linux/Documentation/networking/can.txt
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   1============================================================================
   2
   3can.txt
   4
   5Readme file for the Controller Area Network Protocol Family (aka Socket CAN)
   6
   7This file contains
   8
   9  1 Overview / What is Socket CAN
  10
  11  2 Motivation / Why using the socket API
  12
  13  3 Socket CAN concept
  14    3.1 receive lists
  15    3.2 local loopback of sent frames
  16    3.3 network security issues (capabilities)
  17    3.4 network problem notifications
  18
  19  4 How to use Socket CAN
  20    4.1 RAW protocol sockets with can_filters (SOCK_RAW)
  21      4.1.1 RAW socket option CAN_RAW_FILTER
  22      4.1.2 RAW socket option CAN_RAW_ERR_FILTER
  23      4.1.3 RAW socket option CAN_RAW_LOOPBACK
  24      4.1.4 RAW socket option CAN_RAW_RECV_OWN_MSGS
  25      4.1.5 RAW socket option CAN_RAW_FD_FRAMES
  26      4.1.6 RAW socket returned message flags
  27    4.2 Broadcast Manager protocol sockets (SOCK_DGRAM)
  28    4.3 connected transport protocols (SOCK_SEQPACKET)
  29    4.4 unconnected transport protocols (SOCK_DGRAM)
  30
  31  5 Socket CAN core module
  32    5.1 can.ko module params
  33    5.2 procfs content
  34    5.3 writing own CAN protocol modules
  35
  36  6 CAN network drivers
  37    6.1 general settings
  38    6.2 local loopback of sent frames
  39    6.3 CAN controller hardware filters
  40    6.4 The virtual CAN driver (vcan)
  41    6.5 The CAN network device driver interface
  42      6.5.1 Netlink interface to set/get devices properties
  43      6.5.2 Setting the CAN bit-timing
  44      6.5.3 Starting and stopping the CAN network device
  45    6.6 CAN FD (flexible data rate) driver support
  46    6.7 supported CAN hardware
  47
  48  7 Socket CAN resources
  49
  50  8 Credits
  51
  52============================================================================
  53
  541. Overview / What is Socket CAN
  55--------------------------------
  56
  57The socketcan package is an implementation of CAN protocols
  58(Controller Area Network) for Linux.  CAN is a networking technology
  59which has widespread use in automation, embedded devices, and
  60automotive fields.  While there have been other CAN implementations
  61for Linux based on character devices, Socket CAN uses the Berkeley
  62socket API, the Linux network stack and implements the CAN device
  63drivers as network interfaces.  The CAN socket API has been designed
  64as similar as possible to the TCP/IP protocols to allow programmers,
  65familiar with network programming, to easily learn how to use CAN
  66sockets.
  67
  682. Motivation / Why using the socket API
  69----------------------------------------
  70
  71There have been CAN implementations for Linux before Socket CAN so the
  72question arises, why we have started another project.  Most existing
  73implementations come as a device driver for some CAN hardware, they
  74are based on character devices and provide comparatively little
  75functionality.  Usually, there is only a hardware-specific device
  76driver which provides a character device interface to send and
  77receive raw CAN frames, directly to/from the controller hardware.
  78Queueing of frames and higher-level transport protocols like ISO-TP
  79have to be implemented in user space applications.  Also, most
  80character-device implementations support only one single process to
  81open the device at a time, similar to a serial interface.  Exchanging
  82the CAN controller requires employment of another device driver and
  83often the need for adaption of large parts of the application to the
  84new driver's API.
  85
  86Socket CAN was designed to overcome all of these limitations.  A new
  87protocol family has been implemented which provides a socket interface
  88to user space applications and which builds upon the Linux network
  89layer, so to use all of the provided queueing functionality.  A device
  90driver for CAN controller hardware registers itself with the Linux
  91network layer as a network device, so that CAN frames from the
  92controller can be passed up to the network layer and on to the CAN
  93protocol family module and also vice-versa.  Also, the protocol family
  94module provides an API for transport protocol modules to register, so
  95that any number of transport protocols can be loaded or unloaded
  96dynamically.  In fact, the can core module alone does not provide any
  97protocol and cannot be used without loading at least one additional
  98protocol module.  Multiple sockets can be opened at the same time,
  99on different or the same protocol module and they can listen/send
 100frames on different or the same CAN IDs.  Several sockets listening on
 101the same interface for frames with the same CAN ID are all passed the
 102same received matching CAN frames.  An application wishing to
 103communicate using a specific transport protocol, e.g. ISO-TP, just
 104selects that protocol when opening the socket, and then can read and
 105write application data byte streams, without having to deal with
 106CAN-IDs, frames, etc.
 107
 108Similar functionality visible from user-space could be provided by a
 109character device, too, but this would lead to a technically inelegant
 110solution for a couple of reasons:
 111
 112* Intricate usage.  Instead of passing a protocol argument to
 113  socket(2) and using bind(2) to select a CAN interface and CAN ID, an
 114  application would have to do all these operations using ioctl(2)s.
 115
 116* Code duplication.  A character device cannot make use of the Linux
 117  network queueing code, so all that code would have to be duplicated
 118  for CAN networking.
 119
 120* Abstraction.  In most existing character-device implementations, the
 121  hardware-specific device driver for a CAN controller directly
 122  provides the character device for the application to work with.
 123  This is at least very unusual in Unix systems for both, char and
 124  block devices.  For example you don't have a character device for a
 125  certain UART of a serial interface, a certain sound chip in your
 126  computer, a SCSI or IDE controller providing access to your hard
 127  disk or tape streamer device.  Instead, you have abstraction layers
 128  which provide a unified character or block device interface to the
 129  application on the one hand, and a interface for hardware-specific
 130  device drivers on the other hand.  These abstractions are provided
 131  by subsystems like the tty layer, the audio subsystem or the SCSI
 132  and IDE subsystems for the devices mentioned above.
