linux/Documentation/devices.txt
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   1
   2                    LINUX ALLOCATED DEVICES (2.6+ version)
   3
   4             Maintained by Alan Cox <device@lanana.org>
   5
   6                      Last revised: 6th April 2009
   7
   8This list is the Linux Device List, the official registry of allocated
   9device numbers and /dev directory nodes for the Linux operating
  10system.
  11
  12The latest version of this list is available from
  13http://www.lanana.org/docs/device-list/ or
  14ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/docs/device-list/.  This version may be
  15newer than the one distributed with the Linux kernel.
  16
  17The LaTeX version of this document is no longer maintained.
  18
  19This document is included by reference into the Filesystem Hierarchy
  20Standard (FHS).  The FHS is available from http://www.pathname.com/fhs/.
  21
  22Allocations marked (68k/Amiga) apply to Linux/68k on the Amiga
  23platform only.  Allocations marked (68k/Atari) apply to Linux/68k on
  24the Atari platform only.
  25
  26The symbol {2.6} means the allocation is obsolete and scheduled for
  27removal once kernel version 2.6 (or equivalent) is released. Some of these
  28allocations have already been removed.
  29
  30This document is in the public domain.  The author requests, however,
  31that semantically altered versions are not distributed without
  32permission of the author, assuming the author can be contacted without
  33an unreasonable effort.
  34
  35In particular, please don't sent patches for this list to Linus, at
  36least not without contacting me first.
  37
  38I do not have any information about these devices beyond what appears
  39on this list.  Any such information requests will be deleted without
  40reply.
  41
  42
  43          **** DEVICE DRIVERS AUTHORS PLEASE READ THIS ****
  44
  45To have a major number allocated, or a minor number in situations
  46where that applies (e.g. busmice), please contact me with the
  47appropriate device information.  Also, if you have additional
  48information regarding any of the devices listed below, or if I have
  49made a mistake, I would greatly appreciate a note.
  50
  51I do, however, make a few requests about the nature of your report.
  52This is necessary for me to be able to keep this list up to date and
  53correct in a timely manner.  First of all, *please* send it to the
  54correct address... <device@lanana.org>.  I receive hundreds of email
  55messages a day, so mail sent to other addresses may very well get lost
  56in the avalanche.  Please put in a descriptive subject, so I can find
  57your mail again should I need to.  Too many people send me email
  58saying just "device number request" in the subject.
  59
  60Second, please include a description of the device *in the same format
  61as this list*.  The reason for this is that it is the only way I have
  62found to ensure I have all the requisite information to publish your
  63device and avoid conflicts.
  64
  65Third, please don't assume that the distributed version of the list is
  66up to date.  Due to the number of registrations I have to maintain it
  67in "batch mode", so there is likely additional registrations that
  68haven't been listed yet.
  69
  70Fourth, remember that Linux now has extensive support for dynamic allocation
  71of device numbering and can use sysfs and udev to handle the naming needs.
  72There are still some exceptions in the serial and boot device area. Before
  73asking for a device number make sure you actually need one.
  74
  75Finally, sometimes I have to play "namespace police."  Please don't be
  76offended.  I often get submissions for /dev names that would be bound
  77to cause conflicts down the road.  I am trying to avoid getting in a
  78situation where we would have to suffer an incompatible forward
  79change.  Therefore, please consult with me *before* you make your
  80device names and numbers in any way public, at least to the point
  81where it would be at all difficult to get them changed.
  82
  83Your cooperation is appreciated.
  84
  85
  86  0             Unnamed devices (e.g. non-device mounts)
  87                  0 = reserved as null device number
  88                See block major 144, 145, 146 for expansion areas.
  89
  90  1 char        Memory devices
  91                  1 = /dev/mem          Physical memory access
  92                  2 = /dev/kmem         Kernel virtual memory access
  93                  3 = /dev/null         Null device
  94                  4 = /dev/port         I/O port access
  95                  5 = /dev/zero         Null byte source
  96                  6 = /dev/core         OBSOLETE - replaced by /proc/kcore
  97                  7 = /dev/full         Returns ENOSPC on write
  98                  8 = /dev/random       Nondeterministic random number gen.
  99                  9 = /dev/urandom      Faster, less secure random number gen.
 100                 10 = /dev/aio          Asynchronous I/O notification interface
 101                 11 = /dev/kmsg         Writes to this come out as printk's, reads
 102                                        export the buffered printk records.
 103                 12 = /dev/oldmem       Used by crashdump kernels to access
 104                                        the memory of the kernel that crashed.
 105
 106  1 block       RAM disk
 107                  0 = /dev/ram0         First RAM disk
 108                  1 = /dev/ram1         Second RAM disk
 109                    ...
 110                250 = /dev/initrd       Initial RAM disk
 111
 112                Older kernels had /dev/ramdisk (1, 1) here.
 113                /dev/initrd refers to a RAM disk which was preloaded
 114                by the boot loader; newer kernels use /dev/ram0 for
 115                the initrd.
 116
 117  2 char        Pseudo-TTY masters
 118                  0 = /dev/ptyp0        First PTY master
 119                  1 = /dev/ptyp1        Second PTY master
 120                    ...
 121                255 = /dev/ptyef        256th PTY master
 122
 123                Pseudo-tty's are named as follows:
 124                * Masters are "pty", slaves are "tty";
 125                * the fourth letter is one of pqrstuvwxyzabcde indicating
 126                  the 1st through 16th series of 16 pseudo-ttys each, and
 127                * the fifth letter is one of 0123456789abcdef indicating
 128                  the position within the series.
 129
 130                These are the old-style (BSD) PTY devices; Unix98
 131                devices are on major 128 and above and use the PTY
 132                master multiplex (/dev/ptmx) to acquire a PTY on
 133                demand.
 134
 135  2 block       Floppy disks
 136                  0 = /dev/fd0          Controller 0, drive 0, autodetect
 137                  1 = /dev/fd1          Controller 0, drive 1, autodetect
 138                  2 = /dev/fd2          Controller 0, drive 2, autodetect
 139                  3 = /dev/fd3          Controller 0, drive 3, autodetect
 140                128 = /dev/fd4          Controller 1, drive 0, autodetect
 141                129 = /dev/fd5          Controller 1, drive 1, autodetect
 142                130 = /dev/fd6          Controller 1, drive 2, autodetect
 143                131 = /dev/fd7          Controller 1, drive 3, autodetect
 144
 145                To specify format, add to the autodetect device number:
 146                  0 = /dev/fd?          Autodetect format
 147                  4 = /dev/fd?d360      5.25"  360K in a 360K  drive(1)
 148                 20 = /dev/fd?h360      5.25"  360K in a 1200K drive(1)
 149                 48 = /dev/fd?h410      5.25"  410K in a 1200K drive
 150                 64 = /dev/fd?h420      5.25"  420K in a 1200K drive
 151                 24 = /dev/fd?h720      5.25"  720K in a 1200K drive
 152                 80 = /dev/fd?h880      5.25"  880K in a 1200K drive(1)
 153                  8 = /dev/fd?h1200     5.25" 1200K in a 1200K drive(1)
 154                 40 = /dev/fd?h1440     5.25" 1440K in a 1200K drive(1)
 155                 56 = /dev/fd?h1476     5.25" 1476K in a 1200K drive
 156                 72 = /dev/fd?h1494     5.25" 1494K in a 1200K drive
 157                 92 = /dev/fd?h1600     5.25" 1600K in a 1200K drive(1)
 158
 159                 12 = /dev/fd?u360      3.5"   360K Double Density(2)
 160                 16 = /dev/fd?u720      3.5"   720K Double Density(1)
 161                120 = /dev/fd?u800      3.5"   800K Double Density(2)
 162                 52 = /dev/fd?u820      3.5"   820K Double Density
 163                 68 = /dev/fd?u830      3.5"   830K Double Density
 164                 84 = /dev/fd?u1040     3.5"  1040K Double Density(1)
 165                 88 = /dev/fd?u1120     3.5"  1120K Double Density(1)
 166                 28 = /dev/fd?u1440     3.5"  1440K High Density(1)
 167                124 = /dev/fd?u1600     3.5"  1600K High Density(1)
 168                 44 = /dev/fd?u1680     3.5"  1680K High Density(3)
 169                 60 = /dev/fd?u1722     3.5"  1722K High Density
 170                 76 = /dev/fd?u1743     3.5"  1743K High Density
 171                 96 = /dev/fd?u1760     3.5"  1760K High Density
 172                116 = /dev/fd?u1840     3.5"  1840K High Density(3)
 173                100 = /dev/fd?u1920     3.5"  1920K High Density(1)
 174                 32 = /dev/fd?u2880     3.5"  2880K Extra Density(1)
 175                104 = /dev/fd?u3200     3.5"  3200K Extra Density
 176                108 = /dev/fd?u3520     3.5"  3520K Extra Density
 177                112 = /dev/fd?u3840     3.5"  3840K Extra Density(1)
 178
 179                 36 = /dev/fd?CompaQ    Compaq 2880K drive; obsolete?
 180
 181                (1) Autodetectable format
 182                (2) Autodetectable format in a Double Density (720K) drive only
 183                (3) Autodetectable format in a High Density (1440K) drive only
 184
 185                NOTE: The letter in the device name (d, q, h or u)
 186                signifies the type of drive: 5.25" Double Density (d),
 187                5.25" Quad Density (q), 5.25" High Density (h) or 3.5"
 188                (any model, u).  The use of the capital letters D, H
 189                and E for the 3.5" models have been deprecated, since
 190                the drive type is insignificant for these devices.
 191
 192  3 char        Pseudo-TTY slaves
 193                  0 = /dev/ttyp0        First PTY slave
 194                  1 = /dev/ttyp1        Second PTY slave
 195                    ...
 196                255 = /dev/ttyef        256th PTY slave
 197
 198                These are the old-style (BSD) PTY devices; Unix98
 199                devices are on major 136 and above.
 200
 201  3 block       First MFM, RLL and IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
 202                  0 = /dev/hda          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 203                 64 = /dev/hdb          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 204
 205                For partitions, add to the whole disk device number:
 206                  0 = /dev/hd?          Whole disk
 207                  1 = /dev/hd?1         First partition
 208                  2 = /dev/hd?2         Second partition
 209                    ...
 210                 63 = /dev/hd?63        63rd partition
 211
 212                For Linux/i386, partitions 1-4 are the primary
 213                partitions, and 5 and above are logical partitions.
 214                Other versions of Linux use partitioning schemes
 215                appropriate to their respective architectures.
 216
 217  4 char        TTY devices
 218                  0 = /dev/tty0         Current virtual console
 219
 220                  1 = /dev/tty1         First virtual console
 221                    ...
 222                 63 = /dev/tty63        63rd virtual console
 223                 64 = /dev/ttyS0        First UART serial port
 224                    ...
 225                255 = /dev/ttyS191      192nd UART serial port
 226
 227                UART serial ports refer to 8250/16450/16550 series devices.
 228
 229                Older versions of the Linux kernel used this major
 230                number for BSD PTY devices.  As of Linux 2.1.115, this
 231                is no longer supported.  Use major numbers 2 and 3.
 232
 233  4 block       Aliases for dynamically allocated major devices to be used
 234                when its not possible to create the real device nodes
 235                because the root filesystem is mounted read-only.
 236
 237                  0 = /dev/root
 238
 239  5 char        Alternate TTY devices
 240                  0 = /dev/tty          Current TTY device
 241                  1 = /dev/console      System console
 242                  2 = /dev/ptmx         PTY master multiplex
 243                  3 = /dev/ttyprintk    User messages via printk TTY device
 244                 64 = /dev/cua0         Callout device for ttyS0
 245                    ...
 246                255 = /dev/cua191       Callout device for ttyS191
 247
 248                (5,1) is /dev/console starting with Linux 2.1.71.  See
 249                the section on terminal devices for more information
 250                on /dev/console.
 251
 252  6 char        Parallel printer devices
 253                  0 = /dev/lp0          Parallel printer on parport0
 254                  1 = /dev/lp1          Parallel printer on parport1
 255                    ...
 256
 257                Current Linux kernels no longer have a fixed mapping
 258                between parallel ports and I/O addresses.  Instead,
 259                they are redirected through the parport multiplex layer.
 260
 261  7 char        Virtual console capture devices
 262                  0 = /dev/vcs          Current vc text contents
 263                  1 = /dev/vcs1         tty1 text contents
 264                    ...
 265                 63 = /dev/vcs63        tty63 text contents
 266                128 = /dev/vcsa         Current vc text/attribute contents
 267                129 = /dev/vcsa1        tty1 text/attribute contents
 268                    ...
 269                191 = /dev/vcsa63       tty63 text/attribute contents
 270
 271                NOTE: These devices permit both read and write access.
 272
 273  7 block       Loopback devices
 274                  0 = /dev/loop0        First loop device
 275                  1 = /dev/loop1        Second loop device
 276                    ...
 277
 278                The loop devices are used to mount filesystems not
 279                associated with block devices.  The binding to the
 280                loop devices is handled by mount(8) or losetup(8).
 281
 282  8 block       SCSI disk devices (0-15)
 283                  0 = /dev/sda          First SCSI disk whole disk
 284                 16 = /dev/sdb          Second SCSI disk whole disk
 285                 32 = /dev/sdc          Third SCSI disk whole disk
 286                    ...
 287                240 = /dev/sdp          Sixteenth SCSI disk whole disk
 288
 289                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
 290                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
 291                partitions is 15.
 292
 293  9 char        SCSI tape devices
 294                  0 = /dev/st0          First SCSI tape, mode 0
 295                  1 = /dev/st1          Second SCSI tape, mode 0
 296                    ...
 297                 32 = /dev/st0l         First SCSI tape, mode 1
 298                 33 = /dev/st1l         Second SCSI tape, mode 1
 299                    ...
 300                 64 = /dev/st0m         First SCSI tape, mode 2
 301                 65 = /dev/st1m         Second SCSI tape, mode 2
 302                    ...
