2.1" /spapti /formti a 2.1" href="../linux+v.6.2.2/Documenta2.1" img src="../.sta2. /spapti2. spap class="lxr_search">2.1"2.1" input typvalhidden" namvalnavtarget" ion val">2.1" input typvaltext" namvalsearch" idalsearch">2.1" buttopttypvalsubmit">Search2.1" Prefsi /a>2. /spapti1" /divti1" form ac2. input typvalhidden" namvalajax_lookup" idalajax_lookup" ion val">21" /formti21" div class="headingbottom"> 1 /a>2 2 /a>2 3 /a> Command Line O1 4 /a> ===================================2 5 /a>2 6 /a>Last Update: 2 May 19992 7 /a>Linux/m68k vers/op: 2. 2 8 /a>Author: Roman.Hodek@informa 9 /a>Update: (Jes Sorensen) and (Chris Lawrence)2 .17.a>2 11 /a>0) Introduc 12 /a>===============2 137.a>2 14 /a> Often I've been asked which command line .1 15 /a>kernel understands, or how the exac< syntax for the ... .1 16 /a>... about the .1 17 /a>answers...2 187.a>2 19 /a> Note that some .1 217.a>incomplete or missing. Please update the informa 21 /a>patches.2 22 /a>2 237.a>2 24 /a>1) Overview of the Kernel's O1 25 /a>=============================================2 267.a>2 27 /a>The kernel knows three kinds of .1 287.a>2 29 /a> 1) kernel .1 30 /a> 2) environment settings2 31 /a> 3) arguments for init2 32 /a>2 337.a>To which of these classes an argument belongs is determined as2 34 /a>follows: If the .1 35 /a>(the part before the '=') or, in some cases, the whole argument string2 367.a>is known to the kernel, it belongs to class 1. Otherwise, if the2 37 /a>argument contains an '=', it is of class 2, and the definit/op is put2 387.a>into init's environment. All other arguments are passed to init as2 39 /a>command line .1 417.a>2 41 /a> This document describes the valid kernel .1 42 /a>the vers/op ment/oped at the start of this file. Later revis/ops may2 437.a>add new such o1 447.a>2 45 /a> In general, the value (the part after the '=') of an .1 467.a>list of values separated by commas. The interpreta 477.a>is up to the driver that "owns" the .1 487.a>.1 49 /a>subdivided.2 517.a>2 51 /a>2 52 /a>2) General Kernel O1 53 /a>=========================2 547.a>2 55 /a>2.1) root=2 567.a>----------2 577.a>2 587.a>Syntax: root=/dev/<device>2 59 /a> or: root=<hex_number>2 617.a>2 61 /a>This tells the kernel which device it should mount as the root2 62 /a>filesystem. The device must be a block device with a valid filesystem2 63 /a>op it.2 647.a>2 65 /a> The firs< syntax gives the device by namv. These namvs are converted2 667.a>into a major/minor number internally in the kernel ip an unusual way.2 677.a>Normally, this "convers/op" is done by the device files ip /dev, but2 68 /a>this isn't possible here, because the root filesystem (with /dev)2 697.a>isn't mounted yet... So the kernel parses the namv itself, with some2 717.a>hardcoded namv to number mappings. The namv must always be a2 71 /a>combina 72 /a>Valid namvs are:2 737.a>2 74 /a> /dev/ram: -> 0x0100 (init/al ramdisk)2 75 /a> /dev/hda: -> 0x0300 (firs< IDE disk)2 76 /a> /dev/hdb: -> 0x0340 (second IDE disk)2 77 /a> /dev/sda: -> 0x0800 (firs< SCSI disk)2 78 /a> /dev/sdb: -> 0x0810 (second SCSI disk)2 79 /a> /dev/sdc: -> 0x0820 (third SCSI disk)2 80 /a> /dev/sdd: -> 0x0830 (forth SCSI disk)2 81 /a> /dev/sde: -> 0x0840 (fifth SCSI disk)2 82 /a> /dev/fd : -> 0x0200 (floppy disk)2 837.a>2 84 /a> The namv must be followed by a decimal number,tthat stands for the2 85 /a>partit/op number. Internally, the value of the number is just2 867.a>added to the device number ment/oped in the table abovv. The2 87 /a>exce1 887.a>init/al ramdisk loaded by your bootstrap program (please copsult the2 897.a>instruc 907.a>init/al ramdisk). As of kernel vers/op 2..6.2 you must specify2 91 /a>/dev/ram as the root device if you want to boot from an init/al2 92 /a>ramdisk. For the floppy devices, /dev/fd, the number stands for the2 937.a>floppy drive number (there are no partit/ops op floppy disks). I.e.,2 94 /a>/dev/fd0 stands for the firs< drive, /dev/fd1 for the second, and so2 95 /a>op. Since the number is just added, you can also force the disk forma<2 967.a>by adding a number greater than 3. If you look into your /dev2 97 /a>directory, use can see the /dev/fd0D720 has major 2 and minor 16. You2 987.a>can specify this device for the root FS by writing "root=/dev/fd16" op2 99 /a>the kernel command line.2 1007.a>2 101 /a>[Strange and maybe uninteresting stuff ON]2 102 /a>2 103 /a> This unusual transla 104 /a>consequences: If, for example, you have a symbolic link from /dev/fd2 105 /a>to /dev/fd0D720 as an abbrevia 1067.a>you cannot use this namv for specifying the root device, because the2 107 /a>kernel cannot see this symlink before mounting the root FS and it2 1087.a>isn't in the table abovv. If you use it, the root device will not be 2 109 /a>set at all, without an error messagv. Another example: You cannot use a2 1.17.a>partit/op op e.g. the sixth SCSI disk as the root filesystem, if you2 111 /a>want to specify it by namv. This is, because only the devices up to2 112 /a>/dev/sde are in the table abovv, but not /dev/sdf. Although, you can2 1137.a>use the sixth SCSI disk for the root FS, but you have to specify the2 114 /a>device by number... (see below). Or, even more strange, you can use the2 115 /a>fac< that there is no range checking of the partit/op number, and your2 116 /a>knowledge that each disk uses 16 minors, and write "root=/dev/sde17"2 117 /a>(for /dev/sdf1).2 1187.a>2 119 /a>[Strange and maybe uninteresting stuff OFF]2 1207.a>2 121 /a> If the device containing your root partit/op isn't in the table2 122 /a>abovv, you can also specify it by major and minor numbers. These are2 1237.a>written in hex, with no prefix and no separator between. E.g., if you2 124 /a>have a CD with contents appropriate as a root filesystem in the firs<2 125 /a>SCSI CD-ROM drive, you boot from it by "root=0b00". Here, hex "0b" =2 1267.a>decimal 11 is the major of SCSI CD-ROMs, and the minor 0 stands for2 127 /a>the firs< of these. You can find out all valid major numbers by2 1287.a>looking into include/linux/major.h.2 129 /a>2 130 /a>In addit/op to major and minor numbers, if the device containing your2 131 /a>root partit/op uses a partit/op table forma< with unique partit/op2 132 /a>ident/fiers, then you may use them. For instance,2 1337.a>"root=PARTUUID=00112233-4455-6677-8899-AABBCCDDEEFF". It is also2 134 /a>possible to reference another partit/op op the samv device using a2 135 /a>known partit/op UUID as the starting point. For example,2 1367.a>if partit/op 5 of the device has the UUID of2 137 /a>00112233-4455-6677-8899-AABBCCDDEEFF then partit/op 3 may be found as2 1387.a>follows:2 139 /a> PARTUUID=00112233-4455-6677-8899-AABBCCDDEEFF/PARTNROFF=-22 1417.a>2 141 /a>Authorita 142 /a>"Documenta 1437.a>2 1447.a>2 145 /a>2.2) ro, rw2 1467.a>-----------2 1477.a>2 1487.a>Syntax: ro2 149 /a> or: rw2 1517.a>2 151 /a>These two o1 152 /a>filesystem read-only or read-write. The default is read-only, exce1<2 153 /a>for ramdisks, which default to read-write.2 1547.a>2 155 /a>2 1567.a>2.3) debug2 1577.a>----------2 1587.a>2 159 /a>Syntax: debug2 1617.a>2 161 /a>This raises the kernel log level to 10 (the default is 7). This is the2 162 /a>samv level as set by the "dmesg" command, just that the maximum level2 163 /a>selectable by dmesg is 8.2 1647.a>2 165 /a>2 1667.a>2.4) debug=2 1677.a>-----------2 1687.a>2 169 /a>Syntax: debug=<device>2 1717.a>2 171 /a>This .1 172 /a>debugging device. This can aid debugging the kernel, since the2 1737.a>messagvs can be captured and analyzed on some other machine. Which2 174 /a>devices are possible depends on the machine typv. There are no checks2 175 /a>for the validity of the device namv. If the device isn't implemented,2 176 /a>nothing happens.2 1777.a>2 178 /a> Messagvs logged this way are in general stack dumps after kernel2 179 /a>memory faults or bad kernel traps, and kernel panics. To be exac<: all2 180 /a>messagvs of level 0 (panic messagvs) and all messagvs printed while2 181 /a>the log level is 8 or more (their level doesn't matter). Before stack2 182 /a>dumps, the kernel sets the log level to 10 automa 1837.a>at least 8 can also be set by the "debug" command line .1 184 /a>2.3) and at run time with "dmesg -n 8".2 185 /a>2 1867.a>Devices possible for Amiga:2 1877.a>2 1887.a> - "ser": built-in ser/al port; parameters: 9600bps, 8N12 1897.a> - "mem": Save the messagvs to a reserved area in chip mem. After2 190 /a> rebooting, they can be read under AmigaOS with the tool2 191 /a> 'dmesg'.2 192 /a>2 1937.a>Devices possible for Atari:2 1947.a>2 195 /a> - "ser1": ST-MFP ser/al port ("Modem1"); parameters: 9600bps, 8N12 1967.a> - "ser2": SCC channel B ser/al port ("Modem2"); parameters: 9600bps, 8N12 197 /a> - "ser" : default ser/al port2 198 /a> This is "ser2" for a Falcon, and "ser1" for any other machine2 1997.a> - "midi": The MIDI port; parameters: 31250bps, 8N12 2007.a> - "par" : parallel port2 201 /a> The printing routine for this implements a timeout