 133
 134  The easiest way to implement a CAN device driver is as a character
 135  device without such a (complete) abstraction layer, as is done by most
 136  existing drivers.  The right way, however, would be to add such a
 137  layer with all the functionality like registering for certain CAN
 138  IDs, supporting several open file descriptors and (de)multiplexing
 139  CAN frames between them, (sophisticated) queueing of CAN frames, and
 140  providing an API for device drivers to register with.  However, then
 141  it would be no more difficult, or may be even easier, to use the
 142  networking framework provided by the Linux kernel, and this is what
 143  Socket CAN does.
 144
 145  The use of the networking framework of the Linux kernel is just the
 146  natural and most appropriate way to implement CAN for Linux.
 147
 1483. Socket CAN concept
 149---------------------
 150
 151  As described in chapter 2 it is the main goal of Socket CAN to
 152  provide a socket interface to user space applications which builds
 153  upon the Linux network layer. In contrast to the commonly known
 154  TCP/IP and ethernet networking, the CAN bus is a broadcast-only(!)
 155  medium that has no MAC-layer addressing like ethernet. The CAN-identifier
 156  (can_id) is used for arbitration on the CAN-bus. Therefore the CAN-IDs
 157  have to be chosen uniquely on the bus. When designing a CAN-ECU
 158  network the CAN-IDs are mapped to be sent by a specific ECU.
 159  For this reason a CAN-ID can be treated best as a kind of source address.
 160
 161  3.1 receive lists
 162
 163  The network transparent access of multiple applications leads to the
 164  problem that different applications may be interested in the same
 165  CAN-IDs from the same CAN network interface. The Socket CAN core
 166  module - which implements the protocol family CAN - provides several
 167  high efficient receive lists for this reason. If e.g. a user space
 168  application opens a CAN RAW socket, the raw protocol module itself
 169  requests the (range of) CAN-IDs from the Socket CAN core that are
 170  requested by the user. The subscription and unsubscription of
 171  CAN-IDs can be done for specific CAN interfaces or for all(!) known
 172  CAN interfaces with the can_rx_(un)register() functions provided to
 173  CAN protocol modules by the SocketCAN core (see chapter 5).
 174  To optimize the CPU usage at runtime the receive lists are split up
 175  into several specific lists per device that match the requested
 176  filter complexity for a given use-case.
 177
 178  3.2 local loopback of sent frames
 179
 180  As known from other networking concepts the data exchanging
 181  applications may run on the same or different nodes without any
 182  change (except for the according addressing information):
 183
 184         ___   ___   ___                   _______   ___
 185        | _ | | _ | | _ |                 | _   _ | | _ |
 186        ||A|| ||B|| ||C||                 ||A| |B|| ||C||
 187        |___| |___| |___|                 |_______| |___|
 188          |     |     |                       |       |
 189        -----------------(1)- CAN bus -(2)---------------
 190
 191  To ensure that application A receives the same information in the
 192  example (2) as it would receive in example (1) there is need for
 193  some kind of local loopback of the sent CAN frames on the appropriate
 194  node.
 195
 196  The Linux network devices (by default) just can handle the
 197  transmission and reception of media dependent frames. Due to the
 198  arbitration on the CAN bus the transmission of a low prio CAN-ID
 199  may be delayed by the reception of a high prio CAN frame. To
 200  reflect the correct* traffic on the node the loopback of the sent
 201  data has to be performed right after a successful transmission. If
 202  the CAN network interface is not capable of performing the loopback for
 203  some reason the SocketCAN core can do this task as a fallback solution.
 204  See chapter 6.2 for details (recommended).
 205
 206  The loopback functionality is enabled by default to reflect standard
 207  networking behaviour for CAN applications. Due to some requests from
 208  the RT-SocketCAN group the loopback optionally may be disabled for each
 209  separate socket. See sockopts from the CAN RAW sockets in chapter 4.1.
 210
 211  * = you really like to have this when you're running analyser tools
 212      like 'candump' or 'cansniffer' on the (same) node.
 213
 214  3.3 network security issues (capabilities)
 215
 216  The Controller Area Network is a local field bus transmitting only
 217  broadcast messages without any routing and security concepts.
 218  In the majority of cases the user application has to deal with
 219  raw CAN frames. Therefore it might be reasonable NOT to restrict
 220  the CAN access only to the user root, as known from other networks.
 221  Since the currently implemented CAN_RAW and CAN_BCM sockets can only
 222  send and receive frames to/from CAN interfaces it does not affect
 223  security of others networks to allow all users to access the CAN.
 224  To enable non-root users to access CAN_RAW and CAN_BCM protocol
 225  sockets the Kconfig options CAN_RAW_USER and/or CAN_BCM_USER may be
 226  selected at kernel compile time.
 227
 228  3.4 network problem notifications
 229
 230  The use of the CAN bus may lead to several problems on the physical
 231  and media access control layer. Detecting and logging of these lower
 232  layer problems is a vital requirement for CAN users to identify
 233  hardware issues on the physical transceiver layer as well as
 234  arbitration problems and error frames caused by the different
 235  ECUs. The occurrence of detected errors are important for diagnosis
 236  and have to be logged together with the exact timestamp. For this
 237  reason the CAN interface driver can generate so called Error Message
 238  Frames that can optionally be passed to the user application in the
 239  same way as other CAN frames. Whenever an error on the physical layer
 240  or the MAC layer is detected (e.g. by the CAN controller) the driver
 241  creates an appropriate error message frame. Error messages frames can
 242  be requested by the user application using the common CAN filter
 243  mechanisms. Inside this filter definition the (interested) type of
 244  errors may be selected. The reception of error messages is disabled
 245  by default. The format of the CAN error message frame is briefly
 246  described in the Linux header file "include/linux/can/error.h".