 303                 96 = /dev/st0a         First SCSI tape, mode 3
 304                 97 = /dev/st1a         Second SCSI tape, mode 3
 305                      ...
 306                128 = /dev/nst0         First SCSI tape, mode 0, no rewind
 307                129 = /dev/nst1         Second SCSI tape, mode 0, no rewind
 308                    ...
 309                160 = /dev/nst0l        First SCSI tape, mode 1, no rewind
 310                161 = /dev/nst1l        Second SCSI tape, mode 1, no rewind
 311                    ...
 312                192 = /dev/nst0m        First SCSI tape, mode 2, no rewind
 313                193 = /dev/nst1m        Second SCSI tape, mode 2, no rewind
 314                    ...
 315                224 = /dev/nst0a        First SCSI tape, mode 3, no rewind
 316                225 = /dev/nst1a        Second SCSI tape, mode 3, no rewind
 317                    ...
 318
 319                "No rewind" refers to the omission of the default
 320                automatic rewind on device close.  The MTREW or MTOFFL
 321                ioctl()'s can be used to rewind the tape regardless of
 322                the device used to access it.
 323
 324  9 block       Metadisk (RAID) devices
 325                  0 = /dev/md0          First metadisk group
 326                  1 = /dev/md1          Second metadisk group
 327                    ...
 328
 329                The metadisk driver is used to span a
 330                filesystem across multiple physical disks.
 331
 332 10 char        Non-serial mice, misc features
 333                  0 = /dev/logibm       Logitech bus mouse
 334                  1 = /dev/psaux        PS/2-style mouse port
 335                  2 = /dev/inportbm     Microsoft Inport bus mouse
 336                  3 = /dev/atibm        ATI XL bus mouse
 337                  4 = /dev/jbm          J-mouse
 338                  4 = /dev/amigamouse   Amiga mouse (68k/Amiga)
 339                  5 = /dev/atarimouse   Atari mouse
 340                  6 = /dev/sunmouse     Sun mouse
 341                  7 = /dev/amigamouse1  Second Amiga mouse
 342                  8 = /dev/smouse       Simple serial mouse driver
 343                  9 = /dev/pc110pad     IBM PC-110 digitizer pad
 344                 10 = /dev/adbmouse     Apple Desktop Bus mouse
 345                 11 = /dev/vrtpanel     Vr41xx embedded touch panel
 346                 13 = /dev/vpcmouse     Connectix Virtual PC Mouse
 347                 14 = /dev/touchscreen/ucb1x00  UCB 1x00 touchscreen
 348                 15 = /dev/touchscreen/mk712    MK712 touchscreen
 349                128 = /dev/beep         Fancy beep device
 350                129 =
 351                130 = /dev/watchdog     Watchdog timer port
 352                131 = /dev/temperature  Machine internal temperature
 353                132 = /dev/hwtrap       Hardware fault trap
 354                133 = /dev/exttrp       External device trap
 355                134 = /dev/apm_bios     Advanced Power Management BIOS
 356                135 = /dev/rtc          Real Time Clock
 357                139 = /dev/openprom     SPARC OpenBoot PROM
 358                140 = /dev/relay8       Berkshire Products Octal relay card
 359                141 = /dev/relay16      Berkshire Products ISO-16 relay card
 360                142 =
 361                143 = /dev/pciconf      PCI configuration space
 362                144 = /dev/nvram        Non-volatile configuration RAM
 363                145 = /dev/hfmodem      Soundcard shortwave modem control
 364                146 = /dev/graphics     Linux/SGI graphics device
 365                147 = /dev/opengl       Linux/SGI OpenGL pipe
 366                148 = /dev/gfx          Linux/SGI graphics effects device
 367                149 = /dev/input/mouse  Linux/SGI Irix emulation mouse
 368                150 = /dev/input/keyboard Linux/SGI Irix emulation keyboard
 369                151 = /dev/led          Front panel LEDs
 370                152 = /dev/kpoll        Kernel Poll Driver
 371                153 = /dev/mergemem     Memory merge device
 372                154 = /dev/pmu          Macintosh PowerBook power manager
 373                155 = /dev/isictl       MultiTech ISICom serial control
 374                156 = /dev/lcd          Front panel LCD display
 375                157 = /dev/ac           Applicom Intl Profibus card
 376                158 = /dev/nwbutton     Netwinder external button
 377                159 = /dev/nwdebug      Netwinder debug interface
 378                160 = /dev/nwflash      Netwinder flash memory
 379                161 = /dev/userdma      User-space DMA access
 380                162 = /dev/smbus        System Management Bus
 381                163 = /dev/lik          Logitech Internet Keyboard
 382                164 = /dev/ipmo         Intel Intelligent Platform Management
 383                165 = /dev/vmmon        VMware virtual machine monitor
 384                166 = /dev/i2o/ctl      I2O configuration manager
 385                167 = /dev/specialix_sxctl Specialix serial control
 386                168 = /dev/tcldrv       Technology Concepts serial control
 387                169 = /dev/specialix_rioctl Specialix RIO serial control
 388                170 = /dev/thinkpad/thinkpad    IBM Thinkpad devices
 389                171 = /dev/srripc       QNX4 API IPC manager
 390                172 = /dev/usemaclone   Semaphore clone device
 391                173 = /dev/ipmikcs      Intelligent Platform Management
 392                174 = /dev/uctrl        SPARCbook 3 microcontroller
 393                175 = /dev/agpgart      AGP Graphics Address Remapping Table
 394                176 = /dev/gtrsc        Gorgy Timing radio clock
 395                177 = /dev/cbm          Serial CBM bus
 396                178 = /dev/jsflash      JavaStation OS flash SIMM
 397                179 = /dev/xsvc         High-speed shared-mem/semaphore service
 398                180 = /dev/vrbuttons    Vr41xx button input device
 399                181 = /dev/toshiba      Toshiba laptop SMM support
 400                182 = /dev/perfctr      Performance-monitoring counters
 401                183 = /dev/hwrng        Generic random number generator
 402                184 = /dev/cpu/microcode CPU microcode update interface
 403                186 = /dev/atomicps     Atomic shapshot of process state data
 404                187 = /dev/irnet        IrNET device
 405                188 = /dev/smbusbios    SMBus BIOS
 406                189 = /dev/ussp_ctl     User space serial port control
 407                190 = /dev/crash        Mission Critical Linux crash dump facility
 408                191 = /dev/pcl181       <information missing>
 409                192 = /dev/nas_xbus     NAS xbus LCD/buttons access
 410                193 = /dev/d7s          SPARC 7-segment display
 411                194 = /dev/zkshim       Zero-Knowledge network shim control
 412                195 = /dev/elographics/e2201    Elographics touchscreen E271-2201
 413                198 = /dev/sexec        Signed executable interface
 414                199 = /dev/scanners/cuecat :CueCat barcode scanner
 415                200 = /dev/net/tun      TAP/TUN network device
 416                201 = /dev/button/gulpb Transmeta GULP-B buttons
 417                202 = /dev/emd/ctl      Enhanced Metadisk RAID (EMD) control
 418                204 = /dev/video/em8300         EM8300 DVD decoder control
 419                205 = /dev/video/em8300_mv      EM8300 DVD decoder video
 420                206 = /dev/video/em8300_ma      EM8300 DVD decoder audio
 421                207 = /dev/video/em8300_sp      EM8300 DVD decoder subpicture
 422                208 = /dev/compaq/cpqphpc       Compaq PCI Hot Plug Controller
 423                209 = /dev/compaq/cpqrid        Compaq Remote Insight Driver
 424                210 = /dev/impi/bt      IMPI coprocessor block transfer
 425                211 = /dev/impi/smic    IMPI coprocessor stream interface
 426                212 = /dev/watchdogs/0  First watchdog device
 427                213 = /dev/watchdogs/1  Second watchdog device
 428                214 = /dev/watchdogs/2  Third watchdog device
 429                215 = /dev/watchdogs/3  Fourth watchdog device
 430                216 = /dev/fujitsu/apanel       Fujitsu/Siemens application panel
 431                217 = /dev/ni/natmotn           National Instruments Motion
 432                218 = /dev/kchuid       Inter-process chuid control
 433                219 = /dev/modems/mwave MWave modem firmware upload
 434                220 = /dev/mptctl       Message passing technology (MPT) control
 435                221 = /dev/mvista/hssdsi        Montavista PICMG hot swap system driver
 436                222 = /dev/mvista/hasi          Montavista PICMG high availability
 437                223 = /dev/input/uinput         User level driver support for input
 438                224 = /dev/tpm          TCPA TPM driver
 439                225 = /dev/pps          Pulse Per Second driver
 440                226 = /dev/systrace     Systrace device
 441                227 = /dev/mcelog       X86_64 Machine Check Exception driver
 442                228 = /dev/hpet         HPET driver
 443                229 = /dev/fuse         Fuse (virtual filesystem in user-space)
 444                230 = /dev/midishare    MidiShare driver
 445                231 = /dev/snapshot     System memory snapshot device
 446                232 = /dev/kvm          Kernel-based virtual machine (hardware virtualization extensions)
 447                233 = /dev/kmview       View-OS A process with a view
 448                234 = /dev/btrfs-control        Btrfs control device
 449                235 = /dev/autofs       Autofs control device
 450                236 = /dev/mapper/control       Device-Mapper control device
 451                237 = /dev/loop-control Loopback control device
 452                238 = /dev/vhost-net    Host kernel accelerator for virtio net
 453
 454                240-254                 Reserved for local use
 455                255                     Reserved for MISC_DYNAMIC_MINOR
 456
 457 11 char        Raw keyboard device     (Linux/SPARC only)
 458                  0 = /dev/kbd          Raw keyboard device
 459
 460 11 char        Serial Mux device       (Linux/PA-RISC only)
 461                  0 = /dev/ttyB0        First mux port
 462                  1 = /dev/ttyB1        Second mux port
 463                    ...
 464
 465 11 block       SCSI CD-ROM devices
 466                  0 = /dev/scd0         First SCSI CD-ROM
 467                  1 = /dev/scd1         Second SCSI CD-ROM
 468                    ...
 469
 470                The prefix /dev/sr (instead of /dev/scd) has been deprecated.
 471
 472 12 char        QIC-02 tape
 473                  2 = /dev/ntpqic11     QIC-11, no rewind-on-close
 474                  3 = /dev/tpqic11      QIC-11, rewind-on-close
 475                  4 = /dev/ntpqic24     QIC-24, no rewind-on-close
 476                  5 = /dev/tpqic24      QIC-24, rewind-on-close
 477                  6 = /dev/ntpqic120    QIC-120, no rewind-on-close
 478                  7 = /dev/tpqic120     QIC-120, rewind-on-close
 479                  8 = /dev/ntpqic150    QIC-150, no rewind-on-close
 480                  9 = /dev/tpqic150     QIC-150, rewind-on-close
 481
 482                The device names specified are proposed -- if there
 483                are "standard" names for these devices, please let me know.
 484
 485 12 block
 486
 487 13 char        Input core
 488                  0 = /dev/input/js0    First joystick
 489                  1 = /dev/input/js1    Second joystick
 490                    ...
 491                 32 = /dev/input/mouse0 First mouse
 492                 33 = /dev/input/mouse1 Second mouse
 493                    ...
 494                 63 = /dev/input/mice   Unified mouse
 495                 64 = /dev/input/event0 First event queue
 496                 65 = /dev/input/event1 Second event queue
 497                    ...
 498
 499                Each device type has 5 bits (32 minors).
 500
 501 13 block       Previously used for the XT disk (/dev/xdN)
 502                Deleted in kernel v3.9.
 503
 504 14 char        Open Sound System (OSS)
 505                  0 = /dev/mixer        Mixer control
 506                  1 = /dev/sequencer    Audio sequencer
 507                  2 = /dev/midi00       First MIDI port
 508                  3 = /dev/dsp          Digital audio
 509                  4 = /dev/audio        Sun-compatible digital audio
 510                  6 =
 511                  7 = /dev/audioctl     SPARC audio control device
 512                  8 = /dev/sequencer2   Sequencer -- alternate device
 513                 16 = /dev/mixer1       Second soundcard mixer control
 514                 17 = /dev/patmgr0      Sequencer patch manager
 515                 18 = /dev/midi01       Second MIDI port
 516                 19 = /dev/dsp1         Second soundcard digital audio
 517                 20 = /dev/audio1       Second soundcard Sun digital audio
 518                 33 = /dev/patmgr1      Sequencer patch manager
 519                 34 = /dev/midi02       Third MIDI port
 520                 50 = /dev/midi03       Fourth MIDI port
 521
 522 14 block
 523
 524 15 char        Joystick
 525                  0 = /dev/js0          First analog joystick
 526                  1 = /dev/js1          Second analog joystick
 527                    ...
 528                128 = /dev/djs0         First digital joystick
 529                129 = /dev/djs1         Second digital joystick
 530                    ...
 531 15 block       Sony CDU-31A/CDU-33A CD-ROM
 532                  0 = /dev/sonycd       Sony CDU-31a CD-ROM
 533
 534 16 char        Non-SCSI scanners
 535                  0 = /dev/gs4500       Genius 4500 handheld scanner
 536
 537 16 block       GoldStar CD-ROM
 538                  0 = /dev/gscd         GoldStar CD-ROM
 539
 540 17 char        OBSOLETE (was Chase serial card)
 541                  0 = /dev/ttyH0        First Chase port
 542                  1 = /dev/ttyH1        Second Chase port
 543                    ...
 544 17 block       Optics Storage CD-ROM
 545                  0 = /dev/optcd        Optics Storage CD-ROM
 546
 547 18 char        OBSOLETE (was Chase serial card - alternate devices)
 548                  0 = /dev/cuh0         Callout device for ttyH0
 549                  1 = /dev/cuh1         Callout device for ttyH1
 550                    ...
 551 18 block       Sanyo CD-ROM
 552                  0 = /dev/sjcd         Sanyo CD-ROM
 553
 554 19 char        Cyclades serial card
 555                  0 = /dev/ttyC0        First Cyclades port
 556                    ...
