880                their own driver "osst". Note that the IDE, USB (and
2881                maybe ParPort) versions may be driven via ide-scsi or
2882                usb-storage SCSI emulation and this osst device and
2883                driver as well.  The ADR-x0 drives are QIC-157
2884                compliant and don't need osst.
2885
2886207 char        Compaq ProLiant health feature indicate
2887                  0 = /dev/cpqhealth/cpqw       Redirector interface
2888                  1 = /dev/cpqhealth/crom       EISA CROM
2889                  2 = /dev/cpqhealth/cdt        Data Table
2890                  3 = /dev/cpqhealth/cevt       Event Log
2891                  4 = /dev/cpqhealth/casr       Automatic Server Recovery
2892                  5 = /dev/cpqhealth/cecc       ECC Memory
2893                  6 = /dev/cpqhealth/cmca       Machine Check Architecture
2894                  7 = /dev/cpqhealth/ccsm       Deprecated CDT
2895                  8 = /dev/cpqhealth/cnmi       NMI Handling
2896                  9 = /dev/cpqhealth/css        Sideshow Management
2897                 10 = /dev/cpqhealth/cram       CMOS interface
2898                 11 = /dev/cpqhealth/cpci       PCI IRQ interface
2899
2900208 char        User space serial ports
2901                  0 = /dev/ttyU0                First user space serial port
2902                  1 = /dev/ttyU1                Second user space serial port
2903                    ...
2904
2905209 char        User space serial ports (alternate devices)
2906                  0 = /dev/cuu0                 Callout device for ttyU0
2907                  1 = /dev/cuu1                 Callout device for ttyU1
2908                    ...
2909
2910210 char        SBE, Inc. sync/async serial card
2911                  0 = /dev/sbei/wxcfg0          Configuration device for board 0
2912                  1 = /dev/sbei/dld0            Download device for board 0
2913                  2 = /dev/sbei/wan00           WAN device, port 0, board 0
2914                  3 = /dev/sbei/wan01           WAN device, port 1, board 0
2915                  4 = /dev/sbei/wan02           WAN device, port 2, board 0
2916                  5 = /dev/sbei/wan03           WAN device, port 3, board 0
2917                  6 = /dev/sbei/wanc00          WAN clone device, port 0, board 0
2918                  7 = /dev/sbei/wanc01          WAN clone device, port 1, board 0
2919                  8 = /dev/sbei/wanc02          WAN clone device, port 2, board 0
2920                  9 = /dev/sbei/wanc03          WAN clone device, port 3, board 0
2921                 10 = /dev/sbei/wxcfg1          Configuration device for board 1
2922                 11 = /dev/sbei/dld1            Download device for board 1
2923                 12 = /dev/sbei/wan10           WAN device, port 0, board 1
2924                 13 = /dev/sbei/wan11           WAN device, port 1, board 1
2925                 14 = /dev/sbei/wan12           WAN device, port 2, board 1
2926                 15 = /dev/sbei/wan13           WAN device, port 3, board 1
2927                 16 = /dev/sbei/wanc10          WAN clone device, port 0, board 1
2928                 17 = /dev/sbei/wanc11          WAN clone device, port 1, board 1
2929                 18 = /dev/sbei/wanc12          WAN clone device, port 2, board 1
2930                 19 = /dev/sbei/wanc13          WAN clone device, port 3, board 1
2931                    ...
2932
2933                Yes, each board is really spaced 10 (decimal) apart.
2934
2935211 char        Addinum CPCI1500 digital I/O card
2936                  0 = /dev/addinum/cpci1500/0   First CPCI1500 card
2937                  1 = /dev/addinum/cpci1500/1   Second CPCI1500 card
2938                    ...