 247
 2484. How to use Socket CAN
 249------------------------
 250
 251  Like TCP/IP, you first need to open a socket for communicating over a
 252  CAN network. Since Socket CAN implements a new protocol family, you
 253  need to pass PF_CAN as the first argument to the socket(2) system
 254  call. Currently, there are two CAN protocols to choose from, the raw
 255  socket protocol and the broadcast manager (BCM). So to open a socket,
 256  you would write
 257
 258    s = socket(PF_CAN, SOCK_RAW, CAN_RAW);
 259
 260  and
 261
 262    s = socket(PF_CAN, SOCK_DGRAM, CAN_BCM);
 263
 264  respectively.  After the successful creation of the socket, you would
 265  normally use the bind(2) system call to bind the socket to a CAN
 266  interface (which is different from TCP/IP due to different addressing
 267  - see chapter 3). After binding (CAN_RAW) or connecting (CAN_BCM)
 268  the socket, you can read(2) and write(2) from/to the socket or use
 269  send(2), sendto(2), sendmsg(2) and the recv* counterpart operations
 270  on the socket as usual. There are also CAN specific socket options
 271  described below.
 272
 273  The basic CAN frame structure and the sockaddr structure are defined
 274  in include/linux/can.h:
 275
 276    struct can_frame {
 277            canid_t can_id;  /* 32 bit CAN_ID + EFF/RTR/ERR flags */
 278            __u8    can_dlc; /* frame payload length in byte (0 .. 8) */
 279            __u8    data[8] __attribute__((aligned(8)));
 280    };
 281
 282  The alignment of the (linear) payload data[] to a 64bit boundary
 283  allows the user to define own structs and unions to easily access the
 284  CAN payload. There is no given byteorder on the CAN bus by
 285  default. A read(2) system call on a CAN_RAW socket transfers a
 286  struct can_frame to the user space.
 287
 288  The sockaddr_can structure has an interface index like the
 289  PF_PACKET socket, that also binds to a specific interface:
 290
 291    struct sockaddr_can {
 292            sa_family_t can_family;
 293            int         can_ifindex;
 294            union {
 295                    /* transport protocol class address info (e.g. ISOTP) */
 296                    struct { canid_t rx_id, tx_id; } tp;
 297
 298                    /* reserved for future CAN protocols address information */
 299            } can_addr;
 300    };
 301
 302  To determine the interface index an appropriate ioctl() has to
 303  be used (example for CAN_RAW sockets without error checking):
 304
 305    int s;
 306    struct sockaddr_can addr;
 307    struct ifreq ifr;
 308
 309    s = socket(PF_CAN, SOCK_RAW, CAN_RAW);
 310
 311    strcpy(ifr.ifr_name, "can0" );
 312    ioctl(s, SIOCGIFINDEX, &ifr);
 313
 314    addr.can_family = AF_CAN;
 315    addr.can_ifindex = ifr.ifr_ifindex;
 316
 317    bind(s, (struct sockaddr *)&addr, sizeof(addr));
 318
 319    (..)
 320
 321  To bind a socket to all(!) CAN interfaces the interface index must
 322  be 0 (zero). In this case the socket receives CAN frames from every
 323  enabled CAN interface. To determine the originating CAN interface
 324  the system call recvfrom(2) may be used instead of read(2). To send
 325  on a socket that is bound to 'any' interface sendto(2) is needed to
 326  specify the outgoing interface.
 327
 328  Reading CAN frames from a bound CAN_RAW socket (see above) consists
 329  of reading a struct can_frame:
 330
 331    struct can_frame frame;
 332
 333    nbytes = read(s, &frame, sizeof(struct can_frame));
 334
 335    if (nbytes < 0) {
 336            perror("can raw socket read");
 337            return 1;
 338    }
 339
 340    /* paranoid check ... */
 341    if (nbytes < sizeof(struct can_frame)) {
 342            fprintf(stderr, "read: incomplete CAN frame\n");
 343            return 1;
 344    }
 345
 346    /* do something with the received CAN frame */
 347
 348  Writing CAN frames can be done similarly, with the write(2) system call:
 349
 350    nbytes = write(s, &frame, sizeof(struct can_frame));
 351
 352  When the CAN interface is bound to 'any' existing CAN interface
 353  (addr.can_ifindex = 0) it is recommended to use recvfrom(2) if the
 354  information about the originating CAN interface is needed:
 355
 356    struct sockaddr_can addr;
 357    struct ifreq ifr;
 358    socklen_t len = sizeof(addr);
 359    struct can_frame frame;
 360
 361    nbytes = recvfrom(s, &frame, sizeof(struct can_frame),
 362                      0, (struct sockaddr*)&addr, &len);
 363
 364    /* get interface name of the received CAN frame */
 365    ifr.ifr_ifindex = addr.can_ifindex;
 366    ioctl(s, SIOCGIFNAME, &ifr);
 367    printf("Received a CAN frame from interface %s", ifr.ifr_name);
 368
 369  To write CAN frames on sockets bound to 'any' CAN interface the
 370  outgoing interface has to be defined certainly.
 371
 372    strcpy(ifr.ifr_name, "can0");
 373    ioctl(s, SIOCGIFINDEX, &ifr);
 374    addr.can_ifindex = ifr.ifr_ifindex;
 375    addr.can_family  = AF_CAN;
 376
 377    nbytes = sendto(s, &frame, sizeof(struct can_frame),
 378                    0, (struct sockaddr*)&addr, sizeof(addr));
 379
 380  Remark about CAN FD (flexible data rate) support:
 381
 382  Generally the handling of CAN FD is very similar to the formerly described
 383  examples. The new CAN FD capable CAN controllers support two different
 384  bitrates for the arbitration phase and the payload phase of the CAN FD frame
 385  and up to 64 bytes of payload. This extended payload length breaks all the
 386  kernel interfaces (ABI) which heavily rely on the CAN frame with fixed eight
 387  bytes of payload (struct can_frame) like the CAN_RAW socket. Therefore e.g.