 557                 31 = /dev/ttyC31       32nd Cyclades port
 558
 559 19 block       "Double" compressed disk
 560                  0 = /dev/double0      First compressed disk
 561                    ...
 562                  7 = /dev/double7      Eighth compressed disk
 563                128 = /dev/cdouble0     Mirror of first compressed disk
 564                    ...
 565                135 = /dev/cdouble7     Mirror of eighth compressed disk
 566
 567                See the Double documentation for the meaning of the
 568                mirror devices.
 569
 570 20 char        Cyclades serial card - alternate devices
 571                  0 = /dev/cub0         Callout device for ttyC0
 572                    ...
 573                 31 = /dev/cub31        Callout device for ttyC31
 574
 575 20 block       Hitachi CD-ROM (under development)
 576                  0 = /dev/hitcd        Hitachi CD-ROM
 577
 578 21 char        Generic SCSI access
 579                  0 = /dev/sg0          First generic SCSI device
 580                  1 = /dev/sg1          Second generic SCSI device
 581                    ...
 582
 583                Most distributions name these /dev/sga, /dev/sgb...;
 584                this sets an unnecessary limit of 26 SCSI devices in
 585                the system and is counter to standard Linux
 586                device-naming practice.
 587
 588 21 block       Acorn MFM hard drive interface
 589                  0 = /dev/mfma         First MFM drive whole disk
 590                 64 = /dev/mfmb         Second MFM drive whole disk
 591
 592                This device is used on the ARM-based Acorn RiscPC.
 593                Partitions are handled the same way as for IDE disks
 594                (see major number 3).
 595
 596 22 char        Digiboard serial card
 597                  0 = /dev/ttyD0        First Digiboard port
 598                  1 = /dev/ttyD1        Second Digiboard port
 599                    ...
 600 22 block       Second IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
 601                  0 = /dev/hdc          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 602                 64 = /dev/hdd          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 603
 604                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
 605                interface (see major number 3).
 606
 607 23 char        Digiboard serial card - alternate devices
 608                  0 = /dev/cud0         Callout device for ttyD0
 609                  1 = /dev/cud1         Callout device for ttyD1
 610                      ...
 611 23 block       Mitsumi proprietary CD-ROM
 612                  0 = /dev/mcd          Mitsumi CD-ROM
 613
 614 24 char        Stallion serial card
 615                  0 = /dev/ttyE0        Stallion port 0 card 0
 616                  1 = /dev/ttyE1        Stallion port 1 card 0
 617                    ...
 618                 64 = /dev/ttyE64       Stallion port 0 card 1
 619                 65 = /dev/ttyE65       Stallion port 1 card 1
 620                      ...
 621                128 = /dev/ttyE128      Stallion port 0 card 2
 622                129 = /dev/ttyE129      Stallion port 1 card 2
 623                    ...
 624                192 = /dev/ttyE192      Stallion port 0 card 3
 625                193 = /dev/ttyE193      Stallion port 1 card 3
 626                    ...
 627 24 block       Sony CDU-535 CD-ROM
 628                  0 = /dev/cdu535       Sony CDU-535 CD-ROM
 629
 630 25 char        Stallion serial card - alternate devices
 631                  0 = /dev/cue0         Callout device for ttyE0
 632                  1 = /dev/cue1         Callout device for ttyE1
 633                    ...
 634                 64 = /dev/cue64        Callout device for ttyE64
 635                 65 = /dev/cue65        Callout device for ttyE65
 636                    ...
 637                128 = /dev/cue128       Callout device for ttyE128
 638                129 = /dev/cue129       Callout device for ttyE129
 639                    ...
 640                192 = /dev/cue192       Callout device for ttyE192
 641                193 = /dev/cue193       Callout device for ttyE193
 642                      ...
 643 25 block       First Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM
 644                  0 = /dev/sbpcd0       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 0 unit 0
 645                  1 = /dev/sbpcd1       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 0 unit 1
 646                  2 = /dev/sbpcd2       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 0 unit 2
 647                  3 = /dev/sbpcd3       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 0 unit 3
 648
 649 26 char
 650
 651 26 block       Second Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM
 652                  0 = /dev/sbpcd4       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 1 unit 0
 653                  1 = /dev/sbpcd5       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 1 unit 1
 654                  2 = /dev/sbpcd6       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 1 unit 2
 655                  3 = /dev/sbpcd7       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 1 unit 3
 656
 657 27 char        QIC-117 tape
 658                  0 = /dev/qft0         Unit 0, rewind-on-close
 659                  1 = /dev/qft1         Unit 1, rewind-on-close
 660                  2 = /dev/qft2         Unit 2, rewind-on-close
 661                  3 = /dev/qft3         Unit 3, rewind-on-close
 662                  4 = /dev/nqft0        Unit 0, no rewind-on-close
 663                  5 = /dev/nqft1        Unit 1, no rewind-on-close
 664                  6 = /dev/nqft2        Unit 2, no rewind-on-close
 665                  7 = /dev/nqft3        Unit 3, no rewind-on-close
 666                 16 = /dev/zqft0        Unit 0, rewind-on-close, compression
 667                 17 = /dev/zqft1        Unit 1, rewind-on-close, compression
 668                 18 = /dev/zqft2        Unit 2, rewind-on-close, compression
 669                 19 = /dev/zqft3        Unit 3, rewind-on-close, compression
 670                 20 = /dev/nzqft0       Unit 0, no rewind-on-close, compression
 671                 21 = /dev/nzqft1       Unit 1, no rewind-on-close, compression
 672                 22 = /dev/nzqft2       Unit 2, no rewind-on-close, compression
 673                 23 = /dev/nzqft3       Unit 3, no rewind-on-close, compression
 674                 32 = /dev/rawqft0      Unit 0, rewind-on-close, no file marks
 675                 33 = /dev/rawqft1      Unit 1, rewind-on-close, no file marks
 676                 34 = /dev/rawqft2      Unit 2, rewind-on-close, no file marks
 677                 35 = /dev/rawqft3      Unit 3, rewind-on-close, no file marks
 678                 36 = /dev/nrawqft0     Unit 0, no rewind-on-close, no file marks
 679                 37 = /dev/nrawqft1     Unit 1, no rewind-on-close, no file marks
 680                 38 = /dev/nrawqft2     Unit 2, no rewind-on-close, no file marks
 681                 39 = /dev/nrawqft3     Unit 3, no rewind-on-close, no file marks
 682
 683 27 block       Third Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM
 684                  0 = /dev/sbpcd8       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 2 unit 0
 685                  1 = /dev/sbpcd9       Panasonic CD-ROM controller 2 unit 1
 686                  2 = /dev/sbpcd10      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 2 unit 2
 687                  3 = /dev/sbpcd11      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 2 unit 3
 688
 689 28 char        Stallion serial card - card programming
 690                  0 = /dev/staliomem0   First Stallion card I/O memory
 691                  1 = /dev/staliomem1   Second Stallion card I/O memory
 692                  2 = /dev/staliomem2   Third Stallion card I/O memory
 693                  3 = /dev/staliomem3   Fourth Stallion card I/O memory
 694
 695 28 char        Atari SLM ACSI laser printer (68k/Atari)
 696                  0 = /dev/slm0         First SLM laser printer
 697                  1 = /dev/slm1         Second SLM laser printer
 698                    ...
 699 28 block       Fourth Matsushita (Panasonic/SoundBlaster) CD-ROM
 700                  0 = /dev/sbpcd12      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 3 unit 0
 701                  1 = /dev/sbpcd13      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 3 unit 1
 702                  2 = /dev/sbpcd14      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 3 unit 2
 703                  3 = /dev/sbpcd15      Panasonic CD-ROM controller 3 unit 3
 704
 705 28 block       ACSI disk (68k/Atari)
 706                  0 = /dev/ada          First ACSI disk whole disk
 707                 16 = /dev/adb          Second ACSI disk whole disk
 708                 32 = /dev/adc          Third ACSI disk whole disk
 709                    ...
 710                240 = /dev/adp          16th ACSI disk whole disk
 711
 712                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
 713                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
 714                partitions is 15, like SCSI.
 715
 716 29 char        Universal frame buffer
 717                  0 = /dev/fb0          First frame buffer
 718                  1 = /dev/fb1          Second frame buffer
 719                    ...
 720                 31 = /dev/fb31         32nd frame buffer
 721
 722 29 block       Aztech/Orchid/Okano/Wearnes CD-ROM
 723                  0 = /dev/aztcd        Aztech CD-ROM
 724
 725 30 char        iBCS-2 compatibility devices
 726                  0 = /dev/socksys      Socket access
 727                  1 = /dev/spx          SVR3 local X interface
 728                 32 = /dev/inet/ip      Network access
 729                 33 = /dev/inet/icmp
 730                 34 = /dev/inet/ggp
 731                 35 = /dev/inet/ipip
 732                 36 = /dev/inet/tcp
 733                 37 = /dev/inet/egp
 734                 38 = /dev/inet/pup
 735                 39 = /dev/inet/udp
 736                 40 = /dev/inet/idp
 737                 41 = /dev/inet/rawip
 738
 739                Additionally, iBCS-2 requires the following links:
 740
 741                /dev/ip -> /dev/inet/ip
 742                /dev/icmp -> /dev/inet/icmp
 743                /dev/ggp -> /dev/inet/ggp
 744                /dev/ipip -> /dev/inet/ipip
 745                /dev/tcp -> /dev/inet/tcp
 746                /dev/egp -> /dev/inet/egp
 747                /dev/pup -> /dev/inet/pup
 748                /dev/udp -> /dev/inet/udp
 749                /dev/idp -> /dev/inet/idp
 750                /dev/rawip -> /dev/inet/rawip
 751                /dev/inet/arp -> /dev/inet/udp
 752                /dev/inet/rip -> /dev/inet/udp
 753                /dev/nfsd -> /dev/socksys
 754                /dev/X0R -> /dev/null (? apparently not required ?)
 755
 756 30 block       Philips LMS CM-205 CD-ROM
 757                  0 = /dev/cm205cd      Philips LMS CM-205 CD-ROM
 758
 759                /dev/lmscd is an older name for this device.  This
 760                driver does not work with the CM-205MS CD-ROM.
 761
 762 31 char        MPU-401 MIDI
 763                  0 = /dev/mpu401data   MPU-401 data port
 764                  1 = /dev/mpu401stat   MPU-401 status port
 765
 766 31 block       ROM/flash memory card
 767                  0 = /dev/rom0         First ROM card (rw)
 768                      ...
 769                  7 = /dev/rom7         Eighth ROM card (rw)
 770                  8 = /dev/rrom0        First ROM card (ro)
 771                    ...
 772                 15 = /dev/rrom7        Eighth ROM card (ro)
 773                 16 = /dev/flash0       First flash memory card (rw)
 774                    ...
 775                 23 = /dev/flash7       Eighth flash memory card (rw)
 776                 24 = /dev/rflash0      First flash memory card (ro)
 777                    ...
 778                 31 = /dev/rflash7      Eighth flash memory card (ro)
 779
 780                The read-write (rw) devices support back-caching
 781                written data in RAM, as well as writing to flash RAM
 782                devices.  The read-only devices (ro) support reading
 783                only.
 784
 785 32 char        Specialix serial card
 786                  0 = /dev/ttyX0        First Specialix port
 787                  1 = /dev/ttyX1        Second Specialix port
 788                    ...
 789 32 block       Philips LMS CM-206 CD-ROM
 790                  0 = /dev/cm206cd      Philips LMS CM-206 CD-ROM
 791
 792 33 char        Specialix serial card - alternate devices
 793                  0 = /dev/cux0         Callout device for ttyX0
 794                  1 = /dev/cux1         Callout device for ttyX1
 795                    ...
 796 33 block       Third IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
 797                  0 = /dev/hde          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 798                 64 = /dev/hdf          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 799
 800                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
 801                interface (see major number 3).
 802
 803 34 char        Z8530 HDLC driver
 804                  0 = /dev/scc0         First Z8530, first port
 805                  1 = /dev/scc1         First Z8530, second port
 806                  2 = /dev/scc2         Second Z8530, first port
 807                  3 = /dev/scc3         Second Z8530, second port
 808                    ...
 809
 810                In a previous version these devices were named
 811                /dev/sc1 for /dev/scc0, /dev/sc2 for /dev/scc1, and so
 812                on.
 813
 814 34 block       Fourth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
 815                  0 = /dev/hdg          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 816                 64 = /dev/hdh          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
 817
 818                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
 819                interface (see major number 3).
 820
 821 35 char        tclmidi MIDI driver
 822                  0 = /dev/midi0        First MIDI port, kernel timed
 823                  1 = /dev/midi1        Second MIDI port, kernel timed
 824                  2 = /dev/midi2        Third MIDI port, kernel timed
 825                  3 = /dev/midi3        Fourth MIDI port, kernel timed
 826                 64 = /dev/rmidi0       First MIDI port, untimed
 827                 65 = /dev/rmidi1       Second MIDI port, untimed
 828                 66 = /dev/rmidi2       Third MIDI port, untimed
 829                 67 = /dev/rmidi3       Fourth MIDI port, untimed
 830                128 = /dev/smpte0       First MIDI port, SMPTE timed
 831                129 = /dev/smpte1       Second MIDI port, SMPTE timed
 832                130 = /dev/smpte2       Third MIDI port, SMPTE timed
 833                131 = /dev/smpte3       Fourth MIDI port, SMPTE timed
 834
 835 35 block       Slow memory ramdisk
 836                  0 = /dev/slram        Slow memory ramdisk
 837
 838 36 char        Netlink support
 839                  0 = /dev/route        Routing, device updates, kernel to user
 840                  1 = /dev/skip         enSKIP security cache control
 841                  3 = /dev/fwmonitor    Firewall packet copies
 842                 16 = /dev/tap0         First Ethertap device
 843                    ...