2939
2940212 char        LinuxTV.org DVB driver subsystem
2941                  0 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/video0    first video decoder of first card
2942                  1 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/audio0    first audio decoder of first card
2943                  2 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/sec0      (obsolete/unused)
2944                  3 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/frontend0 first frontend device of first card
2945                  4 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/demux0    first demux device of first card
2946                  5 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/dvr0      first digital video recoder device of first card
2947                  6 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/ca0       first common access port of first card
2948                  7 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/net0      first network device of first card
2949                  8 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/osd0      first on-screen-display device of first card
2950                  9 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/video1    second video decoder of first card
2951                    ...
2952                 64 = /dev/dvb/adapter1/video0    first video decoder of second card
2953                    ...
2954                128 = /dev/dvb/adapter2/video0    first video decoder of third card
2955                    ...
2956                196 = /dev/dvb/adapter3/video0    first video decoder of fourth card
2957
2958216 char        Bluetooth RFCOMM TTY devices
2959                  0 = /dev/rfcomm0              First Bluetooth RFCOMM TTY device
2960                  1 = /dev/rfcomm1              Second Bluetooth RFCOMM TTY device
2961                    ...
2962
2963217 char        Bluetooth RFCOMM TTY devices (alternate devices)
2964                  0 = /dev/curf0                Callout device for rfcomm0
2965                  1 = /dev/curf1                Callout device for rfcomm1
2966                    ...
2967
2968218 char        The Logical Company bus Unibus/Qbus adapters
2969                  0 = /dev/logicalco/bci/0      First bus adapter
2970                  1 = /dev/logicalco/bci/1      First bus adapter
2971                    ...
2972
2973219 char        The Logical Company DCI-1300 digital I/O card
2974                  0 = /dev/logicalco/dci1300/0  First DCI-1300 card
2975                  1 = /dev/logicalco/dci1300/1  Second DCI-1300 card
2976                    ...
2977
2978220 char        Myricom Myrinet "GM" board
2979                  0 = /dev/myricom/gm0          First Myrinet GM board
2980                  1 = /dev/myricom/gmp0         First board "root access"
2981                  2 = /dev/myricom/gm1          Second Myrinet GM board
2982                  3 = /dev/myricom/gmp1         Second board "root access"
2983                    ...
2984
2985221 char        VME bus
2986                  0 = /dev/bus/vme/m0           First master image
2987                  1 = /dev/bus/vme/m1           Second master image
2988                  2 = /dev/bus/vme/m2           Third master image
2989                  3 = /dev/bus/vme/m3           Fourth master image
2990                  4 = /dev/bus/vme/s0           First slave image
2991                  5 = /dev/bus/vme/s1           Second slave image
2992                  6 = /dev/bus/vme/s2           Third slave image
2993                  7 = /dev/bus/vme/s3           Fourth slave image
2994                  8 = /dev/bus/vme/ctl          Control
2995
2996                It is expected that all VME bus drivers will use the
2997                same interface.  For interface documentation see
2998                http://www.vmelinux.org/.
2999
3000224 char        A2232 serial card
3001                  0 = /dev/ttyY0                First A2232 port
3002                  1 = /dev/ttyY1                Second A2232 port
3003                    ...
3004
3005225 char        A2232 serial card (alternate devices)
3006                  0 = /dev/cuy0                 Callout device for ttyY0
3007                  1 = /dev/cuy1                 Callout device for ttyY1
3008                    ...
3009
3010226 char        Direct Rendering Infrastructure (DRI)
3011                  0 = /dev/dri/card0            First graphics card
3012                  1 = /dev/dri/card1            Second graphics card
3013                    ...
3014
3015227 char        IBM 3270 terminal Unix tty access
3016                  1 = /dev/3270/tty1            First 3270 terminal
3017                  2 = /dev/3270/tty2            Seconds 3270 terminal
3018                    ...
3019
3020228 char        IBM 3270 terminal block-mode access
3021                  0 = /dev/3270/tub             Controlling interface
3022                  1 = /dev/3270/tub1            First 3270 terminal
3023                  2 = /dev/3270/tub2            Second 3270 terminal
3024                    ...