 388  the CAN_RAW socket supports a new socket option CAN_RAW_FD_FRAMES that
 389  switches the socket into a mode that allows the handling of CAN FD frames
 390  and (legacy) CAN frames simultaneously (see section 4.1.5).
 391
 392  The struct canfd_frame is defined in include/linux/can.h:
 393
 394    struct canfd_frame {
 395            canid_t can_id;  /* 32 bit CAN_ID + EFF/RTR/ERR flags */
 396            __u8    len;     /* frame payload length in byte (0 .. 64) */
 397            __u8    flags;   /* additional flags for CAN FD */
 398            __u8    __res0;  /* reserved / padding */
 399            __u8    __res1;  /* reserved / padding */
 400            __u8    data[64] __attribute__((aligned(8)));
 401    };
 402
 403  The struct canfd_frame and the existing struct can_frame have the can_id,
 404  the payload length and the payload data at the same offset inside their
 405  structures. This allows to handle the different structures very similar.
 406  When the content of a struct can_frame is copied into a struct canfd_frame
 407  all structure elements can be used as-is - only the data[] becomes extended.
 408
 409  When introducing the struct canfd_frame it turned out that the data length
 410  code (DLC) of the struct can_frame was used as a length information as the
 411  length and the DLC has a 1:1 mapping in the range of 0 .. 8. To preserve
 412  the easy handling of the length information the canfd_frame.len element
 413  contains a plain length value from 0 .. 64. So both canfd_frame.len and
 414  can_frame.can_dlc are equal and contain a length information and no DLC.
 415  For details about the distinction of CAN and CAN FD capable devices and
 416  the mapping to the bus-relevant data length code (DLC), see chapter 6.6.
 417
 418  The length of the two CAN(FD) frame structures define the maximum transfer
 419  unit (MTU) of the CAN(FD) network interface and skbuff data length. Two
 420  definitions are specified for CAN specific MTUs in include/linux/can.h :
 421
 422  #define CAN_MTU   (sizeof(struct can_frame))   == 16  => 'legacy' CAN frame
 423  #define CANFD_MTU (sizeof(struct canfd_frame)) == 72  => CAN FD frame
 424
 425  4.1 RAW protocol sockets with can_filters (SOCK_RAW)
 426
 427  Using CAN_RAW sockets is extensively comparable to the commonly
 428  known access to CAN character devices. To meet the new possibilities
 429  provided by the multi user SocketCAN approach, some reasonable
 430  defaults are set at RAW socket binding time:
 431
 432  - The filters are set to exactly one filter receiving everything
 433  - The socket only receives valid data frames (=> no error message frames)
 434  - The loopback of sent CAN frames is enabled (see chapter 3.2)
 435  - The socket does not receive its own sent frames (in loopback mode)
 436
 437  These default settings may be changed before or after binding the socket.
 438  To use the referenced definitions of the socket options for CAN_RAW
 439  sockets, include <linux/can/raw.h>.
 440
 441  4.1.1 RAW socket option CAN_RAW_FILTER
 442
 443  The reception of CAN frames using CAN_RAW sockets can be controlled
 444  by defining 0 .. n filters with the CAN_RAW_FILTER socket option.
 445
 446  The CAN filter structure is defined in include/linux/can.h:
 447
 448    struct can_filter {
 449            canid_t can_id;
 450            canid_t can_mask;
 451    };
 452
 453  A filter matches, when
 454
 455    <received_can_id> & mask == can_id & mask
 456
 457  which is analogous to known CAN controllers hardware filter semantics.
 458  The filter can be inverted in this semantic, when the CAN_INV_FILTER
 459  bit is set in can_id element of the can_filter structure. In
 460  contrast to CAN controller hardware filters the user may set 0 .. n
 461  receive filters for each open socket separately:
 462
 463    struct can_filter rfilter[2];
 464
 465    rfilter[0].can_id   = 0x123;
 466    rfilter[0].can_mask = CAN_SFF_MASK;
 467    rfilter[1].can_id   = 0x200;
 468    rfilter[1].can_mask = 0x700;
 469
 470    setsockopt(s, SOL_CAN_RAW, CAN_RAW_FILTER, &rfilter, sizeof(rfilter));
 471
 472  To disable the reception of CAN frames on the selected CAN_RAW socket:
 473
 474    setsockopt(s, SOL_CAN_RAW, CAN_RAW_FILTER, NULL, 0);
 475
 476  To set the filters to zero filters is quite obsolete as not read
 477  data causes the raw socket to discard the received CAN frames. But
 478  having this 'send only' use-case we may remove the receive list in the
 479  Kernel to save a little (really a very little!) CPU usage.
 480
 481  4.1.2 RAW socket option CAN_RAW_ERR_FILTER
 482
 483  As described in chapter 3.4 the CAN interface driver can generate so
 484  called Error Message Frames that can optionally be passed to the user
 485  application in the same way as other CAN frames. The possible
 486  errors are divided into different error classes that may be filtered
 487  using the appropriate error mask. To register for every possible
 488  error condition CAN_ERR_MASK can be used as value for the error mask.