 844                 31 = /dev/tap15        16th Ethertap device
 845
 846 36 block       OBSOLETE (was MCA ESDI hard disk)
 847
 848 37 char        IDE tape
 849                  0 = /dev/ht0          First IDE tape
 850                  1 = /dev/ht1          Second IDE tape
 851                    ...
 852                128 = /dev/nht0         First IDE tape, no rewind-on-close
 853                129 = /dev/nht1         Second IDE tape, no rewind-on-close
 854                    ...
 855
 856                Currently, only one IDE tape drive is supported.
 857
 858 37 block       Zorro II ramdisk
 859                  0 = /dev/z2ram        Zorro II ramdisk
 860
 861 38 char        Myricom PCI Myrinet board
 862                  0 = /dev/mlanai0      First Myrinet board
 863                  1 = /dev/mlanai1      Second Myrinet board
 864                    ...
 865
 866                This device is used for status query, board control
 867                and "user level packet I/O."  This board is also
 868                accessible as a standard networking "eth" device.
 869
 870 38 block       OBSOLETE (was Linux/AP+)
 871
 872 39 char        ML-16P experimental I/O board
 873                  0 = /dev/ml16pa-a0    First card, first analog channel
 874                  1 = /dev/ml16pa-a1    First card, second analog channel
 875                    ...
 876                 15 = /dev/ml16pa-a15   First card, 16th analog channel
 877                 16 = /dev/ml16pa-d     First card, digital lines
 878                 17 = /dev/ml16pa-c0    First card, first counter/timer
 879                 18 = /dev/ml16pa-c1    First card, second counter/timer
 880                 19 = /dev/ml16pa-c2    First card, third counter/timer
 881                 32 = /dev/ml16pb-a0    Second card, first analog channel
 882                 33 = /dev/ml16pb-a1    Second card, second analog channel
 883                    ...
 884                 47 = /dev/ml16pb-a15   Second card, 16th analog channel
 885                 48 = /dev/ml16pb-d     Second card, digital lines
 886                 49 = /dev/ml16pb-c0    Second card, first counter/timer
 887                 50 = /dev/ml16pb-c1    Second card, second counter/timer
 888                 51 = /dev/ml16pb-c2    Second card, third counter/timer
 889                      ...
 890 39 block
 891
 892 40 char
 893
 894 40 block
 895
 896 41 char        Yet Another Micro Monitor
 897                  0 = /dev/yamm         Yet Another Micro Monitor
 898
 899 41 block
 900
 901 42 char        Demo/sample use
 902
 903 42 block       Demo/sample use
 904
 905                This number is intended for use in sample code, as
 906                well as a general "example" device number.  It
 907                should never be used for a device driver that is being
 908                distributed; either obtain an official number or use
 909                the local/experimental range.  The sudden addition or
 910                removal of a driver with this number should not cause
 911                ill effects to the system (bugs excepted.)
 912
 913                IN PARTICULAR, ANY DISTRIBUTION WHICH CONTAINS A
 914                DEVICE DRIVER USING MAJOR NUMBER 42 IS NONCOMPLIANT.
 915
 916 43 char        isdn4linux virtual modem
 917                  0 = /dev/ttyI0        First virtual modem
 918                    ...
 919                 63 = /dev/ttyI63       64th virtual modem
 920
 921 43 block       Network block devices
 922                  0 = /dev/nb0          First network block device
 923                  1 = /dev/nb1          Second network block device
 924                    ...
 925
 926                Network Block Device is somehow similar to loopback
 927                devices: If you read from it, it sends packet across
 928                network asking server for data. If you write to it, it
 929                sends packet telling server to write. It could be used
 930                to mounting filesystems over the net, swapping over
 931                the net, implementing block device in userland etc.
 932
 933 44 char        isdn4linux virtual modem - alternate devices
 934                  0 = /dev/cui0         Callout device for ttyI0
 935                    ...
 936                 63 = /dev/cui63        Callout device for ttyI63
 937
 938 44 block       Flash Translation Layer (FTL) filesystems
 939                  0 = /dev/ftla         FTL on first Memory Technology Device
 940                 16 = /dev/ftlb         FTL on second Memory Technology Device
 941                 32 = /dev/ftlc         FTL on third Memory Technology Device
 942                    ...
 943                240 = /dev/ftlp         FTL on 16th Memory Technology Device
 944
 945                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
 946                disks (see major number 3) except that the partition
 947                limit is 15 rather than 63 per disk (same as SCSI.)
 948
 949 45 char        isdn4linux ISDN BRI driver
 950                  0 = /dev/isdn0        First virtual B channel raw data
 951                    ...
 952                 63 = /dev/isdn63       64th virtual B channel raw data
 953                 64 = /dev/isdnctrl0    First channel control/debug
 954                    ...
 955                127 = /dev/isdnctrl63   64th channel control/debug
 956
 957                128 = /dev/ippp0        First SyncPPP device
 958                    ...
 959                191 = /dev/ippp63       64th SyncPPP device
 960
 961                255 = /dev/isdninfo     ISDN monitor interface
 962
 963 45 block       Parallel port IDE disk devices
 964                  0 = /dev/pda          First parallel port IDE disk
 965                 16 = /dev/pdb          Second parallel port IDE disk
 966                 32 = /dev/pdc          Third parallel port IDE disk
 967                 48 = /dev/pdd          Fourth parallel port IDE disk
 968
 969                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
 970                disks (see major number 3) except that the partition
 971                limit is 15 rather than 63 per disk.
 972
 973 46 char        Comtrol Rocketport serial card
 974                  0 = /dev/ttyR0        First Rocketport port
 975                  1 = /dev/ttyR1        Second Rocketport port
 976                    ...
 977 46 block       Parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM devices
 978                  0 = /dev/pcd0         First parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM
 979                  1 = /dev/pcd1         Second parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM
 980                  2 = /dev/pcd2         Third parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM
 981                  3 = /dev/pcd3         Fourth parallel port ATAPI CD-ROM
 982
 983 47 char        Comtrol Rocketport serial card - alternate devices
 984                  0 = /dev/cur0         Callout device for ttyR0
 985                  1 = /dev/cur1         Callout device for ttyR1
 986                    ...
 987 47 block       Parallel port ATAPI disk devices
 988                  0 = /dev/pf0          First parallel port ATAPI disk
 989                  1 = /dev/pf1          Second parallel port ATAPI disk
 990                  2 = /dev/pf2          Third parallel port ATAPI disk
 991                  3 = /dev/pf3          Fourth parallel port ATAPI disk
 992
 993                This driver is intended for floppy disks and similar
 994                devices and hence does not support partitioning.
 995
 996 48 char        SDL RISCom serial card
 997                  0 = /dev/ttyL0        First RISCom port
 998                  1 = /dev/ttyL1        Second RISCom port
 999                    ...
1000 48 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; first controller
1001                  0 = /dev/rd/c0d0      First disk, whole disk
1002                  8 = /dev/rd/c0d1      Second disk, whole disk
1003                    ...
1004                248 = /dev/rd/c0d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1005
1006                For partitions add:
1007                  0 = /dev/rd/c?d?      Whole disk
1008                  1 = /dev/rd/c?d?p1    First partition
1009                    ...
1010                  7 = /dev/rd/c?d?p7    Seventh partition
1011
1012 49 char        SDL RISCom serial card - alternate devices
1013                  0 = /dev/cul0         Callout device for ttyL0
1014                  1 = /dev/cul1         Callout device for ttyL1
1015                    ...
1016 49 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; second controller
1017                  0 = /dev/rd/c1d0      First disk, whole disk
1018                  8 = /dev/rd/c1d1      Second disk, whole disk
1019                    ...
1020                248 = /dev/rd/c1d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1021
1022                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1023
1024 50 char        Reserved for GLINT
1025
1026 50 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; third controller
1027                  0 = /dev/rd/c2d0      First disk, whole disk
1028                  8 = /dev/rd/c2d1      Second disk, whole disk
1029                    ...
1030                248 = /dev/rd/c2d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1031
1032 51 char        Baycom radio modem OR Radio Tech BIM-XXX-RS232 radio modem
1033                  0 = /dev/bc0          First Baycom radio modem
1034                  1 = /dev/bc1          Second Baycom radio modem
1035                    ...
1036 51 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; fourth controller
1037                  0 = /dev/rd/c3d0      First disk, whole disk
1038                  8 = /dev/rd/c3d1      Second disk, whole disk
1039                    ...
1040                248 = /dev/rd/c3d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1041
1042                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1043
1044 52 char        Spellcaster DataComm/BRI ISDN card
1045                  0 = /dev/dcbri0       First DataComm card
1046                  1 = /dev/dcbri1       Second DataComm card
1047                  2 = /dev/dcbri2       Third DataComm card
1048                  3 = /dev/dcbri3       Fourth DataComm card
1049
1050 52 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; fifth controller
1051                  0 = /dev/rd/c4d0      First disk, whole disk
1052                  8 = /dev/rd/c4d1      Second disk, whole disk
1053                    ...
1054                248 = /dev/rd/c4d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1055
1056                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1057
1058 53 char        BDM interface for remote debugging MC683xx microcontrollers
1059                  0 = /dev/pd_bdm0      PD BDM interface on lp0
1060                  1 = /dev/pd_bdm1      PD BDM interface on lp1
1061                  2 = /dev/pd_bdm2      PD BDM interface on lp2
1062                  4 = /dev/icd_bdm0     ICD BDM interface on lp0
1063                  5 = /dev/icd_bdm1     ICD BDM interface on lp1
1064                  6 = /dev/icd_bdm2     ICD BDM interface on lp2
1065
1066                This device is used for the interfacing to the MC683xx
1067                microcontrollers via Background Debug Mode by use of a
1068                Parallel Port interface. PD is the Motorola Public
1069                Domain Interface and ICD is the commercial interface
1070                by P&E.
1071
1072 53 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; sixth controller
1073                  0 = /dev/rd/c5d0      First disk, whole disk
1074                  8 = /dev/rd/c5d1      Second disk, whole disk
1075                    ...
1076                248 = /dev/rd/c5d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1077
1078                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1079
1080 54 char        Electrocardiognosis Holter serial card
1081                  0 = /dev/holter0      First Holter port
1082                  1 = /dev/holter1      Second Holter port
1083                  2 = /dev/holter2      Third Holter port
1084
1085                A custom serial card used by Electrocardiognosis SRL
1086                <mseritan@ottonel.pub.ro> to transfer data from Holter
1087                24-hour heart monitoring equipment.
1088
1089 54 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; seventh controller
1090                  0 = /dev/rd/c6d0      First disk, whole disk
1091                  8 = /dev/rd/c6d1      Second disk, whole disk
1092                    ...
1093                248 = /dev/rd/c6d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1094
1095                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1096
1097 55 char        DSP56001 digital signal processor
1098                  0 = /dev/dsp56k       First DSP56001
1099
1100 55 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; eighth controller
1101                  0 = /dev/rd/c7d0      First disk, whole disk
1102                  8 = /dev/rd/c7d1      Second disk, whole disk
1103                    ...
1104                248 = /dev/rd/c7d31     32nd disk, whole disk
1105
1106                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
1107
1108 56 char        Apple Desktop Bus
1109                  0 = /dev/adb          ADB bus control
1110
1111                Additional devices will be added to this number, all
1112                starting with /dev/adb.
1113
1114 56 block       Fifth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1115                  0 = /dev/hdi          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1116                 64 = /dev/hdj          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1117
1118                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1119                interface (see major number 3).
1120
1121 57 char        Hayes ESP serial card
1122                  0 = /dev/ttyP0        First ESP port
1123                  1 = /dev/ttyP1        Second ESP port
1124                    ...
1125
1126 57 block       Sixth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1127                  0 = /dev/hdk          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1128                 64 = /dev/hdl          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1129
1130                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1131                interface (see major number 3).
1132
1133 58 char        Hayes ESP serial card - alternate devices
1134                  0 = /dev/cup0         Callout device for ttyP0
1135                  1 = /dev/cup1         Callout device for ttyP1
1136                    ...
1137
1138 58 block       Reserved for logical volume manager
1139
1140 59 char        sf firewall package
1141                  0 = /dev/firewall     Communication with sf kernel module
1142
1143 59 block       Generic PDA filesystem device
1144                  0 = /dev/pda0         First PDA device
1145                  1 = /dev/pda1         Second PDA device
1146                    ...
1147
1148                The pda devices are used to mount filesystems on
1149                remote pda's (basically slow handheld machines with
1150                proprietary OS's and limited memory and storage
1151                running small fs translation drivers) through serial /
1152                IRDA / parallel links.
1153
1154                NAMING CONFLICT -- PROPOSED REVISED NAME /dev/rpda0 etc
1155
1156 60-63 char     LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
1157
1158 60-63 block    LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
1159                Allocated for local/experimental use.  For devices not
1160                assigned official numbers, these ranges should be
1161                used in order to avoid conflicting with future assignments.
1162
1163 64 char        ENskip kernel encryption package
1164                  0 = /dev/enskip       Communication with ENskip kernel module
1165
1166 64 block       Scramdisk/DriveCrypt encrypted devices
1167                  0 = /dev/scramdisk/master    Master node for ioctls
1168                  1 = /dev/scramdisk/1         First encrypted device
1169                  2 = /dev/scramdisk/2         Second encrypted device
1170                  ...
1171                255 = /dev/scramdisk/255       255th encrypted device
1172
1173                The filename of the encrypted container and the passwords
1174                are sent via ioctls (using the sdmount tool) to the master
1175                node which then activates them via one of the
1176                /dev/scramdisk/x nodes for loop mounting (all handled
1177                through the sdmount tool).