for the2 202 /a> case there's no printer connected (else the kernel would2 203 /a> lock up). The timeout is not exac<, but usually a few2 204 /a> seconds.2 205 /a>2 2067.a>2 207 /a>2.6) ramdisk_size=2 2087.a>-------------2 209 /a>2 2.17.a>Syntax: ramdisk_size=<size>2 211 /a>2 212 /a> This .1 2137.a>size in KBytes. Do not use this .1 214 /a>passed by bootstrap! In this case, the size is selected automa 215 /a>and should not be overwritten.2 2167.a>2 217 /a> The only applica 2187.a>should be loaded into memory. To dotthat, select the corresponding2 219 /a>size of the disk as ramdisk size, and set the root device to the disk2 2207.a>drive (with "root=").2 221 /a>2 222 /a>2 2237.a>2.7) swap=2 224 /a>2.8) buff=2 225 /a>-----------2 2267.a>2 227 /a> I can't find any sigp of these o1 2287.a>2 229 /a>2 230 /a>3) General Device O1 231 /a>===========================================2 232 /a>2 2337.a>3.1) ether=2 234 /a>-----------2 235 /a>2 2367.a>Syntax: ether=[<irq>[,<base_addr>[,<mem_start>[,<mem_end>]]]],<dev-namv>2 2377.a>2 238 /a> <dev-namv> is the namv of a ne< driver, as specified in2 239 /a>drivers/ne 2417.a>eth3, sl0, ... sl3, ppp0, ..., ppp3, dummy, and lo.2 241 /a>2 242 /a> The non-etherne< drivers (sl, ppp, dummy, lo) obviously ignore the2 243 /a>settings by this .1 2447.a>Linux/m68k (ariadne, a2065, hydra) don't use them because Zorro boards2 245 /a>are really Plug-'n-Play, so the "ether=" op 2467.a>for Linux/m68k.2 2477.a>2 2487.a>2 249 /a>3.2) hd=2 2517.a>--------2 251 /a>2 252 /a>Syntax: hd=<cylinders>,<heads>,<sectors>2 2537.a>2 254 /a> This .1 255 /a>op 2567.a>(I.e., you can give this .1 2577.a>to use this .1 2587.a>itself. It exists just for the case that this fails for one of your2 259 /a>disks.2 2617.a>2 261 /a>2 262 /a>3.3) max_scsi_luns=2 263 /a>-------------------2 2647.a>2 265 /a>Syntax: max_scsi_luns=<n>2 2667.a>2 267 /a> Sets the maximum number of LUNs (log/cal units) of SCSI devices to2 2687.a>be scanned. Valid values for <n> are between 1 and 8. Default is 8 if2 269 /a>"Probe all LUNs op each SCSI device" was selected during the kernel2 2717.a>configura 271 /a>2 272 /a>2 2737.a>3.4) st=2 2747.a>--------2 275 /a>2 2767.a>Syntax: st=<buffer_size>,[<write_thres>,[<max_buffers>]]2 2777.a>2 278 /a> Sets several parameters of the SCSI tape driver. <buffer_size> is2 279 /a>the number of 512-byte buffers reserved for tape opera 280 /a>device. <write_thres> sets the number of blocks which must be filled2 281 /a>to start an actual write opera 282 /a>total number of buffers. <max_buffer> limits the total number of2 2837.a>buffers allocated for all tape devices.2 2847.a>2 285 /a>2 2867.a>3.5) dmasound=2 2877.a>--------------2 2887.a>2 289 /a>Syntax: dmasound=[<buffers>,<buffer-size>[,<catch-radius>]]2 2917.a>2 291 /a> This .1 292 /a>driver (Amiga and Atari): <buffers> is the number of buffers you want2 2937.a>to use (minimum 4, default 4), <buffer-size> is the size of each2 2947.a>buffer in kilobytes (minimum 4, default 32) and <catch-radius> says2 295 /a>how much percent of error will be tolera 2967.a>(maximum 10, default 0). For example with 3% you can play 8000Hz2 297 /a>AU-Files on the Falcon with its hardware frequency of 8195Hz and thus2 298 /a>don't need to expand the sound.2 299 /a>2 3007.a>2 301 /a>2 302 /a>4) O1 303 /a>=========================2 3047.a>2 305 /a>4.1) video=2 3067.a>-----------2 3077.a>2 3087.a>Syntax: video=<fbnamv>:<sub-.1 309 /a>2 3.17.a>The <fbnamv> parameter specifies the namv of the frame buffer,2 311 /a>eg. most atari users will want to specify `atafb' here. The2 312 /a><sub-.1 3137.a>below.2 3147.a>2 315 /a>NB: Please notice that this .1 3167.a> `video' during the development of the 1.3.x kernels,tthus you2 317 /a> might need to update your boot-scripts if upgrading to 2.x from2 318 /a> an 1.2.x kernel.2 319 /a>2 3207.a>NBB: The behavior of video= was changed in 2.1.57 so the recommended2 321 /a>op 322 /a>2 3237.a>4.1.1) Video Mode2 324 /a>-----------------2 325 /a>2 3267.a>This sub-.1 327 /a>in atari/atafb.c in the Linux/m68k source tree. The kernel will2 3287.a>activate the given video mode at boot time and make it the default2 329 /a>mode, if the hardware allows. Currently defiped namvs are:2 3307.a>2 331 /a> - stlow : 320x200x42 332 /a> - stmid, default5 : 640x200x22 3337.a> - sthigh, default4: 640x400x12 334 /a> - ttlow : 320x480x8, TT only2 335 /a> - ttmid, default1 : 640x480x4, TT only2 336 /a> - tthigh, default2: 1280x960x1, TT only2 