3025
3026229 char        IBM iSeries/pSeries virtual console
3027                  0 = /dev/hvc0                 First console port
3028                  1 = /dev/hvc1                 Second console port
3029                    ...
3030
3031230 char        IBM iSeries virtual tape
3032                  0 = /dev/iseries/vt0          First virtual tape, mode 0
3033                  1 = /dev/iseries/vt1          Second virtual tape, mode 0
3034                    ...
3035                 32 = /dev/iseries/vt0l         First virtual tape, mode 1
3036                 33 = /dev/iseries/vt1l         Second virtual tape, mode 1
3037                    ...
3038                 64 = /dev/iseries/vt0m         First virtual tape, mode 2
3039                 65 = /dev/iseries/vt1m         Second virtual tape, mode 2
3040                    ...
3041                 96 = /dev/iseries/vt0a         First virtual tape, mode 3
3042                 97 = /dev/iseries/vt1a         Second virtual tape, mode 3
3043                      ...
3044                128 = /dev/iseries/nvt0         First virtual tape, mode 0, no rewind
3045                129 = /dev/iseries/nvt1         Second virtual tape, mode 0, no rewind
3046                    ...
3047                160 = /dev/iseries/nvt0l        First virtual tape, mode 1, no rewind
3048                161 = /dev/iseries/nvt1l        Second virtual tape, mode 1, no rewind
3049                    ...
3050                192 = /dev/iseries/nvt0m        First virtual tape, mode 2, no rewind
3051                193 = /dev/iseries/nvt1m        Second virtual tape, mode 2, no rewind
3052                    ...
3053                224 = /dev/iseries/nvt0a        First virtual tape, mode 3, no rewind
3054                225 = /dev/iseries/nvt1a        Second virtual tape, mode 3, no rewind
3055                    ...
3056
3057                "No rewind" refers to the omission of the default
3058                automatic rewind on device close.  The MTREW or MTOFFL
3059                ioctl()'s can be used to rewind the tape regardless of
3060                the device used to access it.
3061
3062231 char        InfiniBand
3063                0 = /dev/infiniband/umad0
3064                1 = /dev/infiniband/umad1
3065                  ...
3066                63 = /dev/infiniband/umad63    63rd InfiniBandMad device
3067                64 = /dev/infiniband/issm0     First InfiniBand IsSM device
3068                65 = /dev/infiniband/issm1     Second InfiniBand IsSM device
3069                  ...
3070                127 = /dev/infiniband/issm63    63rd InfiniBand IsSM device
3071                128 = /dev/infiniband/uverbs0   First InfiniBand verbs device
3072                129 = /dev/infiniband/uverbs1   Second InfiniBand verbs device
3073                  ...
3074                159 = /dev/infiniband/uverbs31  31st InfiniBand verbs device
3075
3076232 char        Biometric Devices
3077                0 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/fingerprint  first fingerprint sensor on first device
3078                1 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/iris         first iris sensor on first device
3079                2 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/retina       first retina sensor on first device
3080                3 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/voiceprint   first voiceprint sensor on first device
3081                4 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/facial       first facial sensor on first device
3082                5 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/hand         first hand sensor on first device
3083                  ...
3084                10 = /dev/biometric/sensor1/fingerprint first fingerprint sensor on second device
3085                  ...
3086                20 = /dev/biometric/sensor2/fingerprint first fingerprint sensor on third device
3087                  ...
3088
3089233 char        PathScale InfiniPath interconnect
3090                0 = /dev/ipath        Primary device for programs (any unit)
3091                1 = /dev/ipath0       Access specifically to unit 0
3092                2 = /dev/ipath1       Access specifically to unit 1
3093                  ...
3094                4 = /dev/ipath3       Access specifically to unit 3
3095                129 = /dev/ipath_sma    Device used by Subnet Management Agent
3096                130 = /dev/ipath_diag   Device used by diagnostics programs
3097
3098234-239         UNASSIGNED
3099
3100240-254 char    LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
3101
3102240-254 block   LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
3103                Allocated for local/experimental use.  For devices not
3104                assigned official numbers, these ranges should be
3105                used in order to avoid conflicting with future assignments.