1178
1179                Requested by: andy@scramdisklinux.org
1180
1181 65 char        Sundance "plink" Transputer boards (obsolete, unused)
1182                  0 = /dev/plink0       First plink device
1183                  1 = /dev/plink1       Second plink device
1184                  2 = /dev/plink2       Third plink device
1185                  3 = /dev/plink3       Fourth plink device
1186                 64 = /dev/rplink0      First plink device, raw
1187                 65 = /dev/rplink1      Second plink device, raw
1188                 66 = /dev/rplink2      Third plink device, raw
1189                 67 = /dev/rplink3      Fourth plink device, raw
1190                128 = /dev/plink0d      First plink device, debug
1191                129 = /dev/plink1d      Second plink device, debug
1192                130 = /dev/plink2d      Third plink device, debug
1193                131 = /dev/plink3d      Fourth plink device, debug
1194                192 = /dev/rplink0d     First plink device, raw, debug
1195                193 = /dev/rplink1d     Second plink device, raw, debug
1196                194 = /dev/rplink2d     Third plink device, raw, debug
1197                195 = /dev/rplink3d     Fourth plink device, raw, debug
1198
1199                This is a commercial driver; contact James Howes
1200                <jth@prosig.demon.co.uk> for information.
1201
1202 65 block       SCSI disk devices (16-31)
1203                  0 = /dev/sdq          17th SCSI disk whole disk
1204                 16 = /dev/sdr          18th SCSI disk whole disk
1205                 32 = /dev/sds          19th SCSI disk whole disk
1206                    ...
1207                240 = /dev/sdaf         32nd SCSI disk whole disk
1208
1209                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1210                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1211                partitions is 15.
1212
1213 66 char        YARC PowerPC PCI coprocessor card
1214                  0 = /dev/yppcpci0     First YARC card
1215                  1 = /dev/yppcpci1     Second YARC card
1216                    ...
1217
1218 66 block       SCSI disk devices (32-47)
1219                  0 = /dev/sdag         33th SCSI disk whole disk
1220                 16 = /dev/sdah         34th SCSI disk whole disk
1221                 32 = /dev/sdai         35th SCSI disk whole disk
1222                    ...
1223                240 = /dev/sdav         48nd SCSI disk whole disk
1224
1225                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1226                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1227                partitions is 15.
1228
1229 67 char        Coda network file system
1230                  0 = /dev/cfs0         Coda cache manager
1231
1232                See http://www.coda.cs.cmu.edu for information about Coda.
1233
1234 67 block       SCSI disk devices (48-63)
1235                  0 = /dev/sdaw         49th SCSI disk whole disk
1236                 16 = /dev/sdax         50th SCSI disk whole disk
1237                 32 = /dev/sday         51st SCSI disk whole disk
1238                    ...
1239                240 = /dev/sdbl         64th SCSI disk whole disk
1240
1241                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1242                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1243                partitions is 15.
1244
1245 68 char        CAPI 2.0 interface
1246                  0 = /dev/capi20       Control device
1247                  1 = /dev/capi20.00    First CAPI 2.0 application
1248                  2 = /dev/capi20.01    Second CAPI 2.0 application
1249                    ...
1250                 20 = /dev/capi20.19    19th CAPI 2.0 application
1251
1252                ISDN CAPI 2.0 driver for use with CAPI 2.0
1253                applications; currently supports the AVM B1 card.
1254
1255 68 block       SCSI disk devices (64-79)
1256                  0 = /dev/sdbm         65th SCSI disk whole disk
1257                 16 = /dev/sdbn         66th SCSI disk whole disk
1258                 32 = /dev/sdbo         67th SCSI disk whole disk
1259                    ...
1260                240 = /dev/sdcb         80th SCSI disk whole disk
1261
1262                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1263                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1264                partitions is 15.
1265
1266 69 char        MA16 numeric accelerator card
1267                  0 = /dev/ma16         Board memory access
1268
1269 69 block       SCSI disk devices (80-95)
1270                  0 = /dev/sdcc         81st SCSI disk whole disk
1271                 16 = /dev/sdcd         82nd SCSI disk whole disk
1272                 32 = /dev/sdce         83th SCSI disk whole disk
1273                    ...
1274                240 = /dev/sdcr         96th SCSI disk whole disk
1275
1276                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1277                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1278                partitions is 15.
1279
1280 70 char        SpellCaster Protocol Services Interface
1281                  0 = /dev/apscfg       Configuration interface
1282                  1 = /dev/apsauth      Authentication interface
1283                  2 = /dev/apslog       Logging interface
1284                  3 = /dev/apsdbg       Debugging interface
1285                 64 = /dev/apsisdn      ISDN command interface
1286                 65 = /dev/apsasync     Async command interface
1287                128 = /dev/apsmon       Monitor interface
1288
1289 70 block       SCSI disk devices (96-111)
1290                  0 = /dev/sdcs         97th SCSI disk whole disk
1291                 16 = /dev/sdct         98th SCSI disk whole disk
1292                 32 = /dev/sdcu         99th SCSI disk whole disk
1293                    ...
1294                240 = /dev/sddh         112nd SCSI disk whole disk
1295
1296                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1297                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1298                partitions is 15.
1299
1300 71 char        Computone IntelliPort II serial card
1301                  0 = /dev/ttyF0        IntelliPort II board 0, port 0
1302                  1 = /dev/ttyF1        IntelliPort II board 0, port 1
1303                    ...
1304                 63 = /dev/ttyF63       IntelliPort II board 0, port 63
1305                 64 = /dev/ttyF64       IntelliPort II board 1, port 0
1306                 65 = /dev/ttyF65       IntelliPort II board 1, port 1
1307                    ...
1308                127 = /dev/ttyF127      IntelliPort II board 1, port 63
1309                128 = /dev/ttyF128      IntelliPort II board 2, port 0
1310                129 = /dev/ttyF129      IntelliPort II board 2, port 1
1311                    ...
1312                191 = /dev/ttyF191      IntelliPort II board 2, port 63
1313                192 = /dev/ttyF192      IntelliPort II board 3, port 0
1314                193 = /dev/ttyF193      IntelliPort II board 3, port 1
1315                    ...
1316                255 = /dev/ttyF255      IntelliPort II board 3, port 63
1317
1318 71 block       SCSI disk devices (112-127)
1319                  0 = /dev/sddi         113th SCSI disk whole disk
1320                 16 = /dev/sddj         114th SCSI disk whole disk
1321                 32 = /dev/sddk         115th SCSI disk whole disk
1322                    ...
1323                240 = /dev/sddx         128th SCSI disk whole disk
1324
1325                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1326                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1327                partitions is 15.
1328
1329 72 char        Computone IntelliPort II serial card - alternate devices
1330                  0 = /dev/cuf0         Callout device for ttyF0
1331                  1 = /dev/cuf1         Callout device for ttyF1
1332                    ...
1333                 63 = /dev/cuf63        Callout device for ttyF63
1334                 64 = /dev/cuf64        Callout device for ttyF64
1335                 65 = /dev/cuf65        Callout device for ttyF65
1336                    ...
1337                127 = /dev/cuf127       Callout device for ttyF127
1338                128 = /dev/cuf128       Callout device for ttyF128
1339                129 = /dev/cuf129       Callout device for ttyF129
1340                    ...
1341                191 = /dev/cuf191       Callout device for ttyF191
1342                192 = /dev/cuf192       Callout device for ttyF192
1343                193 = /dev/cuf193       Callout device for ttyF193
1344                    ...
1345                255 = /dev/cuf255       Callout device for ttyF255
1346
1347 72 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, first controller
1348                  0 = /dev/ida/c0d0     First logical drive whole disk
1349                 16 = /dev/ida/c0d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1350                    ...
1351                240 = /dev/ida/c0d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1352
1353                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1354                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1355                partitions is 15.
1356
1357 73 char        Computone IntelliPort II serial card - control devices
1358                  0 = /dev/ip2ipl0      Loadware device for board 0
1359                  1 = /dev/ip2stat0     Status device for board 0
1360                  4 = /dev/ip2ipl1      Loadware device for board 1
1361                  5 = /dev/ip2stat1     Status device for board 1
1362                  8 = /dev/ip2ipl2      Loadware device for board 2
1363                  9 = /dev/ip2stat2     Status device for board 2
1364                 12 = /dev/ip2ipl3      Loadware device for board 3
1365                 13 = /dev/ip2stat3     Status device for board 3
1366
1367 73 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, second controller
1368                  0 = /dev/ida/c1d0     First logical drive whole disk
1369                 16 = /dev/ida/c1d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1370                    ...
1371                240 = /dev/ida/c1d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1372
1373                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1374                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1375                partitions is 15.
1376
1377 74 char        SCI bridge
1378                  0 = /dev/SCI/0        SCI device 0
1379                  1 = /dev/SCI/1        SCI device 1
1380                    ...
1381
1382                Currently for Dolphin Interconnect Solutions' PCI-SCI
1383                bridge.
1384
1385 74 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, third controller
1386                  0 = /dev/ida/c2d0     First logical drive whole disk
1387                 16 = /dev/ida/c2d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1388                    ...
1389                240 = /dev/ida/c2d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1390
1391                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1392                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1393                partitions is 15.
1394
1395 75 char        Specialix IO8+ serial card
1396                  0 = /dev/ttyW0        First IO8+ port, first card
1397                  1 = /dev/ttyW1        Second IO8+ port, first card
1398                    ...
1399                  8 = /dev/ttyW8        First IO8+ port, second card
1400                    ...
1401
1402 75 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, fourth controller
1403                  0 = /dev/ida/c3d0     First logical drive whole disk
1404                 16 = /dev/ida/c3d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1405                    ...
1406                240 = /dev/ida/c3d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1407
1408                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1409                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1410                partitions is 15.
1411
1412 76 char        Specialix IO8+ serial card - alternate devices
1413                  0 = /dev/cuw0         Callout device for ttyW0
1414                  1 = /dev/cuw1         Callout device for ttyW1
1415                    ...
1416                  8 = /dev/cuw8         Callout device for ttyW8
1417                    ...
1418
1419 76 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, fifth controller
1420                  0 = /dev/ida/c4d0     First logical drive whole disk
1421                 16 = /dev/ida/c4d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1422                    ...
1423                240 = /dev/ida/c4d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1424
1425                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1426                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1427                partitions is 15.
1428
1429
1430 77 char        ComScire Quantum Noise Generator
1431                  0 = /dev/qng          ComScire Quantum Noise Generator
1432
1433 77 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, sixth controller
1434                  0 = /dev/ida/c5d0     First logical drive whole disk
1435                 16 = /dev/ida/c5d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1436                    ...
1437                240 = /dev/ida/c5d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1438
1439                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1440                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1441                partitions is 15.
1442
1443 78 char        PAM Software's multimodem boards
1444                  0 = /dev/ttyM0        First PAM modem
1445                  1 = /dev/ttyM1        Second PAM modem
1446                    ...
1447
1448 78 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, seventh controller
1449                  0 = /dev/ida/c6d0     First logical drive whole disk
1450                 16 = /dev/ida/c6d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1451                    ...
1452                240 = /dev/ida/c6d15    16th logical drive whole disk
1453
1454                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1455                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1456                partitions is 15.
1457
1458 79 char        PAM Software's multimodem boards - alternate devices
1459                  0 = /dev/cum0         Callout device for ttyM0
1460                  1 = /dev/cum1         Callout device for ttyM1
1461                    ...
1462
1463 79 block       Compaq Intelligent Drive Array, eighth controller
1464                  0 = /dev/ida/c7d0     First logical drive whole disk
1465                 16 = /dev/ida/c7d1     Second logical drive whole disk
1466                    ...
1467                240 = /dev/ida/c715     16th logical drive whole disk
1468
1469                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1470                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1471                partitions is 15.
1472
1473 80 char        Photometrics AT200 CCD camera
1474                  0 = /dev/at200        Photometrics AT200 CCD camera
1475
1476 80 block       I2O hard disk
1477                  0 = /dev/i2o/hda      First I2O hard disk, whole disk
1478                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdb      Second I2O hard disk, whole disk
1479                    ...
1480                240 = /dev/i2o/hdp      16th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1481
1482                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1483                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1484                partitions is 15.
1485
1486 81 char        video4linux
1487                  0 = /dev/video0       Video capture/overlay device
1488                    ...
1489                 63 = /dev/video63      Video capture/overlay device
1490                 64 = /dev/radio0       Radio device
1491                    ...
1492                127 = /dev/radio63      Radio device
1493                224 = /dev/vbi0         Vertical blank interrupt
1494                    ...
1495                255 = /dev/vbi31        Vertical blank interrupt
1496
1497 81 block       I2O hard disk
1498                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdq      17th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1499                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdr      18th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1500                    ...
1501                240 = /dev/i2o/hdaf     32nd I2O hard disk, whole disk
1502
1503                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1504                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1505                partitions is 15.
1506
1507 82 char        WiNRADiO communications receiver card
1508                  0 = /dev/winradio0    First WiNRADiO card
1509                  1 = /dev/winradio1    Second WiNRADiO card
1510                    ...
1511
1512                The driver and documentation may be obtained from
1513                http://www.winradio.com/
1514
1515 82 block       I2O hard disk
1516                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdag     33rd I2O hard disk, whole disk
1517                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdah     34th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1518                    ...
1519                240 = /dev/i2o/hdav     48th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1520
1521                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1522                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1523                partitions is 15.
1524
1525 83 char        Matrox mga_vid video driver
1526                 0 = /dev/mga_vid0      1st video card
1527                 1 = /dev/mga_vid1      2nd video card
1528                 2 = /dev/mga_vid2      3rd video card
1529                  ...
1530                15 = /dev/mga_vid15     16th video card
1531
1532 83 block       I2O hard disk
1533                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdaw     49th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1534                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdax     50th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1535                    ...
1536                240 = /dev/i2o/hdbl     64th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1537
1538                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1539                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1540                partitions is 15.
1541
1542 84 char        Ikon 1011[57] Versatec Greensheet Interface
1543                  0 = /dev/ihcp0        First Greensheet port
1544                  1 = /dev/ihcp1        Second Greensheet port
1545
1546 84 block       I2O hard disk
1547                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdbm     65th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1548                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdbn     66th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1549                    ...
1550                240 = /dev/i2o/hdcb     80th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1551
1552                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1553                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1554                partitions is 15.