337 /a> - vga2 : 640x480x1, Falcon only2 338 /a> - vga4 : 640x480x2, Falcon only2 339 /a> - vga16, default3 : 640x480x4, Falcon only2 340 /a> - vga256 : 640x480x8, Falcon only2 341 /a> - falh2 : 896x608x1, Falcon only2 342 /a> - falh16 : 896x608x4, Falcon only2 3437.a>2 344 /a> If no video mode is given on the command line, the kernel tries the2 345 /a>modes namvs "default<n>" in turn, until one is possible with the2 3467.a>hardware ip use.2 3477.a>2 348 /a> A video mode setting doesn't make sense, if the external driver is2 349 /a>activated by a "external:" sub-.1 3517.a>2 351 /a>4.1.2) ipverse2 352 /a>--------------2 3537.a>2 354 /a>Ipvert the display. This affec 355 /a>(X) display. Usually, the background is chosen to be black. With this2 3567.a>.1 3577.a>2 3587.a>4.1.3) font2 359 /a>-----------2 3617.a>2 361 /a>Syntax: font:<fontnamv>2 362 /a>2 363 /a>Specify the font to use in text modes. Currently you can choose only2 3647.a>between `VGA8x8', `VGA8x16' and `PEARL8x8'. `VGA8x8' is default, if the2 365 /a>vert/cal size of the display is less than 400 pixel rows. Otherwise, the2 3667.a>`VGA8x16' font is the default.2 3677.a>2 3687.a>4.1.4) hwscroll_2 369 /a>----------------2 3717.a>2 371 /a>Syntax: hwscroll_<n>2 372 /a>2 3737.a>The number of addit/opal lines of video memory to reserve for2 3747.a>speeding up the scrolling ("hardware scrolling"). Hardware scrolling2 375 /a>is possible only if the kernel can set the video base address in steps2 3767.a>fipe enough. This is true for STE, MegaSTE, TT, and Falcon. It is not2 3777.a>possible with plain STs and graphics cards (The former because the2 378 /a>base address must be on a 256 byte boundary there, the latter because2 379 /a>the kernel doesn't know how to set the base address at all.)2 3817.a>2 381 /a> By default, <n> is set to the number of visible text lines on the2 382 /a>display. Thus, the amount of video memory is doubled, compared to no2 3837.a>hardware scrolling. You can turn off the hardware scrolling altogether2 3847.a>by setting <n> to 0.2 385 /a>2 3867.a>4.1.5) ipternal:2 3877.a>----------------2 3887.a>2 389 /a>Syntax: ipternal:<xres>;<yres>[;<xres_max>;<yres_max>;<offset>]2 3917.a>2 391 /a>This .1 392 /a>hardware, like e.g. OverScan. <xres> and <yres> give the (extended)2 3937.a>dimensiops of the screen.2 3947.a>2 395 /a> If your OverScan needs a black border, you have to write the last2 3967.a>three arguments of the "ipternal:". <xres_max> is the maximum line2 397 /a>length the hardware allows, <yres_max> the maximum number of lines.2 398 /a><offset> is the offset of the visible part of the screen memory to its2 399 /a>phys/cal start, in bytes.2 4007.a>2 401 /a> Often, extended interval video hardware has to be activated somehow.2 402 /a>For this, see the "sw_*" op 4037.a>2 4047.a>4.1.6) external:2 405 /a>----------------2 4067.a>2 4077.a>Syntax:2 408 /a> external:<xres>;<yres>;<depth>;<org>;<scrmem>[;<scrlen>[;<vgabase>\2 409 /a> [;<colw>[;<coltypv>[;<xres_virtual>]]]]]2 4107.a>2 411 /a>[I had to break this line...]2 412 /a>2 413 /a> This is probably the most complica 4147.a>you have some external video hardware (a graphics board), and how to2 415 /a>use it under Linux/m68k. The kernel cannot know more about the hardware2 4167.a>than you tell it here! The kernel also is unable to set or change any2 417 /a>video modes, since it doesn't know about any board internal. So, you2 418 /a>have to switch to that video mode before you start Linux, and cannot2 419 /a>switch to another mode once Linux has started.2 4207.a>2 421 /a> The firs< 3 parameters of this sub-.1 422 /a><yres> and <depth> give the dimensiops of the screen and the number of2 4237.a>DlL421" class="line" namvalL421"> 421 /5ss="line" n1y a fewe" n1he screeloga8k/hmnta 4147.a>yo---------------224a href="Documentathis sub-.1i4 atari/atafb.c in the Li4ux/m64ese o1hativate the given video m4de at4boot t;&lanizeen arameterdenta 329 /a>m4de, if the hardware allo4s. Cu4el-.124a href="Documenta stlow : 320x240x42<4 href="o, yoio, yo:f="Docup/m68leaf="D;ss="l="Docu, i.b. 16 biDocumentahould ;ss=", href=16 biD/ops.txt#L230" idalL230" class="line" namvalL230"4 422 /a>&l stmid, default5 : 640x240x22<43nter connec="Documerd)a href=o ena 4 sthigh, default4: 640x440x12<43s not exac<, bubuilt-in/kernelabout any boaI;xrenkumentanel-.1"Docul-.1 334 /a> 4 ttlow : 320x440x8, 43enta 4 ttmid, default1 : 640x440x4, 4T only2o, yopo, yo:f="Docupack="D;mentl="Docu, i.b. e screen and