3106
3107255 char        RESERVED
3108
3109255 block       RESERVED
3110
3111                This major is reserved to assist the expansion to a
3112                larger number space.  No device nodes with this major
3113                should ever be created on the filesystem.
3114                (This is probably not true anymore, but I'll leave it
3115                for now /Torben)
3116
3117---LARGE MAJORS!!!!!---
3118
3119256 char        Equinox SST multi-port serial boards
3120                   0 = /dev/ttyEQ0      First serial port on first Equinox SST board
3121                 127 = /dev/ttyEQ127    Last serial port on first Equinox SST board
3122                 128 = /dev/ttyEQ128    First serial port on second Equinox SST board
3123                  ...
3124                1027 = /dev/ttyEQ1027   Last serial port on eighth Equinox SST board
3125
3126256 block       Resident Flash Disk Flash Translation Layer
3127                  0 = /dev/rfda         First RFD FTL layer
3128                 16 = /dev/rfdb         Second RFD FTL layer
3129                  ...
3130                240 = /dev/rfdp         16th RFD FTL layer
3131
3132257 char        Phoenix Technologies Cryptographic Services Driver
3133                  0 = /dev/ptlsec       Crypto Services Driver
3134
3135257 block       SSFDC Flash Translation Layer filesystem
3136                  0 = /dev/ssfdca       First SSFDC layer
3137                  8 = /dev/ssfdcb       Second SSFDC layer
3138                 16 = /dev/ssfdcc       Third SSFDC layer
3139                 24 = /dev/ssfdcd       4th SSFDC layer
3140                 32 = /dev/ssfdce       5th SSFDC layer
3141                 40 = /dev/ssfdcf       6th SSFDC layer
3142                 48 = /dev/ssfdcg       7th SSFDC layer
3143                 56 = /dev/ssfdch       8th SSFDC layer
3144
3145258 block       ROM/Flash read-only translation layer
3146                  0 = /dev/blockrom0    First ROM card's translation layer interface
3147                  1 = /dev/blockrom1    Second ROM card's translation layer interface
3148                  ...
3149
3150259 block       Block Extended Major
3151                  Used dynamically to hold additional partition minor
3152                  numbers and allow large numbers of partitions per device
3153
3154259 char        FPGA configuration interfaces
3155                  0 = /dev/icap0        First Xilinx internal configuration
3156                  1 = /dev/icap1        Second Xilinx internal configuration
3157
3158260 char        OSD (Object-based-device) SCSI Device
3159                  0 = /dev/osd0         First OSD Device
3160                  1 = /dev/osd1         Second OSD Device
3161                  ...
3162                  255 = /dev/osd255     256th OSD Device
3163
3164 ****   ADDITIONAL /dev DIRECTORY ENTRIES
3165
3166This section details additional entries that should or may exist in
3167the /dev directory.  It is preferred that symbolic links use the same
3168form (absolute or relative) as is indicated here.  Links are
3169classified as "hard" or "symbolic" depending on the preferred type of
3170link; if possible, the indicated type of link should be used.
3171
3172
3173        Compulsory links
3174
3175These links should exist on all systems:
3176
3177/dev/fd         /proc/self/fd   symbolic        File descriptors
3178/dev/stdin      fd/0            symbolic        stdin file descriptor
3179/dev/stdout     fd/1            symbolic        stdout file descriptor
3180/dev/stderr     fd/2            symbolic        stderr file descriptor
3181/dev/nfsd       socksys         symbolic        Required by iBCS-2
3182/dev/X0R        null            symbolic        Required by iBCS-2
3183
3184Note: /dev/X0R is <letter X>-<digit 0>-<letter R>.
