1HCI backend for NFC Core
   3Author: Eric Lapuyade, Samuel Ortiz
   9The HCI layer implements much of the ETSI TS 102 622 V10.2.0 specification. It
  10enables easy writing of HCI-based NFC drivers. The HCI layer runs as an NFC Core
  11backend, implementing an abstract nfc device and translating NFC Core API
  12to HCI commands and events.
  17HCI registers as an nfc device with NFC Core. Requests coming from userspace are
  18routed through netlink sockets to NFC Core and then to HCI. From this point,
  19they are translated in a sequence of HCI commands sent to the HCI layer in the
  20host controller (the chip). Commands can be executed synchronously (the sending
  21context blocks waiting for response) or asynchronously (the response is returned
  22from HCI Rx context).
  23HCI events can also be received from the host controller. They will be handled
  24and a translation will be forwarded to NFC Core as needed. There are hooks to
  25let the HCI driver handle proprietary events or override standard behavior.
  26HCI uses 2 execution contexts:
  27- one for executing commands : nfc_hci_msg_tx_work(). Only one command
  28can be executing at any given moment.
  29- one for dispatching received events and commands : nfc_hci_msg_rx_work().
  31HCI Session initialization:
  34The Session initialization is an HCI standard which must unfortunately
  35support proprietary gates. This is the reason why the driver will pass a list
  36of proprietary gates that must be part of the session. HCI will ensure all
  37those gates have pipes connected when the hci device is set up.
  38In case the chip supports pre-opened gates and pseudo-static pipes, the driver
  39can pass that information to HCI core.
  41HCI Gates and Pipes
  44A gate defines the 'port' where some service can be found. In order to access
  45a service, one must create a pipe to that gate and open it. In this
  46implementation, pipes are totally hidden. The public API only knows gates.
  47This is consistent with the driver need to send commands to proprietary gates
  48without knowing the pipe connected to it.
  50Driver interface
  53A driver is generally written in two parts : the physical link management and
  54the HCI management. This makes it easier to maintain a driver for a chip that
  55can be connected using various phy (i2c, spi, ...)
  57HCI Management
  60A driver would normally register itself with HCI and provide the following
  61entry points:
  63struct nfc_hci_ops {
  64        int (*open)(struct nfc_hci_dev *hdev);
  65        void (*close)(struct nfc_hci_dev *hdev);
  66        int (*hci_ready) (struct nfc_hci_dev *hdev);
  67        int (*xmit) (struct nfc_hci_dev *hdev, struct sk_buff *skb);
  68        int (*start_poll) (struct nfc_hci_dev *hdev,
  69                           u32 im_protocols, u32 tm_protocols);
  70        int (*dep_link_up)(struct nfc_hci_dev *hdev, struct nfc_target *target,
  71                           u8 comm_mode, u8 *gb, size_t gb_len);
  72        int (*dep_link_down)(struct nfc_hci_dev *hdev);
  73        int (*target_from_gate) (struct nfc_hci_dev *hdev, u8 gate,
  74                                 struct nfc_target *target);
  75        int (*complete_target_discovered) (struct nfc_hci_dev *hdev, u8 gate,
  76                                           struct nfc_target *target);
  77        int (*im_transceive) (struct nfc_hci_dev *hdev,
  78                              struct nfc_target *target, struct sk_buff *skb,
  79                              data_exchange_cb_t cb, void *cb_context);
  80        int (*tm_send)(struct nfc_hci_dev *hdev, struct sk_buff *skb);
  81        int (*check_presence)(struct nfc_hci_dev *hdev,
  82                              struct nfc_target *target);
  83        int (*event_received)(struct nfc_hci_dev *hdev, u8 gate, u8 event,
  84                              struct sk_buff *skb);
  87- open() and close() shall turn the hardware on and off.
  88- hci_ready() is an optional entry point that is called right after the hci
  89session has been set up. The driver can use it to do additional initialization
  90that must be performed using HCI commands.
  91- xmit() shall simply write a frame to the physical link.
  92- start_poll() is an optional entrypoint that shall set the hardware in polling
  93mode. This must be implemented only if the hardware uses proprietary gates or a
  94mechanism slightly different from the HCI standard.