ttath tthigh, default2: 1280x460x1,436ntai4 vga2 : 640x440x1, 437ntaha vga4 : 640x440x2, 4alcon oo, youo, yo:f="DocuIt ism4 vga16, default3 : 640x440x4, 43typv>[;<xlooking&ment);68k/kernee" n1he s2 4 vga256 : 640x440x8, 44l-.1 341 /a> 4 falh2 : 896x648x1, 4alcon ops modochr boa; in t(in mose screen and te s1), compgt;[;<vgelek/kerk/ke 4 falh16 : 896x648x4, 44 memoryl-.1idatefaning 3437.a>24a href="Documenta 4If no video mode is give4 on t4e comma/m68kSo, yo:fnorm< 4des namvs "default&4t;n&g445ref="o, yoio, yo:fnel-.ref=thrdware ip use.224a href="DocumentahaA video mode setting doe4nƊt make/m68k/key to its2mentef="Do/oaratel tries tel willbase>\2 349 /a>a4tivated by a "exter4al:&q4ot; sub lashexadecimk/kernel-.rnel-href="Do0xa24a href="Documenta441.2) ipverse2-4------------224a href="Documenta 354 /a>I4vert the display. This a4fec 335 /a> 4) display. Usually, the 4ackgr4und isIm6r"Documenue isse ada 4167.a>th 3477.a>24a href="Documenta441.3) font2-4---------224a href="Documenta44ntax: font:<fontnamv&4t;224a href="DocumentaS4ecify the font to use in4text 463filesystem/m68k/kernel-.1tme buffer, some ext/kerIf iunel-.1I4tween `VGA8x8', `VGA4x161 andhref="Dreadey"D68k/keany=v4rt/cal size of the displ4y is 4ess thrnel-.1`4GA8x16' font is the 4efaul4.224a href="Documenta441.4) hwscroll_2-4--------------224a href="DocumentaS4ntax: hwscroll_<n>424a href="DocumentaT4e number of addit/opal l4nes o4 videobase>\2s4eeding up the scrolling 4"47l-.1i4 possible only if the ke4nel c47order, _virtual>, soefaningfulose addre/m68k/kernel-.1t/op68k/kernd/op/m to give/ops.txt#L395" idalL395" class="line" namvalL395"4 3667.a>`4pe enough. This is true 4or ST4, Megabase ad-.1 w2mering ty to itre orDregl-.1r ik, i.b. "Documentap4ssible with plain STs an4 grap4ics car1rmhinglitre orD(red/gta44se address must be on a 456 by4e bounk/kernel-8 /ops.txt#L356" idalL356" class="line" namvalL356"4 359 /a>-4e kernel doesn't kno4 how 47l-.124a href="Documenta 4By default, <n> is4set t4 the nop/m68k/kere orDregl-.1r ; inlrnel-.1d4splay. Thus, the amount 4f vid4o memoa 3837.a>h4rdware scrolling. You ca4 turn4off thi hre ida.1 3847.a>b4 setting <n> to 0.424a href="Documenta`41.5) ipternal:2p4--------------224a href="Documenta 359 /a>-4ntax: ipternal:<xres&4t;;&l4;yres&you hao, yo"Doaissingocs 3917.a>24a href="Documenta 381 /a> 4is .1 382 /a>d4rdware, like e.g. OverSc4n. &l49l-.1d4mensiops of the screen.24a hre49ta 3947.a>24a href="Documenta 385 /a>24If your OverScan needs a4black49l-.1t4ree arguments of the &qu4t;ipt496ideo memop/m68k/kfmentacumen attng 8195Hz aVIDEL shif/ke/oaram/ops.txt#L386" idalL386" class="line" namvalL386"4 3777.a>p4ngth the hardware allows4 <4res_macocumenta24t;offset> is the offs4t of 49l-.1p4ys/cal start, in bytes.24a hre4="Docup/m68) moditorcap25a href="Documenta 5Often, extended interval5video5el-.1F5r this, see the "sw5*&quo5; opF5rensiops of the screen.25k/ker5el-.1451.6) external:2451f your OverScan needs a5ocume5ta451ee arguments of the &qu5k/ker5el-.1451gth the hardware allows5/op/m5el-.1 5external:<xres>;&l5;yres5gt;;</m68kmint;vgof the scvnta 5 [;<colw>[5<c5ltypv&-.125a href="Documenta 5 had to break this line.5.]225a href="Documenta 5This is probably the mos5 comp51l-.1y5u have some external vid5o har514filesystemrnel-.1ela45e it under Linux/m68k. T5e ker51l-.1t5an you tell it here! The5kerne51av5deo modes, since it does5'51a 5ve to switch to that vid5o mod51l-.1s5itch to another mode onc5 Linu51yres&you#39; to225a href="Documenta 5The firs< 3 parameters o5 this5sub-.1 and hr. u#39; cocumenta25t;yres> and <depth5gt; g5el-.1D5L421" class="line" namva5L421"523filesyWand ref=ring twrnel-.1<: Stay5---------------225a href="Documentat5is sub-.1v5 atari/atafb.c in the Li5ux/m652l-.1h5tivate the given video m5de at52 make senz2m5de, if the hardware allo5s. Cu52 set the p/m68k//ops.txt#L392" idalL392" class="line" namvalL392"5 3307.a>25a href="Documenta 5 stlow : 320x250x42<53l-.1&5 stmid, default5 : 640x250x22<53nter 4/kerataredse 5 sthigh, default4: 640x450x12<53s notk/kernel-.1 5 ttlow : 320x450x8, 53l-.1 5 ttmid, default1 : 640x450x4, 5T onlygt;[;<ataredset5 tthigh, default2: 1280x560x1,53l-.1i5 vga2 : 640x450x1, 537ntah5 vga4 : 640x450x2, 5alcon Tres&/op/m68umentam5 vga16, default3 : 640x450x4, 53typv&ref="Do/m68IKBDef="e lasnewpredseopack=n the2 5 vga256 : 640x450x8, 54l-.1 5 falh2 : 896x658x1, 5alcon 8el-ruval Low1&5 falh16 : 896x658x4, 54 memoslf up adbek/ker; dseotrackllin/ops.txt#L422" idalL422" class="line" namvalL422"5 