3185
3186        Recommended links
3187
3188It is recommended that these links exist on all systems:
3189
3190/dev/core       /proc/kcore     symbolic        Backward compatibility
3191/dev/ramdisk    ram0            symbolic        Backward compatibility
3192/dev/ftape      qft0            symbolic        Backward compatibility
3193/dev/bttv0      video0          symbolic        Backward compatibility
3194/dev/radio      radio0          symbolic        Backward compatibility
3195/dev/i2o*       /dev/i2o/*      symbolic        Backward compatibility
3196/dev/scd?       sr?             hard            Alternate SCSI CD-ROM name
3197
3198        Locally defined links
3199
3200The following links may be established locally to conform to the
3201configuration of the system.  This is merely a tabulation of existing
3202practice, and does not constitute a recommendation.  However, if they
3203exist, they should have the following uses.
3204
3205/dev/mouse      mouse port      symbolic        Current mouse device
3206/dev/tape       tape device     symbolic        Current tape device
3207/dev/cdrom      CD-ROM device   symbolic        Current CD-ROM device
3208/dev/cdwriter   CD-writer       symbolic        Current CD-writer device
3209/dev/scanner    scanner         symbolic        Current scanner device
3210/dev/modem      modem port      symbolic        Current dialout device
3211/dev/root       root device     symbolic        Current root filesystem
3212/dev/swap       swap device     symbolic        Current swap device
3213
3214/dev/modem should not be used for a modem which supports dialin as
3215well as dialout, as it tends to cause lock file problems.  If it
3216exists, /dev/modem should point to the appropriate primary TTY device
3217(the use of the alternate callout devices is deprecated).
3218
3219For SCSI devices, /dev/tape and /dev/cdrom should point to the
3220``cooked'' devices (/dev/st* and /dev/sr*, respectively), whereas
3221/dev/cdwriter and /dev/scanner should point to the appropriate generic
3222SCSI devices (/dev/sg*).
3223
3224/dev/mouse may point to a primary serial TTY device, a hardware mouse
3225device, or a socket for a mouse driver program (e.g. /dev/gpmdata).
3226
3227        Sockets and pipes
3228
3229Non-transient sockets and named pipes may exist in /dev.  Common entries are:
3230
3231/dev/printer    socket          lpd local socket
3232/dev/log        socket          syslog local socket
3233/dev/gpmdata    socket          gpm mouse multiplexer
3234
3235        Mount points
3236
3237The following names are reserved for mounting special filesystems
3238under /dev.  These special filesystems provide kernel interfaces that
3239cannot be provided with standard device nodes.
3240
3241/dev/pts        devpts          PTY slave filesystem
3242/dev/shm        tmpfs           POSIX shared memory maintenance access
3243
3244 ****   TERMINAL DEVICES
3245
3246Terminal, or TTY devices are a special class of character devices.  A
3247terminal device is any device that could act as a controlling terminal
3248for a session; this includes virtual consoles, serial ports, and
3249pseudoterminals (PTYs).
3250
3251All terminal devices share a common set of capabilities known as line
3252disciplines; these include the common terminal line discipline as well
3253as SLIP and PPP modes.
3254
3255All terminal devices are named similarly; this section explains the
3256naming and use of the various types of TTYs.  Note that the naming
3257conventions include several historical warts; some of these are
3258Linux-specific, some were inherited from other systems, and some
3259reflect Linux outgrowing a borrowed convention.
3260
3261A hash mark (#) in a device name is used here to indicate a decimal
3262number without leading zeroes.
3263
3264        Virtual consoles and the console device
3265
3266Virtual consoles are full-screen terminal displays on the system video
3267monitor.  Virtual consoles are named /dev/tty#, with numbering
3268starting at /dev/tty1; /dev/tty0 is the current virtual console.
3269/dev/tty0 is the device that should be used to access the system video
3270card on those architectures for which the frame buffer devices
3271(/dev/fb*) are not applicable.  Do not use /dev/console
3272for this purpose.