  95- dep_link_up() is called after a p2p target has been detected, to finish
  96the p2p connection setup with hardware parameters that need to be passed back
  97to nfc core.
  98- dep_link_down() is called to bring the p2p link down.
  99- target_from_gate() is an optional entrypoint to return the nfc protocols
 100corresponding to a proprietary gate.
 101- complete_target_discovered() is an optional entry point to let the driver
 102perform additional proprietary processing necessary to auto activate the
 103discovered target.
 104- im_transceive() must be implemented by the driver if proprietary HCI commands
 105are required to send data to the tag. Some tag types will require custom
 106commands, others can be written to using the standard HCI commands. The driver
 107can check the tag type and either do proprietary processing, or return 1 to ask
 108for standard processing. The data exchange command itself must be sent
 110- tm_send() is called to send data in the case of a p2p connection
 111- check_presence() is an optional entry point that will be called regularly
 112by the core to check that an activated tag is still in the field. If this is
 113not implemented, the core will not be able to push tag_lost events to the user
 115- event_received() is called to handle an event coming from the chip. Driver
 116can handle the event or return 1 to let HCI attempt standard processing.
 118On the rx path, the driver is responsible to push incoming HCP frames to HCI
 119using nfc_hci_recv_frame(). HCI will take care of re-aggregation and handling
 120This must be done from a context that can sleep.
 122PHY Management
 125The physical link (i2c, ...) management is defined by the following struture:
 127struct nfc_phy_ops {
 128        int (*write)(void *dev_id, struct sk_buff *skb);
 129        int (*enable)(void *dev_id);
 130        void (*disable)(void *dev_id);
 133enable(): turn the phy on (power on), make it ready to transfer data
 134disable(): turn the phy off
 135write(): Send a data frame to the chip. Note that to enable higher
 136layers such as an llc to store the frame for re-emission, this function must
 137not alter the skb. It must also not return a positive result (return 0 for
 138success, negative for failure).
 140Data coming from the chip shall be sent directly to nfc_hci_recv_frame().
 145Communication between the CPU and the chip often requires some link layer
 146protocol. Those are isolated as modules managed by the HCI layer. There are
 147currently two modules : nop (raw transfert) and shdlc.
 148A new llc must implement the following functions:
 150struct nfc_llc_ops {
 151        void *(*init) (struct nfc_hci_dev *hdev, xmit_to_drv_t xmit_to_drv,
 152                       rcv_to_hci_t rcv_to_hci, int tx_headroom,
 153                       int tx_tailroom, int *rx_headroom, int *rx_tailroom,
 154                       llc_failure_t llc_failure);
 155        void (*deinit) (struct nfc_llc *llc);
 156        int (*start) (struct nfc_llc *llc);
 157        int (*stop) (struct nfc_llc *llc);
 158        void (*rcv_from_drv) (struct nfc_llc *llc, struct sk_buff *skb);
 159        int (*xmit_from_hci) (struct nfc_llc *llc, struct sk_buff *skb);
 162- init() : allocate and init your private storage
 163- deinit() : cleanup
 164- start() : establish the logical connection
 165- stop () : terminate the logical connection
 166- rcv_from_drv() : handle data coming from the chip, going to HCI
 167- xmit_from_hci() : handle data sent by HCI, going to the chip
 169The llc must be registered with nfc before it can be used. Do that by
 170calling nfc_llc_register(const char *name, struct nfc_llc_ops *ops);
 172Again, note that the llc does not handle the physical link. It is thus very
 173easy to mix any physical link with any llc for a given chip driver.
 175Included Drivers
 178An HCI based driver for an NXP PN544, connected through I2C bus, and using
 179shdlc is included.
 181Execution Contexts
 184The execution contexts are the following:
 185- IRQ handler (IRQH):
 186fast, cannot sleep. sends incoming frames to HCI where they are passed to
 187the current llc. In case of shdlc, the frame is queued in shdlc rx queue.
 189- SHDLC State Machine worker (SMW)
 190Only when llc_shdlc is used: handles shdlc rx & tx queues.
 191Dispatches HCI cmd responses.
 193- HCI Tx Cmd worker (MSGTXWQ)
 194Serializes execution of HCI commands. Completes execution in case of response
 197- HCI Rx worker (MSGRXWQ)
 198Dispatches incoming HCI commands or events.