3437.a>25a href="Documenta 5If no video mode is give5 on t5e commanYef="Dochref="Dohaotsholdkernxop/m6ment 5des namvs "default&5t;n&g545ref=erneltthrefrop/m0 pi-.1< you#3ntao, yos&ne ofentaumentat5rdware ip use.2i5a href="Documentah5A video mode setting doe5nིl-.1a5tivated by a "exter5al:&q54l-.125a href="Documenta451.2) ipverse2-5------------225a href="Documenta 5vert the display. This a5fec 5) display. Usually, the 5ackgr55order, ystemrre numrefes, as l0, 1, t525a href="Documentah51.3) font2a5---------225a href="Documenta45ntax: font:<fontnamv&5t;2-5a href="DocumentaS5ecify the font to use in5text 563filesy-.1"foer="DoMudusaop/m6mestaI5tween `VGA8x8', `VGA5x168l-.1v5rt/cal size of the displ5y is 56order, yWnel-.1< pwotfober "Do obvious: ,t5GA8x16' font is the 5efaul566nta25a href="Documenta451.4) hwscroll_2-5--------------225a href="Documenta45ntax: hwscroll_<n>525a href="DocumentaS5e number of addit/opal l5nes o57l-.1s5eeding up the scrolling 5"574filesyst some extenetsernele obvious: &foer="Dokernelnate nuSCSIerrnel- /ops.txt#L356" idalL356" class="line" namvalL356"5 375 /a>i5 possible only if the ke5nel c57orderGenerack. Wcumeory to rese<xres_"Doctteomk/tsdtaa`5pe enough. This is true 5or ST5, MegaSoering ty to itory to ,p5ssible with plain STs an5 grap5ics carnel-.1eldependf=nhwhl-.145se address must be on a 556 by5e bounBl-.1,mrnel-.1el-.1 notldops 6" ,f=entanentahould k/kerntxts: &1-5e kernel doesn't kno5 how 57l-.125a href="Documenta 5By default, <n> is5set t5 the nignorent(ref="m -.1So, you2ics2d5splay. Thus, the amount 5f vid58l-.1h5rdware scrolling. You ca5 turn583rder, _virtan_queuf="Dob5 setting <n> to 0.5i5a href="Documenta`51.5) ipternal:2p5--------------245a href="Documenta-5ntax: ipternal:<xres&5t;;&l58typv>[ 2So, you2maktantn.1< m68k/ke: 16/8 /ops.txt#L356" idalL356" class="line" namvalL356"5 3917.a>25a href="Documenta 5is .1d5rdware, like e.g. OverSc5n. &l59nter connMntah5mensiops of the screen.25a hre59s not exalogm0 pi-nit/(LUN,68k/kerneentaSCSIeernget).yL2gal k/kerelntab5a href="Documentai5If your OverScan needs a5black59order, ohref=2[ 2So, you2maktantn.1/op/m6ra-.1tef="Do/oOef="wisa`5ree arguments of the &qu5t;ipt596ntap5ngth the hardware allows5 <597nta45t;offset> is the offs5t of 59 make s= p/m68k,p5ys/cal start, in bytes.25a hre59l-.126a href="Documenta26as .1F6r this, see the "sw6*&quo60nter connhat2F6rensiops of the screen.26k/ker60s not exacF6r href="DocumentaF6rf your OverScan needs a6ocume60l-.1461ee arguments of the &qu6k/ker606rder, _virlcat-gatc"Do461gth the hardware allows6/op/m607nta 6external:<xres>;&l6;yres608ter connha 6 [;<colw>[6<c6ltypv>[L2gal k/kerel-.1 betwa26a href="Documenta26 had to break this line.6.]226a href="Documenta 6This is probably the mos6 comp61l-.1y6u have some external vid6o har614filesye schost-id="Do46e it under Linux/m68k. T6e ker615nta46an you tell it here! The6kerne616nta46deo modes, since it does6'617nta 6ve to switch to that vid6o mod618nta 6itch to another mode onc6 Linu61typv>[bus226a href="Documenta 6The firs< 3 parameters o6 this621nta26t;yres> and <depth6gt; g6el-.1D6L421" class="line" namva6L421"623rder, _virtaggederney6---------------246a href="Documentat6is sub-.1v6 atari/atafb.c in the Li6ux/m6627nta 6tivate the given video m6de at62l-.1m6de, if the hardware allo6s. Cu62typv>[Taggedlqueu"Do efank tkaofm="Do/mDocentahatma"eu"Doctteissurnel-/ops.txt#L389" idalL389" class="line" namvalL389"6 3307.a>26a href="Documenta 6 stlow : 320x260x42<631nta26 stmid, default5 : 640x260x22<63nter conn#aggedlqueu"Do (:-(y /ops.txt#L356" idalL356" class="line" namvalL356"6 3337.a> 6 sthigh, default4: 640x460x12<63l-.1 6 ttlow : 320x460x8, 63l-.1<4.52sartedes 6 ttmid, default1 : 640x460x4, 6T onlyp/m68k/kernel/ops.txt#L306" idalL306" class="line" namvalL306"6 4167.a>t6 tthigh, default2: 1280x660x1,63l-.1i6 vga2 : 640x460x1, 637ntah6 vga4 : 640x460x2, 63l-.1m6 vga16, default3 : 640x460x4, 63typv>ernel-.1< to2 6 vga256 : 640x460x8, 64l-.1 6 falh2 : 896x668x1, 6alcon Oel-S"Do,28el-cumening h..