 489  The values for the error mask are defined in linux/can/error.h .
 490
 491    can_err_mask_t err_mask = ( CAN_ERR_TX_TIMEOUT | CAN_ERR_BUSOFF );
 492
 493    setsockopt(s, SOL_CAN_RAW, CAN_RAW_ERR_FILTER,
 494               &err_mask, sizeof(err_mask));
 495
 496  4.1.3 RAW socket option CAN_RAW_LOOPBACK
 497
 498  To meet multi user needs the local loopback is enabled by default
 499  (see chapter 3.2 for details). But in some embedded use-cases
 500  (e.g. when only one application uses the CAN bus) this loopback
 501  functionality can be disabled (separately for each socket):
 502
 503    int loopback = 0; /* 0 = disabled, 1 = enabled (default) */
 504
 505    setsockopt(s, SOL_CAN_RAW, CAN_RAW_LOOPBACK, &loopback, sizeof(loopback));
 506
 507  4.1.4 RAW socket option CAN_RAW_RECV_OWN_MSGS
 508
 509  When the local loopback is enabled, all the sent CAN frames are
 510  looped back to the open CAN sockets that registered for the CAN
 511  frames' CAN-ID on this given interface to meet the multi user
 512  needs. The reception of the CAN frames on the same socket that was
 513  sending the CAN frame is assumed to be unwanted and therefore
 514  disabled by default. This default behaviour may be changed on
 515  demand:
 516
 517    int recv_own_msgs = 1; /* 0 = disabled (default), 1 = enabled */
 518
 519    setsockopt(s, SOL_CAN_RAW, CAN_RAW_RECV_OWN_MSGS,
 520               &recv_own_msgs, sizeof(recv_own_msgs));
 521
 522  4.1.5 RAW socket option CAN_RAW_FD_FRAMES
 523
 524  CAN FD support in CAN_RAW sockets can be enabled with a new socket option
 525  CAN_RAW_FD_FRAMES which is off by default. When the new socket option is
 526  not supported by the CAN_RAW socket (e.g. on older kernels), switching the
 527  CAN_RAW_FD_FRAMES option returns the error -ENOPROTOOPT.
 528
 529  Once CAN_RAW_FD_FRAMES is enabled the application can send both CAN frames
 530  and CAN FD frames. OTOH the application has to handle CAN and CAN FD frames
 531  when reading from the socket.
 532
 533    CAN_RAW_FD_FRAMES enabled:  CAN_MTU and CANFD_MTU are allowed
 534    CAN_RAW_FD_FRAMES disabled: only CAN_MTU is allowed (default)
 535
 536  Example:
 537    [ remember: CANFD_MTU == sizeof(struct canfd_frame) ]
 538
 539    struct canfd_frame cfd;
 540
 541    nbytes = read(s, &cfd, CANFD_MTU);
 542
 543    if (nbytes == CANFD_MTU) {
 544            printf("got CAN FD frame with length %d\n", cfd.len);
 545            /* cfd.flags contains valid data */
 546    } else if (nbytes == CAN_MTU) {
 547            printf("got legacy CAN frame with length %d\n", cfd.len);
 548            /* cfd.flags is undefined */
 549    } else {
 550            fprintf(stderr, "read: invalid CAN(FD) frame\n");
 551            return 1;
 552    }
 553
 554    /* the content can be handled independently from the received MTU size */
 555
 556    printf("can_id: %X data length: %d data: ", cfd.can_id, cfd.len);
 557    for (i = 0; i < cfd.len; i++)
 558            printf("%02X ", cfd.data[i]);
 559
 560  When reading with size CANFD_MTU only returns CAN_MTU bytes that have
 561  been received from the socket a legacy CAN frame has been read into the
 562  provided CAN FD structure. Note that the canfd_frame.flags data field is
 563  not specified in the struct can_frame and therefore it is only valid in
 564  CANFD_MTU sized CAN FD frames.
 565
 566  As long as the payload length is <=8 the received CAN frames from CAN FD
 567  capable CAN devices can be received and read by legacy sockets too. When
 568  user-generated CAN FD frames have a payload length <=8 these can be send
 569  by legacy CAN network interfaces too. Sending CAN FD frames with payload
 570  length > 8 to a legacy CAN network interface returns an -EMSGSIZE error.
 571
 572  Implementation hint for new CAN applications:
 573
 574  To build a CAN FD aware application use struct canfd_frame as basic CAN
 575  data structure for CAN_RAW based applications. When the application is
 576  executed on an older Linux kernel and switching the CAN_RAW_FD_FRAMES
 577  socket option returns an error: No problem. You'll get legacy CAN frames
 578  or CAN FD frames and can process them the same way.
 579
 580  When sending to CAN devices make sure that the device is capable to handle
 581  CAN FD frames by checking if the device maximum transfer unit is CANFD_MTU.
 582  The CAN device MTU can be retrieved e.g. with a SIOCGIFMTU ioctl() syscall.
 583
 584  4.1.6 RAW socket returned message flags
 585
 586  When using recvmsg() call, the msg->msg_flags may contain following flags:
 587
 588    MSG_DONTROUTE: set when the received frame was created on the local host.
 589
 590    MSG_CONFIRM: set when the frame was sent via the socket it is received on.
 591      This flag can be interpreted as a 'transmission confirmation' when the
 592      CAN driver supports the echo of frames on driver level, see 3.2 and 6.2.
 593      In order to receive such messages, CAN_RAW_RECV_OWN_MSGS must be set.
 594
 595  4.2 Broadcast Manager protocol sockets (SOCK_DGRAM)
 596  4.3 connected transport protocols (SOCK_SEQPACKET)
 597  4.4 unconnected transport protocols (SOCK_DGRAM)
 598
 599
 6005. Socket CAN core module
 601-------------------------
 602
 603  The Socket CAN core module implements the protocol family
 604  PF_CAN. CAN protocol modules are loaded by the core module at
 605  runtime. The core module provides an interface for CAN protocol
 606  modules to subscribe needed CAN IDs (see chapter 3.1).
 607
 608  5.1 can.ko module params
 609
 610  - stats_timer: To calculate the Socket CAN core statistics
 611    (e.g. current/maximum frames per second) this 1 second timer is
 612    invoked at can.ko module start time by default. This timer can be
 613    disabled by using stattimer=0 on the module commandline.