1555
1556 85 char        Linux/SGI shared memory input queue
1557                  0 = /dev/shmiq        Master shared input queue
1558                  1 = /dev/qcntl0       First device pushed
1559                  2 = /dev/qcntl1       Second device pushed
1560                    ...
1561
1562 85 block       I2O hard disk
1563                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdcc     81st I2O hard disk, whole disk
1564                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdcd     82nd I2O hard disk, whole disk
1565                    ...
1566                240 = /dev/i2o/hdcr     96th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1567
1568                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1569                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1570                partitions is 15.
1571
1572 86 char        SCSI media changer
1573                  0 = /dev/sch0         First SCSI media changer
1574                  1 = /dev/sch1         Second SCSI media changer
1575                    ...
1576
1577 86 block       I2O hard disk
1578                  0 = /dev/i2o/hdcs     97th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1579                 16 = /dev/i2o/hdct     98th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1580                    ...
1581                240 = /dev/i2o/hddh     112th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1582
1583                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1584                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1585                partitions is 15.
1586
1587 87 char        Sony Control-A1 stereo control bus
1588                  0 = /dev/controla0    First device on chain
1589                  1 = /dev/controla1    Second device on chain
1590                    ...
1591
1592 87 block       I2O hard disk
1593                  0 = /dev/i2o/hddi     113rd I2O hard disk, whole disk
1594                 16 = /dev/i2o/hddj     114th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1595                    ...
1596                240 = /dev/i2o/hddx     128th I2O hard disk, whole disk
1597
1598                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1599                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1600                partitions is 15.
1601
1602 88 char        COMX synchronous serial card
1603                  0 = /dev/comx0        COMX channel 0
1604                  1 = /dev/comx1        COMX channel 1
1605                    ...
1606
1607 88 block       Seventh IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1608                  0 = /dev/hdm          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1609                 64 = /dev/hdn          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1610
1611                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1612                interface (see major number 3).
1613
1614 89 char        I2C bus interface
1615                  0 = /dev/i2c-0        First I2C adapter
1616                  1 = /dev/i2c-1        Second I2C adapter
1617                    ...
1618
1619 89 block       Eighth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1620                  0 = /dev/hdo          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1621                 64 = /dev/hdp          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1622
1623                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1624                interface (see major number 3).
1625
1626 90 char        Memory Technology Device (RAM, ROM, Flash)
1627                  0 = /dev/mtd0         First MTD (rw)
1628                  1 = /dev/mtdr0        First MTD (ro)
1629                    ...
1630                 30 = /dev/mtd15        16th MTD (rw)
1631                 31 = /dev/mtdr15       16th MTD (ro)
1632
1633 90 block       Ninth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1634                  0 = /dev/hdq          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1635                 64 = /dev/hdr          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1636
1637                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1638                interface (see major number 3).
1639
1640 91 char        CAN-Bus devices
1641                  0 = /dev/can0         First CAN-Bus controller
1642                  1 = /dev/can1         Second CAN-Bus controller
1643                    ...
1644
1645 91 block       Tenth IDE hard disk/CD-ROM interface
1646                  0 = /dev/hds          Master: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1647                 64 = /dev/hdt          Slave: whole disk (or CD-ROM)
1648
1649                Partitions are handled the same way as for the first
1650                interface (see major number 3).
1651
1652 92 char        Reserved for ith Kommunikationstechnik MIC ISDN card
1653
1654 92 block       PPDD encrypted disk driver
1655                  0 = /dev/ppdd0        First encrypted disk
1656                  1 = /dev/ppdd1        Second encrypted disk
1657                    ...
1658
1659                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1660                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1661                partitions is 15.
1662
1663 93 char
1664
1665 93 block       NAND Flash Translation Layer filesystem
1666                  0 = /dev/nftla        First NFTL layer
1667                 16 = /dev/nftlb        Second NFTL layer
1668                    ...
1669                240 = /dev/nftlp        16th NTFL layer
1670
1671 94 char
1672
1673 94 block       IBM S/390 DASD block storage
1674                  0 = /dev/dasda First DASD device, major
1675                  1 = /dev/dasda1 First DASD device, block 1
1676                  2 = /dev/dasda2 First DASD device, block 2
1677                  3 = /dev/dasda3 First DASD device, block 3
1678                  4 = /dev/dasdb Second DASD device, major
1679                  5 = /dev/dasdb1 Second DASD device, block 1
1680                  6 = /dev/dasdb2 Second DASD device, block 2
1681                  7 = /dev/dasdb3 Second DASD device, block 3
1682                    ...
1683
1684 95 char        IP filter
1685                  0 = /dev/ipl          Filter control device/log file
1686                  1 = /dev/ipnat        NAT control device/log file
1687                  2 = /dev/ipstate      State information log file
1688                  3 = /dev/ipauth       Authentication control device/log file
1689                    ...
1690
1691 96 char        Parallel port ATAPI tape devices
1692                  0 = /dev/pt0          First parallel port ATAPI tape
1693                  1 = /dev/pt1          Second parallel port ATAPI tape
1694                    ...
1695                128 = /dev/npt0         First p.p. ATAPI tape, no rewind
1696                129 = /dev/npt1         Second p.p. ATAPI tape, no rewind
1697                    ...
1698
1699 96 block       Inverse NAND Flash Translation Layer
1700                  0 = /dev/inftla First INFTL layer
1701                 16 = /dev/inftlb Second INFTL layer
1702                    ...
1703                240 = /dev/inftlp       16th INTFL layer
1704
1705 97 char        Parallel port generic ATAPI interface
1706                  0 = /dev/pg0          First parallel port ATAPI device
1707                  1 = /dev/pg1          Second parallel port ATAPI device
1708                  2 = /dev/pg2          Third parallel port ATAPI device
1709                  3 = /dev/pg3          Fourth parallel port ATAPI device
1710
1711                These devices support the same API as the generic SCSI
1712                devices.
1713
1714 98 char        Control and Measurement Device (comedi)
1715                  0 = /dev/comedi0      First comedi device
1716                  1 = /dev/comedi1      Second comedi device
1717                    ...
1718
1719                See http://stm.lbl.gov/comedi.
1720
1721 98 block       User-mode virtual block device
1722                  0 = /dev/ubda         First user-mode block device
1723                 16 = /dev/udbb         Second user-mode block device
1724                    ...
1725
1726                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1727                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1728                partitions is 15.
1729
1730                This device is used by the user-mode virtual kernel port.
1731
1732 99 char        Raw parallel ports
1733                  0 = /dev/parport0     First parallel port
1734                  1 = /dev/parport1     Second parallel port
1735                    ...
1736
1737 99 block       JavaStation flash disk
1738                  0 = /dev/jsfd         JavaStation flash disk
1739
1740100 char        Telephony for Linux
1741                  0 = /dev/phone0       First telephony device
1742                  1 = /dev/phone1       Second telephony device
1743                    ...
1744
1745101 char        Motorola DSP 56xxx board
1746                  0 = /dev/mdspstat     Status information
1747                  1 = /dev/mdsp1        First DSP board I/O controls
1748                    ...
1749                 16 = /dev/mdsp16       16th DSP board I/O controls
1750
1751101 block       AMI HyperDisk RAID controller
1752                  0 = /dev/amiraid/ar0  First array whole disk
1753                 16 = /dev/amiraid/ar1  Second array whole disk
1754                    ...
1755                240 = /dev/amiraid/ar15 16th array whole disk
1756
1757                For each device, partitions are added as:
1758                  0 = /dev/amiraid/ar?    Whole disk
1759                  1 = /dev/amiraid/ar?p1  First partition
1760                  2 = /dev/amiraid/ar?p2  Second partition
1761                    ...
1762                 15 = /dev/amiraid/ar?p15 15th partition
1763
1764102 char
1765
1766102 block       Compressed block device
1767                  0 = /dev/cbd/a        First compressed block device, whole device
1768                 16 = /dev/cbd/b        Second compressed block device, whole device
1769                    ...
1770                240 = /dev/cbd/p        16th compressed block device, whole device
1771
1772                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1773                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1774                partitions is 15.
1775
1776103 char        Arla network file system
1777                  0 = /dev/nnpfs0       First NNPFS device
1778                  1 = /dev/nnpfs1       Second NNPFS device
1779
1780                Arla is a free clone of the Andrew File System, AFS.
1781                The NNPFS device gives user mode filesystem
1782                implementations a kernel presence for caching and easy
1783                mounting.  For more information about the project,
1784                write to <arla-drinkers@stacken.kth.se> or see
1785                http://www.stacken.kth.se/project/arla/
1786
1787103 block       Audit device
1788                  0 = /dev/audit        Audit device
1789
1790104 char        Flash BIOS support
1791
1792104 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, first controller
1793                  0 = /dev/cciss/c0d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1794                 16 = /dev/cciss/c0d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1795                    ...
1796                240 = /dev/cciss/c0d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1797
1798                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1799                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1800                partitions is 15.
1801
1802105 char        Comtrol VS-1000 serial controller
1803                  0 = /dev/ttyV0        First VS-1000 port
1804                  1 = /dev/ttyV1        Second VS-1000 port
1805                    ...
1806
1807105 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, second controller
1808                  0 = /dev/cciss/c1d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1809                 16 = /dev/cciss/c1d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1810                    ...
1811                240 = /dev/cciss/c1d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1812
1813                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1814                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1815                partitions is 15.
1816
1817106 char        Comtrol VS-1000 serial controller - alternate devices
1818                  0 = /dev/cuv0         First VS-1000 port
1819                  1 = /dev/cuv1         Second VS-1000 port
1820                    ...
1821
1822106 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, third controller
1823                  0 = /dev/cciss/c2d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1824                 16 = /dev/cciss/c2d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1825                    ...
1826                240 = /dev/cciss/c2d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1827
1828                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1829                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1830                partitions is 15.
1831
1832107 char        3Dfx Voodoo Graphics device
1833                  0 = /dev/3dfx         Primary 3Dfx graphics device
1834
1835107 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, fourth controller
1836                  0 = /dev/cciss/c3d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1837                 16 = /dev/cciss/c3d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1838                    ...
1839                240 = /dev/cciss/c3d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1840
1841                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1842                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1843                partitions is 15.
1844
1845108 char        Device independent PPP interface
1846                  0 = /dev/ppp          Device independent PPP interface
1847
1848108 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, fifth controller
1849                  0 = /dev/cciss/c4d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1850                 16 = /dev/cciss/c4d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1851                    ...
1852                240 = /dev/cciss/c4d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1853
1854                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1855                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1856                partitions is 15.
1857
1858109 char        Reserved for logical volume manager
1859
1860109 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, sixth controller
1861                  0 = /dev/cciss/c5d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1862                 16 = /dev/cciss/c5d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1863                    ...
1864                240 = /dev/cciss/c5d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1865
1866                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1867                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1868                partitions is 15.
1869
1870110 char        miroMEDIA Surround board
1871                  0 = /dev/srnd0        First miroMEDIA Surround board
1872                  1 = /dev/srnd1        Second miroMEDIA Surround board
1873                    ...
1874
1875110 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, seventh controller
1876                  0 = /dev/cciss/c6d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1877                 16 = /dev/cciss/c6d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1878                    ...
1879                240 = /dev/cciss/c6d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1880
1881                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1882                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1883                partitions is 15.
1884
1885111 char
1886
1887111 block       Compaq Next Generation Drive Array, eighth controller
1888                  0 = /dev/cciss/c7d0   First logical drive, whole disk
1889                 16 = /dev/cciss/c7d1   Second logical drive, whole disk
1890                    ...
1891                240 = /dev/cciss/c7d15  16th logical drive, whole disk
1892
1893                Partitions are handled the same way as for Mylex
1894                DAC960 (see major number 48) except that the limit on
1895                partitions is 15.
1896
1897112 char        ISI serial card
1898                  0 = /dev/ttyM0        First ISI port
1899                  1 = /dev/ttyM1        Second ISI port
1900                    ...
1901
1902                There is currently a device-naming conflict between
1903                these and PAM multimodems (major 78).
1904
1905112 block       IBM iSeries virtual disk
1906                  0 = /dev/iseries/vda  First virtual disk, whole disk
1907                  8 = /dev/iseries/vdb  Second virtual disk, whole disk
1908                    ...
1909                200 = /dev/iseries/vdz  26th virtual disk, whole disk
1910                208 = /dev/iseries/vdaa 27th virtual disk, whole disk
1911                    ...
1912                248 = /dev/iseries/vdaf 32nd virtual disk, whole disk
1913
1914                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1915                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1916                partitions is 7.
1917
1918113 char        ISI serial card - alternate devices
1919                  0 = /dev/cum0         Callout device for ttyM0
1920                  1 = /dev/cum1         Callout device for ttyM1
1921                    ...
1922
1923113 block       IBM iSeries virtual CD-ROM
1924                  0 = /dev/iseries/vcda First virtual CD-ROM
1925                  1 = /dev/iseries/vcdb Second virtual CD-ROM
1926                    ...
1927
1928114 char        Picture Elements ISE board
1929                  0 = /dev/ise0         First ISE board
1930                  1 = /dev/ise1         Second ISE board
1931                    ...
1932                128 = /dev/isex0        Control node for first ISE board
1933                129 = /dev/isex1        Control node for second ISE board
1934                    ...
1935
1936                The ISE board is an embedded computer, optimized for
1937                image processing. The /dev/iseN nodes are the general
1938                I/O access to the board, the /dev/isex0 nodes command
1939                nodes used to control the board.
1940
1941114 block       IDE BIOS powered software RAID interfaces such as the
1942                Promise Fastrak
1943
1944                  0 = /dev/ataraid/d0
1945                  1 = /dev/ataraid/d0p1
1946                  2 = /dev/ataraid/d0p2
1947                  ...
1948                 16 = /dev/ataraid/d1
1949                 17 = /dev/ataraid/d1p1
1950                 18 = /dev/ataraid/d1p2
1951                  ...
1952                255 = /dev/ataraid/d15p15
1953
1954                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
1955                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
1956                partitions is 15.