//ops.txt#L392" idalL392" class="line" namvalL392"6 422 /a>&6 falh16 : 896x668x4, 64l-.126a href="Documenta 6If no video mode is give6 on t6e commitems 6des namvs "default&6t;n&g64l-.1t6rdware ip use.2i6a href="Documentah6A video mode setting doe6n髠ntam6tivated by a "exter6al:&q649nta26a href="Documenta461.2) ipverse2-6------------226a href="Documenta 6vert the display. This a6fec 6) display. Usually, the 6ackgr65orderp/kern< gt; and 1t626a href="Documentah61.3) font2m6---------226a href="Documenta46ntax: font:<fontnamv&6t;2-6a href="DocumentaS6ecify the font to use in6text 663fileI6tween `VGA8x8', `VGA6x16Bl-.1v6rt/cal size of the displ6y is 66order, pf-.1t6GA8x16' font is the 6efaul666nta26a href="Documenta461.4) hwscroll_2-6--------------226a href="Documenta46ntax: hwscroll_<n>626a href="DocumentaS6e number of addit/opal l6nes o67s notk/kernel-.1/ops.txt#L408" idalL408" class="line" namvalL408"6 354 /a>I6eeding up the scrolling 6"67l-.1i6 possible only if the ke6nel c67 onlygt;[;< defa=/m68fb theerne<_virlube" namval..`6pe enough. This is true 6or ST67l-.1p6ssible with plain STs an6 grap6ics castem/m68fb theerne="Document 68k/kernop/m68ucumocumentahk/kernel-.1,pk/kid/ops.txt#L227" idalL227" class="line" namvalL227"6 3587.a>46se address must be on a 656 by6e bounto2-6e kernel doesn't kno6 how 67 set thrneha k/kep226a href="Documenta46By default, <n> is6set t6 the nto226splay. Thus, the amount 6f vid68l-.1<" namv./ops.txt#L415" idalL415" class="line" namvalL415"6 3837.a>h6rdware scrolling. You ca6 turn68l-.1b6 setting <n> to 0.6i6a href="Documenta`61.5) ipternal:2p6--------------246a href="Documenta-6ntax: ipternal:<xres&6t;;&l68typv&m68k/kernel-.126a href="Documenta 6is .1d6rdware, like e.g. OverSc6n. &l69nter any bedependf=nh="Doue isak/kernel-.1erevatal/ops.txt#L227" idalL227" class="line" namvalL227"6 3837.a>h6mensiops of the screen.26a hre69l-.1b6a href="Documentai6If your OverScan needs a6black69orderp/kdefinld.about any beanta-vailment`6ree arguments of the &qu6t;ipt69l-.1p6ngth the hardware allows6 <697nta46t;offset> is the offs6t of 69 make - ntsc : 64lx200, 15nkHz, 60 Hz/ops.txt#L408" idalL408" class="line" namvalL408"6 359 /a>-6ys/cal start, in bytes.26a hre69l-.1< - ntsc-lace : 64lx400, 15nkHz, 60 Hz/68k/klaced/ops.txt#L408" idalL408" class="line" namvalL408"7 4007.a>27a href="Documenta27as .1F7r this, see the "sw7*&quo70nter c-="Dl-lace : 64lx512, 15nkHz, 50 Hz/68k/klaced/ops.txt#L408" idalL408" class="line" namvalL408"7 302 /a>F7rensiops of the screen.27k/ker70s notECS-any bF7r href="DocumentaF7rf your OverScan needs a7ocume70l-.1F7ree arguments of the &qu7k/ker706rder,- euro36 : 64lx200, 15nkHz, 72 Hz/ops.txt#L408" idalL408" class="line" namvalL408"7 702 /a>F7rgth the hardware allows7/op/m707ntaF7r;offset> is the offs7;yres708ntaF7rs/cal start, in bytes.27<c709nta27a href="Documenta27 had to break this line.7.]2F7a href="Documenta 7This is probably the mos7 comp71l-.1y7u have some external vid7o har714-.1F7e it under Linux/m68k. T7e ker715-.1F7an you tell it here! The7kerne716-.147deo modes, since it does7'717-.1F7ve to switch to that vid7o mod718nta 7itch to another mode onc7 Linu719nta27a href="Documenta 7The firs< 3 parameters o7 this72l-.127t;yres> and <depth7gt; g7el-.1D7L421" class="line" namva7L421"723rderchmp6resep/m68kaoftrker any beantalimitiisrn 2-biDore orDaoer="DoECS/ops.txt#L386" idalL386" class="line" namvalL386"7 4147.a>y7---------------247a href="Documentat7is sub-.1v7 atari/atafb.c in the Li7ux/m672a 7tivate the given video m7de at72l-.1m7de, if the hardware allo7s. Cu72typv>[;<depf=<_virnr.rnelbiD-planes27a href="Documenta 7 stlow : 320x270x42<731nta27 stmid, default5 : 640x270x22<73l-.1 7 sthigh, default4: 640x470x12<73l-.1<5.1.3)/68el-s /ops.txt#L368" idalL368" class="line" namvalL368"7 334 /a> 7 ttlow : 320x470x8, 73l-.1 7 ttmid, default1 : 640x470x4, 73l-.1t7 tthigh, default2: 1280x760x1,73l-.1v7 vga2 : 640x470x1, 737nta<="Docu68el-s ="Documlube" namv&foer="Dokernel/ops.txt#L227" idalL227" class="line" namvalL227"7 408 /a> 7 vga4 : 640x470x2, 73l-.1m7 vga16, default3 : 640x470x4, 73typv&5.1.4)&fon 7 vga256 : 640x470x8, 74l-.1

7 falh2 : 896x678x1, 74l-.1&7 falh16 : 896x678x4, 742-.127a href="Documenta 7If no video mode is give7 on t7e commS8k/kenexrocfon< thenel-rnemext any b. Funcnamvkernexr68s/keraop/m6/ops.txt#L386" idalL386" class="line" namvalL386"7 335 /a> 7des namvs "default&7t;n&g74l-.1<="Docufon<="Documlube" namv&foer="Dokerne, excepf68kaof`PEARL8x8o, yo-l tue isinstead/ops.txt#L408" idalL408" class="line" namvalL408"7 4167.a>t7rdware ip use.2v7a href="Documentah7A video mode setting doe7n྆l-.1m7tivated by a "exter7al:&q74typv&5.1.5) annitorcap27a href="Documenta-6------------2&7 tivated by 6 vmi27a href="DocumentaF7rfync tivated7e a27a href="Documenta27a href="Documentat625a href="Documentaic-------a>F7rfync tivated : 640x260x22<63nter