3273
3274The console device, /dev/console, is the device to which system
3275messages should be sent, and on which logins should be permitted in
3276single-user mode.  Starting with Linux 2.1.71, /dev/console is managed
3277by the kernel; for previous versions it should be a symbolic link to
3278either /dev/tty0, a specific virtual console such as /dev/tty1, or to
3279a serial port primary (tty*, not cu*) device, depending on the
3280configuration of the system.
3281
3282        Serial ports
3283
3284Serial ports are RS-232 serial ports and any device which simulates
3285one, either in hardware (such as internal modems) or in software (such
3286as the ISDN driver.)  Under Linux, each serial ports has two device
3287names, the primary or callin device and the alternate or callout one.
3288Each kind of device is indicated by a different letter.  For any
3289letter X, the names of the devices are /dev/ttyX# and /dev/cux#,
3290respectively; for historical reasons, /dev/ttyS# and /dev/ttyC#
3291correspond to /dev/cua# and /dev/cub#.  In the future, it should be
3292expected that multiple letters will be used; all letters will be upper
3293case for the "tty" device (e.g. /dev/ttyDP#) and lower case for the
3294"cu" device (e.g. /dev/cudp#).
3295
3296The names /dev/ttyQ# and /dev/cuq# are reserved for local use.
3297
3298The alternate devices provide for kernel-based exclusion and somewhat
3299different defaults than the primary devices.  Their main purpose is to
3300allow the use of serial ports with programs with no inherent or broken
3301support for serial ports.  Their use is deprecated, and they may be
3302removed from a future version of Linux.
3303
3304Arbitration of serial ports is provided by the use of lock files with
3305the names /var/lock/LCK..ttyX#.  The contents of the lock file should
3306be the PID of the locking process as an ASCII number.
3307
3308It is common practice to install links such as /dev/modem
3309which point to serial ports.  In order to ensure proper locking in the
3310presence of these links, it is recommended that software chase
3311symlinks and lock all possible names; additionally, it is recommended
3312that a lock file be installed with the corresponding alternate
3313device.  In order to avoid deadlocks, it is recommended that the locks
3314are acquired in the following order, and released in the reverse:
3315
3316        1. The symbolic link name, if any (/var/lock/LCK..modem)
3317        2. The "tty" name (/var/lock/LCK..ttyS2)
3318        3. The alternate device name (/var/lock/LCK..cua2)
3319
3320In the case of nested symbolic links, the lock files should be
3321installed in the order the symlinks are resolved.
3322
3323Under no circumstances should an application hold a lock while waiting
3324for another to be released.  In addition, applications which attempt
3325to create lock files for the corresponding alternate device names
3326should take into account the possibility of being used on a non-serial
3327port TTY, for which no alternate device would exist.
3328
3329        Pseudoterminals (PTYs)
3330
3331Pseudoterminals, or PTYs, are used to create login sessions or provide
3332other capabilities requiring a TTY line discipline (including SLIP or
3333PPP capability) to arbitrary data-generation processes.  Each PTY has
3334a master side, named /dev/pty[p-za-e][0-9a-f], and a slave side, named
3335/dev/tty[p-za-e][0-9a-f].  The kernel arbitrates the use of PTYs by
3336allowing each master side to be opened only once.
3337
3338Once the master side has been opened, the corresponding slave device
3339can be used in the same manner as any TTY device.  The master and
3340slave devices are connected by the kernel, generating the equivalent
3341of a bidirectional pipe with TTY capabilities.
3342
3343Recent versions of the Linux kernels and GNU libc contain support for
3344the System V/Unix98 naming scheme for PTYs, which assigns a common
3345device, /dev/ptmx, to all the masters (opening it will automatically
3346give you a previously unassigned PTY) and a subdirectory, /dev/pts,
3347for the slaves; the slaves are named with decimal integers (/dev/pts/#
3348in our notation).  This removes the problem of exhausting the
3349namespace and enables the kernel to automatically create the device
3350nodes for the slaves on demand using the "devpts" filesystem.
3351
3352
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