1957
1958115 char        TI link cable devices (115 was formerly the console driver speaker)
1959                  0 = /dev/tipar0    Parallel cable on first parallel port
1960                  ...
1961                  7 = /dev/tipar7    Parallel cable on seventh parallel port
1962
1963                  8 = /dev/tiser0    Serial cable on first serial port
1964                  ...
1965                 15 = /dev/tiser7    Serial cable on seventh serial port
1966
1967                 16 = /dev/tiusb0    First USB cable
1968                  ...
1969                 47 = /dev/tiusb31   32nd USB cable
1970
1971115 block       NetWare (NWFS) Devices (0-255)
1972
1973                The NWFS (NetWare) devices are used to present a
1974                collection of NetWare Mirror Groups or NetWare
1975                Partitions as a logical storage segment for
1976                use in mounting NetWare volumes.  A maximum of
1977                256 NetWare volumes can be supported in a single
1978                machine.
1979
1980                http://cgfa.telepac.pt/ftp2/kernel.org/linux/kernel/people/jmerkey/nwfs/
1981
1982                0 = /dev/nwfs/v0    First NetWare (NWFS) Logical Volume
1983                1 = /dev/nwfs/v1    Second NetWare (NWFS) Logical Volume
1984                2 = /dev/nwfs/v2    Third NetWare (NWFS) Logical Volume
1985                      ...
1986                255 = /dev/nwfs/v255    Last NetWare (NWFS) Logical Volume
1987
1988116 char        Advanced Linux Sound Driver (ALSA)
1989
1990116 block       MicroMemory battery backed RAM adapter (NVRAM)
1991                Supports 16 boards, 15 partitions each.
1992                Requested by neilb at cse.unsw.edu.au.
1993
1994                 0 = /dev/umem/d0      Whole of first board
1995                 1 = /dev/umem/d0p1    First partition of first board
1996                 2 = /dev/umem/d0p2    Second partition of first board
1997                15 = /dev/umem/d0p15   15th partition of first board
1998
1999                16 = /dev/umem/d1      Whole of second board
2000                17 = /dev/umem/d1p1    First partition of second board
2001                    ...
2002                255= /dev/umem/d15p15  15th partition of 16th board.
2003
2004117 char        COSA/SRP synchronous serial card
2005                  0 = /dev/cosa0c0      1st board, 1st channel
2006                  1 = /dev/cosa0c1      1st board, 2nd channel
2007                    ...
2008                 16 = /dev/cosa1c0      2nd board, 1st channel
2009                 17 = /dev/cosa1c1      2nd board, 2nd channel
2010                    ...
2011
2012117 block       Enterprise Volume Management System (EVMS)
2013
2014                The EVMS driver uses a layered, plug-in model to provide
2015                unparalleled flexibility and extensibility in managing
2016                storage.  This allows for easy expansion or customization
2017                of various levels of volume management.  Requested by
2018                Mark Peloquin (peloquin at us.ibm.com).
2019
2020                Note: EVMS populates and manages all the devnodes in
2021                /dev/evms.
2022
2023                http://sf.net/projects/evms
2024
2025                  0 = /dev/evms/block_device   EVMS block device
2026                  1 = /dev/evms/legacyname1    First EVMS legacy device
2027                  2 = /dev/evms/legacyname2    Second EVMS legacy device
2028                    ...
2029                    Both ranges can grow (down or up) until they meet.
2030                    ...
2031                254 = /dev/evms/EVMSname2      Second EVMS native device
2032                255 = /dev/evms/EVMSname1      First EVMS native device
2033
2034                Note: legacyname(s) are derived from the normal legacy
2035                device names.  For example, /dev/hda5 would become
2036                /dev/evms/hda5.
2037
2038118 char        IBM Cryptographic Accelerator
2039                  0 = /dev/ica  Virtual interface to all IBM Crypto Accelerators
2040                  1 = /dev/ica0 IBMCA Device 0
2041                  2 = /dev/ica1 IBMCA Device 1
2042                    ...
2043
2044119 char        VMware virtual network control
2045                  0 = /dev/vnet0        1st virtual network
2046                  1 = /dev/vnet1        2nd virtual network
2047                    ...
2048
2049120-127 char    LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
2050
2051120-127 block   LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
2052                Allocated for local/experimental use.  For devices not
2053                assigned official numbers, these ranges should be
2054                used in order to avoid conflicting with future assignments.
2055
2056128-135 char    Unix98 PTY masters
2057
2058                These devices should not have corresponding device
2059                nodes; instead they should be accessed through the
2060                /dev/ptmx cloning interface.
2061
2062128 block       SCSI disk devices (128-143)
2063                  0 = /dev/sddy         129th SCSI disk whole disk
2064                 16 = /dev/sddz         130th SCSI disk whole disk
2065                 32 = /dev/sdea         131th SCSI disk whole disk
2066                    ...
2067                240 = /dev/sden         144th SCSI disk whole disk
2068
2069                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2070                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2071                partitions is 15.
2072
2073129 block       SCSI disk devices (144-159)
2074                  0 = /dev/sdeo         145th SCSI disk whole disk
2075                 16 = /dev/sdep         146th SCSI disk whole disk
2076                 32 = /dev/sdeq         147th SCSI disk whole disk
2077                    ...
2078                240 = /dev/sdfd         160th SCSI disk whole disk
2079
2080                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2081                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2082                partitions is 15.
2083
2084130 char        (Misc devices)
2085
2086130 block       SCSI disk devices (160-175)
2087                  0 = /dev/sdfe         161st SCSI disk whole disk
2088                 16 = /dev/sdff         162nd SCSI disk whole disk
2089                 32 = /dev/sdfg         163rd SCSI disk whole disk
2090                    ...
2091                240 = /dev/sdft         176th SCSI disk whole disk
2092
2093                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2094                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2095                partitions is 15.
2096
2097131 block       SCSI disk devices (176-191)
2098                  0 = /dev/sdfu         177th SCSI disk whole disk
2099                 16 = /dev/sdfv         178th SCSI disk whole disk
2100                 32 = /dev/sdfw         179th SCSI disk whole disk
2101                    ...
2102                240 = /dev/sdgj         192nd SCSI disk whole disk
2103
2104                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2105                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2106                partitions is 15.
2107
2108132 block       SCSI disk devices (192-207)
2109                  0 = /dev/sdgk         193rd SCSI disk whole disk
2110                 16 = /dev/sdgl         194th SCSI disk whole disk
2111                 32 = /dev/sdgm         195th SCSI disk whole disk
2112                    ...
2113                240 = /dev/sdgz         208th SCSI disk whole disk
2114
2115                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2116                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2117                partitions is 15.
2118
2119133 block       SCSI disk devices (208-223)
2120                  0 = /dev/sdha         209th SCSI disk whole disk
2121                 16 = /dev/sdhb         210th SCSI disk whole disk
2122                 32 = /dev/sdhc         211th SCSI disk whole disk
2123                    ...
2124                240 = /dev/sdhp         224th SCSI disk whole disk
2125
2126                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2127                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2128                partitions is 15.
2129
2130134 block       SCSI disk devices (224-239)
2131                  0 = /dev/sdhq         225th SCSI disk whole disk
2132                 16 = /dev/sdhr         226th SCSI disk whole disk
2133                 32 = /dev/sdhs         227th SCSI disk whole disk
2134                    ...
2135                240 = /dev/sdif         240th SCSI disk whole disk
2136
2137                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2138                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2139                partitions is 15.
2140
2141135 block       SCSI disk devices (240-255)
2142                  0 = /dev/sdig         241st SCSI disk whole disk
2143                 16 = /dev/sdih         242nd SCSI disk whole disk
2144                 32 = /dev/sdih         243rd SCSI disk whole disk
2145                    ...
2146                240 = /dev/sdiv         256th SCSI disk whole disk
2147
2148                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2149                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2150                partitions is 15.
2151
2152136-143 char    Unix98 PTY slaves
2153                  0 = /dev/pts/0        First Unix98 pseudo-TTY
2154                  1 = /dev/pts/1        Second Unix98 pseudo-TTY
2155                    ...
2156
2157                These device nodes are automatically generated with
2158                the proper permissions and modes by mounting the
2159                devpts filesystem onto /dev/pts with the appropriate
2160                mount options (distribution dependent, however, on
2161                *most* distributions the appropriate options are
2162                "mode=0620,gid=<gid of the "tty" group>".)
2163
2164136 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; ninth controller
2165                  0 = /dev/rd/c8d0      First disk, whole disk
2166                  8 = /dev/rd/c8d1      Second disk, whole disk
2167                    ...
2168                248 = /dev/rd/c8d31     32nd disk, whole disk
2169
2170                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2171
2172137 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; tenth controller
2173                  0 = /dev/rd/c9d0      First disk, whole disk
2174                  8 = /dev/rd/c9d1      Second disk, whole disk
2175                    ...
2176                248 = /dev/rd/c9d31     32nd disk, whole disk
2177
2178                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2179
2180138 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; eleventh controller
2181                  0 = /dev/rd/c10d0     First disk, whole disk
2182                  8 = /dev/rd/c10d1     Second disk, whole disk
2183                    ...
2184                248 = /dev/rd/c10d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2185
2186                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2187
2188139 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; twelfth controller
2189                  0 = /dev/rd/c11d0     First disk, whole disk
2190                  8 = /dev/rd/c11d1     Second disk, whole disk
2191                    ...
2192                248 = /dev/rd/c11d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2193
2194                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2195
2196140 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; thirteenth controller
2197                  0 = /dev/rd/c12d0     First disk, whole disk
2198                  8 = /dev/rd/c12d1     Second disk, whole disk
2199                    ...
2200                248 = /dev/rd/c12d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2201
2202                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2203
2204141 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; fourteenth controller
2205                  0 = /dev/rd/c13d0     First disk, whole disk
2206                  8 = /dev/rd/c13d1     Second disk, whole disk
2207                    ...
2208                248 = /dev/rd/c13d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2209
2210                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2211
2212142 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; fifteenth controller
2213                  0 = /dev/rd/c14d0     First disk, whole disk
2214                  8 = /dev/rd/c14d1     Second disk, whole disk
2215                    ...
2216                248 = /dev/rd/c14d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2217
2218                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2219
2220143 block       Mylex DAC960 PCI RAID controller; sixteenth controller
2221                  0 = /dev/rd/c15d0     First disk, whole disk
2222                  8 = /dev/rd/c15d1     Second disk, whole disk
2223                    ...
2224                248 = /dev/rd/c15d31    32nd disk, whole disk
2225
2226                Partitions are handled as for major 48.
2227
2228144 char        Encapsulated PPP
2229                  0 = /dev/pppox0       First PPP over Ethernet
2230                    ...
2231                 63 = /dev/pppox63      64th PPP over Ethernet
2232
2233                This is primarily used for ADSL.
2234
2235                The SST 5136-DN DeviceNet interface driver has been
2236                relocated to major 183 due to an unfortunate conflict.
2237
2238144 block       Expansion Area #1 for more non-device (e.g. NFS) mounts
2239                  0 = mounted device 256
2240                255 = mounted device 511
2241
2242145 char        SAM9407-based soundcard
2243                  0 = /dev/sam0_mixer
2244                  1 = /dev/sam0_sequencer
2245                  2 = /dev/sam0_midi00
2246                  3 = /dev/sam0_dsp
2247                  4 = /dev/sam0_audio
2248                  6 = /dev/sam0_sndstat
2249                 18 = /dev/sam0_midi01
2250                 34 = /dev/sam0_midi02
2251                 50 = /dev/sam0_midi03
2252                 64 = /dev/sam1_mixer
2253                    ...
2254                128 = /dev/sam2_mixer
2255                    ...
2256                192 = /dev/sam3_mixer
2257                    ...
2258
2259                Device functions match OSS, but offer a number of
2260                addons, which are sam9407 specific.  OSS can be
2261                operated simultaneously, taking care of the codec.
2262
2263145 block       Expansion Area #2 for more non-device (e.g. NFS) mounts
2264                  0 = mounted device 512
2265                255 = mounted device 767
2266
2267146 char        SYSTRAM SCRAMNet mirrored-memory network
2268                  0 = /dev/scramnet0    First SCRAMNet device
2269                  1 = /dev/scramnet1    Second SCRAMNet device
2270                    ...
2271
2272146 block       Expansion Area #3 for more non-device (e.g. NFS) mounts
2273                  0 = mounted device 768
2274                255 = mounted device 1023
2275
2276147 char        Aureal Semiconductor Vortex Audio device
2277                  0 = /dev/aureal0      First Aureal Vortex
2278                  1 = /dev/aureal1      Second Aureal Vortex
2279                    ...
2280
2281147 block       Distributed Replicated Block Device (DRBD)
2282                  0 = /dev/drbd0        First DRBD device
2283                  1 = /dev/drbd1        Second DRBD device
2284                    ...
2285
2286148 char        Technology Concepts serial card
2287                  0 = /dev/ttyT0        First TCL port
2288                  1 = /dev/ttyT1        Second TCL port
2289                    ...
2290
2291149 char        Technology Concepts serial card - alternate devices
2292                  0 = /dev/cut0         Callout device for ttyT0
2293                  1 = /dev/cut0         Callout device for ttyT1
2294                    ...
2295
2296150 char        Real-Time Linux FIFOs
2297                  0 = /dev/rtf0         First RTLinux FIFO
2298                  1 = /dev/rtf1         Second RTLinux FIFO
2299                    ...
2300
2301151 char        DPT I2O SmartRaid V controller
2302                  0 = /dev/dpti0        First DPT I2O adapter
2303                  1 = /dev/dpti1        Second DPT I2O adapter
2304                    ...
2305
2306152 char        EtherDrive Control Device
2307                  0 = /dev/etherd/ctl   Connect/Disconnect an EtherDrive
2308                  1 = /dev/etherd/err   Monitor errors
2309                  2 = /dev/etherd/raw   Raw AoE packet monitor
2310
2311152 block       EtherDrive Block Devices
2312                  0 = /dev/etherd/0     EtherDrive 0
2313                    ...