 614
 615  - debug: (removed since SocketCAN SVN r546)
 616
 617  5.2 procfs content
 618
 619  As described in chapter 3.1 the Socket CAN core uses several filter
 620  lists to deliver received CAN frames to CAN protocol modules. These
 621  receive lists, their filters and the count of filter matches can be
 622  checked in the appropriate receive list. All entries contain the
 623  device and a protocol module identifier:
 624
 625    foo@bar:~$ cat /proc/net/can/rcvlist_all
 626
 627    receive list 'rx_all':
 628      (vcan3: no entry)
 629      (vcan2: no entry)
 630      (vcan1: no entry)
 631      device   can_id   can_mask  function  userdata   matches  ident
 632       vcan0     000    00000000  f88e6370  f6c6f400         0  raw
 633      (any: no entry)
 634
 635  In this example an application requests any CAN traffic from vcan0.
 636
 637    rcvlist_all - list for unfiltered entries (no filter operations)
 638    rcvlist_eff - list for single extended frame (EFF) entries
 639    rcvlist_err - list for error message frames masks
 640    rcvlist_fil - list for mask/value filters
 641    rcvlist_inv - list for mask/value filters (inverse semantic)
 642    rcvlist_sff - list for single standard frame (SFF) entries
 643
 644  Additional procfs files in /proc/net/can
 645
 646    stats       - Socket CAN core statistics (rx/tx frames, match ratios, ...)
 647    reset_stats - manual statistic reset
 648    version     - prints the Socket CAN core version and the ABI version
 649
 650  5.3 writing own CAN protocol modules
 651
 652  To implement a new protocol in the protocol family PF_CAN a new
 653  protocol has to be defined in include/linux/can.h .
 654  The prototypes and definitions to use the Socket CAN core can be
 655  accessed by including include/linux/can/core.h .
 656  In addition to functions that register the CAN protocol and the
 657  CAN device notifier chain there are functions to subscribe CAN
 658  frames received by CAN interfaces and to send CAN frames:
 659
 660    can_rx_register   - subscribe CAN frames from a specific interface
 661    can_rx_unregister - unsubscribe CAN frames from a specific interface
 662    can_send          - transmit a CAN frame (optional with local loopback)
 663
 664  For details see the kerneldoc documentation in net/can/af_can.c or
 665  the source code of net/can/raw.c or net/can/bcm.c .
 666
 6676. CAN network drivers
 668----------------------
 669
 670  Writing a CAN network device driver is much easier than writing a
 671  CAN character device driver. Similar to other known network device
 672  drivers you mainly have to deal with:
 673
 674  - TX: Put the CAN frame from the socket buffer to the CAN controller.
 675  - RX: Put the CAN frame from the CAN controller to the socket buffer.
 676
 677  See e.g. at Documentation/networking/netdevices.txt . The differences
 678  for writing CAN network device driver are described below:
 679
 680  6.1 general settings
 681
 682    dev->type  = ARPHRD_CAN; /* the netdevice hardware type */
 683    dev->flags = IFF_NOARP;  /* CAN has no arp */
 684
 685    dev->mtu = CAN_MTU; /* sizeof(struct can_frame) -> legacy CAN interface */
 686
 687    or alternative, when the controller supports CAN with flexible data rate:
 688    dev->mtu = CANFD_MTU; /* sizeof(struct canfd_frame) -> CAN FD interface */
 689
 690  The struct can_frame or struct canfd_frame is the payload of each socket
 691  buffer (skbuff) in the protocol family PF_CAN.
 692
 693  6.2 local loopback of sent frames
 694
 695  As described in chapter 3.2 the CAN network device driver should
 696  support a local loopback functionality similar to the local echo
 697  e.g. of tty devices. In this case the driver flag IFF_ECHO has to be
 698  set to prevent the PF_CAN core from locally echoing sent frames
 699  (aka loopback) as fallback solution:
 700
 701    dev->flags = (IFF_NOARP | IFF_ECHO);
 702
 703  6.3 CAN controller hardware filters
 704
 705  To reduce the interrupt load on deep embedded systems some CAN
 706  controllers support the filtering of CAN IDs or ranges of CAN IDs.
 707  These hardware filter capabilities vary from controller to
 708  controller and have to be identified as not feasible in a multi-user
 709  networking approach. The use of the very controller specific
 710  hardware filters could make sense in a very dedicated use-case, as a
 711  filter on driver level would affect all users in the multi-user
 712  system. The high efficient filter sets inside the PF_CAN core allow
 713  to set different multiple filters for each socket separately.
 714  Therefore the use of hardware filters goes to the category 'handmade
 715  tuning on deep embedded systems'. The author is running a MPC603e
 716  @133MHz with four SJA1000 CAN controllers from 2002 under heavy bus
 717  load without any problems ...
 718
 719  6.4 The virtual CAN driver (vcan)
 720
 721  Similar to the network loopback devices, vcan offers a virtual local
 722  CAN interface. A full qualified address on CAN consists of
 723
 724  - a unique CAN Identifier (CAN ID)
 725  - the CAN bus this CAN ID is transmitted on (e.g. can0)
 726
 727  so in common use cases more than one virtual CAN interface is needed.
 728
 729  The virtual CAN interfaces allow the transmission and reception of CAN
 730  frames without real CAN controller hardware. Virtual CAN network
 731  devices are usually named 'vcanX', like vcan0 vcan1 vcan2 ...
 732  When compiled as a module the virtual CAN driver module is called vcan.ko
 733
 734  Since Linux Kernel version 2.6.24 the vcan driver supports the Kernel
 735  netlink interface to create vcan network devices. The creation and
 736  removal of vcan network devices can be managed with the ip(8) tool:
 737
 738  - Create a virtual CAN network interface:
 739       $ ip link add type vcan
 740
 741  - Create a virtual CAN network interface with a specific name 'vcan42':
 742       $ ip link add dev vcan42 type vcan
 743
 744  - Remove a (virtual CAN) network interface 'vcan42':
 745       $ ip link del vcan42
 746
 747  6.5 The CAN network device driver interface
 748
 749  The CAN network device driver interface provides a generic interface
 750  to setup, configure and monitor CAN network devices. The user can then
 751  configure the CAN device, like setting the bit-timing parameters, via
 752  the netlink interface using the program "ip" from the "IPROUTE2"
 753  utility suite. The following chapter describes briefly how to use it.