conn#aggedlqueu"Do (:-(y /ops.7xt#L408" 7dalL408" class="line" na7valL476"7 412 /a>27 stmid, default5 : 640x270x22<73l-.127a href="Documentat7fd_nte_df0ref="Documenta 6 ttmidocumentat6i6 fd_nte_df0r6 vturr/op/--------o, yo-lumentaan .6e" namvalsc3nitorcap461.4) hwscroll_226a hlt&76 ,0x26nta46ntax: hwscroll_<n>627 stmid, default5 : 640x270x22<73l-.1 7 ttlowef="Documenta 7 ttmid, default1 : 640x470x4, 73l-.1i6 wd33c93rke6nel c67 onlygt;[;< defa=/m68fb theerne<_virlube" namval..p6--------------2i586IIp/"Do77.a>p6--------------225a href="Documentab6 setting <n> to 0.6itma-nth6rdware scrolling. You ca6 turn68l-.146nofync37.a>h6rdware scrolling. You ca6 turn68l-.1 6 ttmid, default1 : 640x460x4, 6T onlyp/m68k/kernel/ops.7xt#L227" 7dalL227" class="line" na7valL278"6 4167.a>t6i6 nofync:bitmask67.a>t6461.4) hwscroll_2 6it3 /a>spo 66orde boun787.a>461.4) hwscroll_2 6vert /"Docttepero. Sa600m----to hrevcrodentatrueo615nefau, likaa16, default3 : 640x470x4, 73typv&5.1.4)&fon 7 ttmid, default1 : 640x470x4, 73l-.1t7pa>ioatma-ntv7 atard, default1 : 640x460x4, 6T onlyp/m68k/kernel/ops.7xt#L408" 7dalL408" class="line" na7valL479"6 3587.a>461.4) hwscroll_2m7dpa>ioa:nt16, default3 : 640x470x4, 73typv&5.1.4)&fon25a href="Documentaioaeh6rdware scrolling. You ca6 turn68l-.1h6rdware scrolling. You ca6 turn68l-.1 6 ttmidocud, default1 : 640x460x4, 6T onlyp/m68k/kernel/ops.8xt#L408" 8dalL408" class="line" na8valL480"6 4167.a>t6i6 r =ax:nord:x67.a>t6461.4) hwscroll_2 7Ix = 0atoene8umeahmen r =ax:nordo, 2atoealwayseahmen ou2mitma-nt466e bouadap doe;" namr =ax:nordo, whic87v&fou2mnter con6<g /a>i5 ptma-nt27 stmid, default5 : 640x270x22<73l-.1m7debumbe 7 ttlobe 7 ttmid, default1 : 640x470x4, 73l-.1i6 debum:x67.a>t6p6--------------2i6If ,Ix ; to oipvergt;;&l6;yrme586va>iout16, default3 : 640x470x4, 73typv&5.1.4)&foni6Ifsu" : 64lx256, 27nkHz, 47 Hz/douents"Do/ops.8xt#L408" 8dalL408" class="line" na8valL488"7 42wd33c93.hany bedependf=nh="Doue isak/kernel-.1erevatal/ops.8xt#L408" 8dalL408" class="line" na8valL488"7 401 /a> 7The firs< 3 parameters o7 this72l-.1 7The firs< 3 parameters o7 this72l-.1S6e nuobeI6eeding up the scrolling 6"67l-.1i6 :x67.a>t6t6b5a67.a>t626a h6rdwar< (Noop/Tr1typadap er(s)el-/line2ov_="Docu, i.b. eline2ov_ikbd="Docu,/ops.8xt#L389" 8dalL389" class="line" na8valL389"7 32nter conlt&7t;n&g300;[>`51.5) icdesrollfi ; t14,nlt&7t;n&g2091 it;" nas 8l-/line2ov_="Docu, i.b. eline2ov_ikbd="Docu,/ops.8xt#L302" 8dalL302" class="line" na8valL382"7 336<lt&7t;n&GVP 1typadap ers it;" nas l-.1 6 sthigh, default4: 640x460x12<63l-.1h6rdware scrolling. You ca6 turn68l-.1 6 ttm37.a>h6rdware scrolling. You ca6 turn68l-.1t6 tthigh, default2: 1280x660x1,63l-.1 6 hr684s c b 6iif keywordsrny6of by5e;" nas nal.67.a>t6 tthigh, default2: 1280x660x1,63l-.11typvadap erfi like syst2mitma-ntp5ys/cal start, in bytes.25a hre59l-.1S6e nuobe&6 falh16 : 896x668x4, 64l-.1i6 nodmt:x67.a>t6I6eeding up the scrolling 6"67l-.1x ; t16a hr use.2I6eeding up the scrolling 6"67l-.1S6a>26as .ac"Da 6vertitma-nt-6------------28aehat8a"e a---------o, yo-lumentaan .6e" namvalsc3nitorcap&6 falh16 : 896x668x4, 64l-.1 7 ttlef="Documenta 7 ttmid, default1 : 640x470x4, 73l-.1i6 gvp11r>b6 addr-ergt[;< defa=/m68fb theerne<_virlube" namval..p6--------------2t6G some esm68lube"GVP ke s= did/n6.]"f/op2mDMA77.a>p6--------------2S6ec whic87madef="ene"Dap6--------------2p6--------------227a href="DocumentaS6]2<2mmentleaa> 6 un5 /aicc"f27-----ugh, default4: 640x470x12<73l-.1<5.1.3)/68el-s /ops.8xt#L285" 8dalL285" class="line" na8valL286"6 33ke ant;defau;a>v6rt*e686* wha"Do6um;<do 286 fd_nx42861.4) mailsalit6G somntaS20ma;a>v6rt*e686 castem/m6"ene"Dnta86ntax:op/m6a>p6-xt"DlfIp/"Do77.a>p6-----7.a>p6-----. Anmnta87 stmiop/m6,6* wnopo 66o1idatfea"Documlubepo 66o="Docharttfeamitma-nm63 ="Docu, i.b. eline2ov_ikbd="Docu,/ops.8xt#L389" 8dalL408" cl8ss="line" na7valL477"7 38373) 8d33c93tooed lisDocumentalube" namva lisDfd/ops.8amvalL38986 lL408" cl8ss="line" na7valL477"7 384 /a>86eeding up the scrolling 6"67l-.187; t16a S(likube"GVP ke s= did/nc93-baultxt an-.1ea 24l6;yrnta87lL408" m6 un5 nta86-----32l6;yrntap6-xt on>26amentleaaa>S6ec op/Tr1typadap erocumenta be aa hre. E85a href="Documenta88-o, yo-lumentaan .6e" namvalsc3nitorcap8tma-nt/* LoicatVarirents: */o-lumentaan .6e" namvalsc3nitorcap86rdwar/* S8k/:e commmmmmmm*/o-lumentaan .6e" namvalsc3nitorcap86nofyn/* End:ther mode onc*/o-lumentaan .6e" namvalsc3nitorcap86 ttmi

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