 200- Syscall context from a userspace call (SYSCALL)
 201Any entrypoint in HCI called from NFC Core
 203Workflow executing an HCI command (using shdlc)
 206Executing an HCI command can easily be performed synchronously using the
 207following API:
 209int nfc_hci_send_cmd (struct nfc_hci_dev *hdev, u8 gate, u8 cmd,
 210                        const u8 *param, size_t param_len, struct sk_buff **skb)
 212The API must be invoked from a context that can sleep. Most of the time, this
 213will be the syscall context. skb will return the result that was received in
 214the response.
 216Internally, execution is asynchronous. So all this API does is to enqueue the
 217HCI command, setup a local wait queue on stack, and wait_event() for completion.
 218The wait is not interruptible because it is guaranteed that the command will
 219complete after some short timeout anyway.
 221MSGTXWQ context will then be scheduled and invoke nfc_hci_msg_tx_work().
 222This function will dequeue the next pending command and send its HCP fragments
 223to the lower layer which happens to be shdlc. It will then start a timer to be
 224able to complete the command with a timeout error if no response arrive.
 226SMW context gets scheduled and invokes nfc_shdlc_sm_work(). This function
 227handles shdlc framing in and out. It uses the driver xmit to send frames and
 228receives incoming frames in an skb queue filled from the driver IRQ handler.
 229SHDLC I(nformation) frames payload are HCP fragments. They are aggregated to
 230form complete HCI frames, which can be a response, command, or event.
 232HCI Responses are dispatched immediately from this context to unblock
 233waiting command execution. Response processing involves invoking the completion
 234callback that was provided by nfc_hci_msg_tx_work() when it sent the command.
 235The completion callback will then wake the syscall context.
 237It is also possible to execute the command asynchronously using this API:
 239static int nfc_hci_execute_cmd_async(struct nfc_hci_dev *hdev, u8 pipe, u8 cmd,
 240                               const u8 *param, size_t param_len,
 241                               data_exchange_cb_t cb, void *cb_context)
 243The workflow is the same, except that the API call returns immediately, and
 244the callback will be called with the result from the SMW context.
 246Workflow receiving an HCI event or command
 249HCI commands or events are not dispatched from SMW context. Instead, they are
 250queued to HCI rx_queue and will be dispatched from HCI rx worker
 251context (MSGRXWQ). This is done this way to allow a cmd or event handler
 252to also execute other commands (for example, handling the
 253NFC_HCI_EVT_TARGET_DISCOVERED event from PN544 requires to issue an
 254ANY_GET_PARAMETER to the reader A gate to get information on the target
 255that was discovered).
 257Typically, such an event will be propagated to NFC Core from MSGRXWQ context.
 259Error management
 262Errors that occur synchronously with the execution of an NFC Core request are
 263simply returned as the execution result of the request. These are easy.
 265Errors that occur asynchronously (e.g. in a background protocol handling thread)
 266must be reported such that upper layers don't stay ignorant that something
 267went wrong below and know that expected events will probably never happen.
 268Handling of these errors is done as follows:
 270- driver (pn544) fails to deliver an incoming frame: it stores the error such
 271that any subsequent call to the driver will result in this error. Then it calls
 272the standard nfc_shdlc_recv_frame() with a NULL argument to report the problem
 273above. shdlc stores a EREMOTEIO sticky status, which will trigger SMW to
 274report above in turn.
 276- SMW is basically a background thread to handle incoming and outgoing shdlc
 277frames. This thread will also check the shdlc sticky status and report to HCI
 278when it discovers it is not able to run anymore because of an unrecoverable
 279error that happened within shdlc or below. If the problem occurs during shdlc
 280connection, the error is reported through the connect completion.
 282- HCI: if an internal HCI error happens (frame is lost), or HCI is reported an
 283error from a lower layer, HCI will either complete the currently executing
 284command with that error, or notify NFC Core directly if no command is executing.
 286- NFC Core: when NFC Core is notified of an error from below and polling is
 287active, it will send a tag discovered event with an empty tag list to the user
 288space to let it know that the poll operation will never be able to detect a tag.
 289If polling is not active and the error was sticky, lower levels will return it
 290at next invocation.
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