 754  Furthermore, the interface uses a common data structure and exports a
 755  set of common functions, which all real CAN network device drivers
 756  should use. Please have a look to the SJA1000 or MSCAN driver to
 757  understand how to use them. The name of the module is can-dev.ko.
 758
 759  6.5.1 Netlink interface to set/get devices properties
 760
 761  The CAN device must be configured via netlink interface. The supported
 762  netlink message types are defined and briefly described in
 763  "include/linux/can/netlink.h". CAN link support for the program "ip"
 764  of the IPROUTE2 utility suite is available and it can be used as shown
 765  below:
 766
 767  - Setting CAN device properties:
 768
 769    $ ip link set can0 type can help
 770    Usage: ip link set DEVICE type can
 771        [ bitrate BITRATE [ sample-point SAMPLE-POINT] ] |
 772        [ tq TQ prop-seg PROP_SEG phase-seg1 PHASE-SEG1
 773          phase-seg2 PHASE-SEG2 [ sjw SJW ] ]
 774
 775        [ loopback { on | off } ]
 776        [ listen-only { on | off } ]
 777        [ triple-sampling { on | off } ]
 778
 779        [ restart-ms TIME-MS ]
 780        [ restart ]
 781
 782        Where: BITRATE       := { 1..1000000 }
 783               SAMPLE-POINT  := { 0.000..0.999 }
 784               TQ            := { NUMBER }
 785               PROP-SEG      := { 1..8 }
 786               PHASE-SEG1    := { 1..8 }
 787               PHASE-SEG2    := { 1..8 }
 788               SJW           := { 1..4 }
 789               RESTART-MS    := { 0 | NUMBER }
 790
 791  - Display CAN device details and statistics:
 792
 793    $ ip -details -statistics link show can0
 794    2: can0: <NOARP,UP,LOWER_UP,ECHO> mtu 16 qdisc pfifo_fast state UP qlen 10
 795      link/can
 796      can <TRIPLE-SAMPLING> state ERROR-ACTIVE restart-ms 100
 797      bitrate 125000 sample_point 0.875
 798      tq 125 prop-seg 6 phase-seg1 7 phase-seg2 2 sjw 1
 799      sja1000: tseg1 1..16 tseg2 1..8 sjw 1..4 brp 1..64 brp-inc 1
 800      clock 8000000
 801      re-started bus-errors arbit-lost error-warn error-pass bus-off
 802      41         17457      0          41         42         41
 803      RX: bytes  packets  errors  dropped overrun mcast
 804      140859     17608    17457   0       0       0
 805      TX: bytes  packets  errors  dropped carrier collsns
 806      861        112      0       41      0       0
 807
 808  More info to the above output:
 809
 810    "<TRIPLE-SAMPLING>"
 811        Shows the list of selected CAN controller modes: LOOPBACK,
 812        LISTEN-ONLY, or TRIPLE-SAMPLING.
 813
 814    "state ERROR-ACTIVE"
 815        The current state of the CAN controller: "ERROR-ACTIVE",
 816        "ERROR-WARNING", "ERROR-PASSIVE", "BUS-OFF" or "STOPPED"
 817
 818    "restart-ms 100"
 819        Automatic restart delay time. If set to a non-zero value, a
 820        restart of the CAN controller will be triggered automatically
 821        in case of a bus-off condition after the specified delay time
 822        in milliseconds. By default it's off.
 823
 824    "bitrate 125000 sample_point 0.875"
 825        Shows the real bit-rate in bits/sec and the sample-point in the
 826        range 0.000..0.999. If the calculation of bit-timing parameters
 827        is enabled in the kernel (CONFIG_CAN_CALC_BITTIMING=y), the
 828        bit-timing can be defined by setting the "bitrate" argument.
 829        Optionally the "sample-point" can be specified. By default it's
 830        0.000 assuming CIA-recommended sample-points.
 831
 832    "tq 125 prop-seg 6 phase-seg1 7 phase-seg2 2 sjw 1"
 833        Shows the time quanta in ns, propagation segment, phase buffer
 834        segment 1 and 2 and the synchronisation jump width in units of
 835        tq. They allow to define the CAN bit-timing in a hardware
 836        independent format as proposed by the Bosch CAN 2.0 spec (see
 837        chapter 8 of http://www.semiconductors.bosch.de/pdf/can2spec.pdf).
 838
 839    "sja1000: tseg1 1..16 tseg2 1..8 sjw 1..4 brp 1..64 brp-inc 1
 840     clock 8000000"
 841        Shows the bit-timing constants of the CAN controller, here the
 842        "sja1000". The minimum and maximum values of the time segment 1
 843        and 2, the synchronisation jump width in units of tq, the
 844        bitrate pre-scaler and the CAN system clock frequency in Hz.
 845        These constants could be used for user-defined (non-standard)
 846        bit-timing calculation algorithms in user-space.
 847
 848    "re-started bus-errors arbit-lost error-warn error-pass bus-off"
 849        Shows the number of restarts, bus and arbitration lost errors,
 850        and the state changes to the error-warning, error-passive and
 851        bus-off state. RX overrun errors are listed in the "overrun"
 852        field of the standard network statistics.
 853
 854  6.5.2 Setting the CAN bit-timing
 855
 856  The CAN bit-timing parameters can always be defined in a hardware
 857  independent format as proposed in the Bosch CAN 2.0 specification
 858  specifying the arguments "tq", "prop_seg", "phase_seg1", "phase_seg2"
 859  and "sjw":
 860
 861    $ ip link set canX type can tq 125 prop-seg 6 \
 862                                phase-seg1 7 phase-seg2 2 sjw 1
 863
 864  If the kernel option CONFIG_CAN_CALC_BITTIMING is enabled, CIA
 865  recommended CAN bit-timing parameters will be calculated if the bit-
 866  rate is specified with the argument "bitrate":
 867
 868    $ ip link set canX type can bitrate 125000
 869
 870  Note that this works fine for the most common CAN controllers with
 871  standard bit-rates but may *fail* for exotic bit-rates or CAN system
 872  clock frequencies. Disabling CONFIG_CAN_CALC_BITTIMING saves some
 873  space and allows user-space tools to solely determine and set the
 874  bit-timing parameters. The CAN controller specific bit-timing
 875  constants can be used for that purpose. They are listed by the
 876  following command:
 877
 878    $ ip -details link show can0
 879    ...
 880      sja1000: clock 8000000 tseg1 1..16 tseg2 1..8 sjw 1..4 brp 1..64 brp-inc 1
 881
 882  6.5.3 Starting and stopping the CAN network device
 883
 884  A CAN network device is started or stopped as usual with the command
 885  "ifconfig canX up/down" or "ip link set canX up/down". Be aware that
 886  you *must* define proper bit-timing parameters for real CAN devices
 887  before you can start it to avoid error-prone default settings:
 888
 889    $ ip link set canX up type can bitrate 125000
 890
 891  A device may enter the "bus-off" state if too much errors occurred on
 892  the CAN bus. Then no more messages are received or sent. An automatic
 893  bus-off recovery can be enabled by setting the "restart-ms" to a
 894  non-zero value, e.g.:
 895
 896    $ ip link set canX type can restart-ms 100
 897
 898  Alternatively, the application may realize the "bus-off" condition
 899  by monitoring CAN error message frames and do a restart when
 900  appropriate with the command:
 901
 902    $ ip link set canX type can restart
 903
 904  Note that a restart will also create a CAN error message frame (see
 905  also chapter 3.4).
 906
 907  6.6 CAN FD (flexible data rate) driver support
 908
 909  CAN FD capable CAN controllers support two different bitrates for the
 910  arbitration phase and the payload phase of the CAN FD frame. Therefore a
 911  second bittiming has to be specified in order to enable the CAN FD bitrate.
 912
 913  Additionally CAN FD capable CAN controllers support up to 64 bytes of
 914  payload. The representation of this length in can_frame.can_dlc and
 915  canfd_frame.len for userspace applications and inside the Linux network
 916  layer is a plain value from 0 .. 64 instead of the CAN 'data length code'.
 917  The data length code was a 1:1 mapping to the payload length in the legacy
 918  CAN frames anyway. The payload length to the bus-relevant DLC mapping is
 919  only performed inside the CAN drivers, preferably with the helper
 920  functions can_dlc2len() and can_len2dlc().
 921
 922  The CAN netdevice driver capabilities can be distinguished by the network
 923  devices maximum transfer unit (MTU):
 924
 925  MTU = 16 (CAN_MTU)   => sizeof(struct can_frame)   => 'legacy' CAN device
 926  MTU = 72 (CANFD_MTU) => sizeof(struct canfd_frame) => CAN FD capable device
 927
 928  The CAN device MTU can be retrieved e.g. with a SIOCGIFMTU ioctl() syscall.
 929  N.B. CAN FD capable devices can also handle and send legacy CAN frames.
 930
 931  FIXME: Add details about the CAN FD controller configuration when available.
 932
 933  6.7 Supported CAN hardware
 934
 935  Please check the "Kconfig" file in "drivers/net/can" to get an actual
 936  list of the support CAN hardware. On the Socket CAN project website
 937  (see chapter 7) there might be further drivers available, also for
 938  older kernel versions.
 939
 9407. Socket CAN resources
 941-----------------------
 942
 943  You can find further resources for Socket CAN like user space tools,
 944  support for old kernel versions, more drivers, mailing lists, etc.
 945  at the BerliOS OSS project website for Socket CAN:
 946
 947    http://developer.berlios.de/projects/socketcan
 948
 949  If you have questions, bug fixes, etc., don't hesitate to post them to
 950  the Socketcan-Users mailing list. But please search the archives first.
 951
 9528. Credits
 953----------
 954
 955  Oliver Hartkopp (PF_CAN core, filters, drivers, bcm, SJA1000 driver)
 956  Urs Thuermann (PF_CAN core, kernel integration, socket interfaces, raw, vcan)
 957  Jan Kizka (RT-SocketCAN core, Socket-API reconciliation)
 958  Wolfgang Grandegger (RT-SocketCAN core & drivers, Raw Socket-API reviews,
 959                       CAN device driver interface, MSCAN driver)
 960  Robert Schwebel (design reviews, PTXdist integration)
 961  Marc Kleine-Budde (design reviews, Kernel 2.6 cleanups, drivers)
 962  Benedikt Spranger (reviews)
 963  Thomas Gleixner (LKML reviews, coding style, posting hints)
 964  Andrey Volkov (kernel subtree structure, ioctls, MSCAN driver)
 965  Matthias Brukner (first SJA1000 CAN netdevice implementation Q2/2003)
 966  Klaus Hitschler (PEAK driver integration)
 967  Uwe Koppe (CAN netdevices with PF_PACKET approach)
 968  Michael Schulze (driver layer loopback requirement, RT CAN drivers review)
 969  Pavel Pisa (Bit-timing calculation)
 970  Sascha Hauer (SJA1000 platform driver)
 971  Sebastian Haas (SJA1000 EMS PCI driver)
 972  Markus Plessing (SJA1000 EMS PCI driver)
 973  Per Dalen (SJA1000 Kvaser PCI driver)
 974  Sam Ravnborg (reviews, coding style, kbuild help)
 975
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