2314                255 = /dev/etherd/255   EtherDrive 255
2315
2316153 char        SPI Bus Interface (sometimes referred to as MicroWire)
2317                  0 = /dev/spi0         First SPI device on the bus
2318                  1 = /dev/spi1         Second SPI device on the bus
2319                    ...
2320                 15 = /dev/spi15        Sixteenth SPI device on the bus
2321
2322153 block       Enhanced Metadisk RAID (EMD) storage units
2323                  0 = /dev/emd/0        First unit
2324                  1 = /dev/emd/0p1      Partition 1 on First unit
2325                  2 = /dev/emd/0p2      Partition 2 on First unit
2326                    ...
2327                 15 = /dev/emd/0p15     Partition 15 on First unit
2328
2329                 16 = /dev/emd/1        Second unit
2330                 32 = /dev/emd/2        Third unit
2331                    ...
2332                240 = /dev/emd/15       Sixteenth unit
2333
2334                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2335                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2336                partitions is 15.
2337
2338154 char        Specialix RIO serial card
2339                  0 = /dev/ttySR0       First RIO port
2340                    ...
2341                255 = /dev/ttySR255     256th RIO port
2342
2343155 char        Specialix RIO serial card - alternate devices
2344                  0 = /dev/cusr0        Callout device for ttySR0
2345                    ...
2346                255 = /dev/cusr255      Callout device for ttySR255
2347
2348156 char        Specialix RIO serial card
2349                  0 = /dev/ttySR256     257th RIO port
2350                    ...
2351                255 = /dev/ttySR511     512th RIO port
2352
2353157 char        Specialix RIO serial card - alternate devices
2354                  0 = /dev/cusr256      Callout device for ttySR256
2355                    ...
2356                255 = /dev/cusr511      Callout device for ttySR511
2357
2358158 char        Dialogic GammaLink fax driver
2359                  0 = /dev/gfax0        GammaLink channel 0
2360                  1 = /dev/gfax1        GammaLink channel 1
2361                    ...
2362
2363159 char        RESERVED
2364
2365159 block       RESERVED
2366
2367160 char        General Purpose Instrument Bus (GPIB)
2368                  0 = /dev/gpib0        First GPIB bus
2369                  1 = /dev/gpib1        Second GPIB bus
2370                    ...
2371
2372160 block       Carmel 8-port SATA Disks on First Controller
2373                  0 = /dev/carmel/0     SATA disk 0 whole disk
2374                  1 = /dev/carmel/0p1   SATA disk 0 partition 1
2375                    ...
2376                 31 = /dev/carmel/0p31  SATA disk 0 partition 31
2377
2378                 32 = /dev/carmel/1     SATA disk 1 whole disk
2379                 64 = /dev/carmel/2     SATA disk 2 whole disk
2380                    ...
2381                224 = /dev/carmel/7     SATA disk 7 whole disk
2382
2383                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2384                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2385                partitions is 31.
2386
2387161 char        IrCOMM devices (IrDA serial/parallel emulation)
2388                  0 = /dev/ircomm0      First IrCOMM device
2389                  1 = /dev/ircomm1      Second IrCOMM device
2390                    ...
2391                 16 = /dev/irlpt0       First IrLPT device
2392                 17 = /dev/irlpt1       Second IrLPT device
2393                    ...
2394
2395161 block       Carmel 8-port SATA Disks on Second Controller
2396                  0 = /dev/carmel/8     SATA disk 8 whole disk
2397                  1 = /dev/carmel/8p1   SATA disk 8 partition 1
2398                    ...
2399                 31 = /dev/carmel/8p31  SATA disk 8 partition 31
2400
2401                 32 = /dev/carmel/9     SATA disk 9 whole disk
2402                 64 = /dev/carmel/10    SATA disk 10 whole disk
2403                    ...
2404                224 = /dev/carmel/15    SATA disk 15 whole disk
2405
2406                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2407                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2408                partitions is 31.
2409
2410162 char        Raw block device interface
2411                  0 = /dev/rawctl       Raw I/O control device
2412                  1 = /dev/raw/raw1     First raw I/O device
2413                  2 = /dev/raw/raw2     Second raw I/O device
2414                    ...
2415                 max minor number of raw device is set by kernel config
2416                 MAX_RAW_DEVS or raw module parameter 'max_raw_devs'
2417
2418163 char
2419
2420164 char        Chase Research AT/PCI-Fast serial card
2421                  0 = /dev/ttyCH0       AT/PCI-Fast board 0, port 0
2422                    ...
2423                 15 = /dev/ttyCH15      AT/PCI-Fast board 0, port 15
2424                 16 = /dev/ttyCH16      AT/PCI-Fast board 1, port 0
2425                    ...
2426                 31 = /dev/ttyCH31      AT/PCI-Fast board 1, port 15
2427                 32 = /dev/ttyCH32      AT/PCI-Fast board 2, port 0
2428                    ...
2429                 47 = /dev/ttyCH47      AT/PCI-Fast board 2, port 15
2430                 48 = /dev/ttyCH48      AT/PCI-Fast board 3, port 0
2431                    ...
2432                 63 = /dev/ttyCH63      AT/PCI-Fast board 3, port 15
2433
2434165 char        Chase Research AT/PCI-Fast serial card - alternate devices
2435                  0 = /dev/cuch0        Callout device for ttyCH0
2436                    ...
2437                 63 = /dev/cuch63       Callout device for ttyCH63
2438
2439166 char        ACM USB modems
2440                  0 = /dev/ttyACM0      First ACM modem
2441                  1 = /dev/ttyACM1      Second ACM modem
2442                    ...
2443
2444167 char        ACM USB modems - alternate devices
2445                  0 = /dev/cuacm0       Callout device for ttyACM0
2446                  1 = /dev/cuacm1       Callout device for ttyACM1
2447                    ...
2448
2449168 char        Eracom CSA7000 PCI encryption adaptor
2450                  0 = /dev/ecsa0        First CSA7000
2451                  1 = /dev/ecsa1        Second CSA7000
2452                    ...
2453
2454169 char        Eracom CSA8000 PCI encryption adaptor
2455                  0 = /dev/ecsa8-0      First CSA8000
2456                  1 = /dev/ecsa8-1      Second CSA8000
2457                    ...
2458
2459170 char        AMI MegaRAC remote access controller
2460                  0 = /dev/megarac0     First MegaRAC card
2461                  1 = /dev/megarac1     Second MegaRAC card
2462                    ...
2463
2464171 char        Reserved for IEEE 1394 (Firewire)
2465
2466172 char        Moxa Intellio serial card
2467                  0 = /dev/ttyMX0       First Moxa port
2468                  1 = /dev/ttyMX1       Second Moxa port
2469                    ...
2470                127 = /dev/ttyMX127     128th Moxa port
2471                128 = /dev/moxactl      Moxa control port
2472
2473173 char        Moxa Intellio serial card - alternate devices
2474                  0 = /dev/cumx0        Callout device for ttyMX0
2475                  1 = /dev/cumx1        Callout device for ttyMX1
2476                    ...
2477                127 = /dev/cumx127      Callout device for ttyMX127
2478
2479174 char        SmartIO serial card
2480                  0 = /dev/ttySI0       First SmartIO port
2481                  1 = /dev/ttySI1       Second SmartIO port
2482                    ...
2483
2484175 char        SmartIO serial card - alternate devices
2485                  0 = /dev/cusi0        Callout device for ttySI0
2486                  1 = /dev/cusi1        Callout device for ttySI1
2487                    ...
2488
2489176 char        nCipher nFast PCI crypto accelerator
2490                  0 = /dev/nfastpci0    First nFast PCI device
2491                  1 = /dev/nfastpci1    First nFast PCI device
2492                    ...
2493
2494177 char        TI PCILynx memory spaces
2495                  0 = /dev/pcilynx/aux0  AUX space of first PCILynx card
2496                    ...
2497                 15 = /dev/pcilynx/aux15 AUX space of 16th PCILynx card
2498                 16 = /dev/pcilynx/rom0  ROM space of first PCILynx card
2499                    ...
2500                 31 = /dev/pcilynx/rom15 ROM space of 16th PCILynx card
2501                 32 = /dev/pcilynx/ram0  RAM space of first PCILynx card
2502                    ...
2503                 47 = /dev/pcilynx/ram15 RAM space of 16th PCILynx card
2504
2505178 char        Giganet cLAN1xxx virtual interface adapter
2506                  0 = /dev/clanvi0      First cLAN adapter
2507                  1 = /dev/clanvi1      Second cLAN adapter
2508                    ...
2509
2510179 block       MMC block devices
2511                  0 = /dev/mmcblk0      First SD/MMC card
2512                  1 = /dev/mmcblk0p1    First partition on first MMC card
2513                  8 = /dev/mmcblk1      Second SD/MMC card
2514                    ...
2515
2516                The start of next SD/MMC card can be configured with
2517                CONFIG_MMC_BLOCK_MINORS, or overridden at boot/modprobe
2518                time using the mmcblk.perdev_minors option. That would
2519                bump the offset between each card to be the configured
2520                value instead of the default 8.
2521
2522179 char        CCube DVXChip-based PCI products
2523                  0 = /dev/dvxirq0      First DVX device
2524                  1 = /dev/dvxirq1      Second DVX device
2525                    ...
2526
2527180 char        USB devices
2528                  0 = /dev/usb/lp0      First USB printer
2529                    ...
2530                 15 = /dev/usb/lp15     16th USB printer
2531                 48 = /dev/usb/scanner0 First USB scanner
2532                    ...
2533                 63 = /dev/usb/scanner15 16th USB scanner
2534                 64 = /dev/usb/rio500   Diamond Rio 500
2535                 65 = /dev/usb/usblcd   USBLCD Interface (info@usblcd.de)
2536                 66 = /dev/usb/cpad0    Synaptics cPad (mouse/LCD)
2537                 96 = /dev/usb/hiddev0  1st USB HID device
2538                    ...
2539                111 = /dev/usb/hiddev15 16th USB HID device
2540                112 = /dev/usb/auer0    1st auerswald ISDN device
2541                    ...
2542                127 = /dev/usb/auer15   16th auerswald ISDN device
2543                128 = /dev/usb/brlvgr0  First Braille Voyager device
2544                    ...
2545                131 = /dev/usb/brlvgr3  Fourth Braille Voyager device
2546                132 = /dev/usb/idmouse  ID Mouse (fingerprint scanner) device
2547                133 = /dev/usb/sisusbvga1       First SiSUSB VGA device
2548                    ...
2549                140 = /dev/usb/sisusbvga8       Eighth SISUSB VGA device
2550                144 = /dev/usb/lcd      USB LCD device
2551                160 = /dev/usb/legousbtower0    1st USB Legotower device
2552                    ...
2553                175 = /dev/usb/legousbtower15   16th USB Legotower device
2554                176 = /dev/usb/usbtmc1  First USB TMC device
2555                   ...
2556                191 = /dev/usb/usbtmc16 16th USB TMC device
2557                192 = /dev/usb/yurex1   First USB Yurex device
2558                   ...
2559                209 = /dev/usb/yurex16  16th USB Yurex device
2560
2561180 block       USB block devices
2562                  0 = /dev/uba          First USB block device
2563                  8 = /dev/ubb          Second USB block device
2564                 16 = /dev/ubc          Third USB block device
2565                    ...
2566
2567181 char        Conrad Electronic parallel port radio clocks
2568                  0 = /dev/pcfclock0    First Conrad radio clock
2569                  1 = /dev/pcfclock1    Second Conrad radio clock
2570                    ...
2571
2572182 char        Picture Elements THR2 binarizer
2573                  0 = /dev/pethr0       First THR2 board
2574                  1 = /dev/pethr1       Second THR2 board
2575                    ...
2576
2577183 char        SST 5136-DN DeviceNet interface
2578                  0 = /dev/ss5136dn0    First DeviceNet interface
2579                  1 = /dev/ss5136dn1    Second DeviceNet interface
2580                    ...
2581
2582                This device used to be assigned to major number 144.
2583                It had to be moved due to an unfortunate conflict.
2584
2585184 char        Picture Elements' video simulator/sender
2586                  0 = /dev/pevss0       First sender board
2587                  1 = /dev/pevss1       Second sender board
2588                    ...
2589
2590185 char        InterMezzo high availability file system
2591                  0 = /dev/intermezzo0  First cache manager
2592                  1 = /dev/intermezzo1  Second cache manager
2593                    ...
2594
2595                See http://web.archive.org/web/20080115195241/
2596                http://inter-mezzo.org/index.html
2597
2598186 char        Object-based storage control device
2599                  0 = /dev/obd0         First obd control device
2600                  1 = /dev/obd1         Second obd control device
2601                    ...
2602
2603                See ftp://ftp.lustre.org/pub/obd for code and information.
2604
2605187 char        DESkey hardware encryption device
2606                  0 = /dev/deskey0      First DES key
2607                  1 = /dev/deskey1      Second DES key
2608                    ...
2609
2610188 char        USB serial converters
2611                  0 = /dev/ttyUSB0      First USB serial converter
2612                  1 = /dev/ttyUSB1      Second USB serial converter
2613                    ...
2614
2615189 char        USB serial converters - alternate devices
2616                  0 = /dev/cuusb0       Callout device for ttyUSB0
2617                  1 = /dev/cuusb1       Callout device for ttyUSB1
2618                    ...
2619
2620190 char        Kansas City tracker/tuner card
2621                  0 = /dev/kctt0        First KCT/T card
2622                  1 = /dev/kctt1        Second KCT/T card
2623                    ...
2624
2625191 char        Reserved for PCMCIA
2626
2627192 char        Kernel profiling interface
2628                  0 = /dev/profile      Profiling control device
2629                  1 = /dev/profile0     Profiling device for CPU 0
2630                  2 = /dev/profile1     Profiling device for CPU 1
2631                    ...
2632
2633193 char        Kernel event-tracing interface
2634                  0 = /dev/trace        Tracing control device
2635                  1 = /dev/trace0       Tracing device for CPU 0
2636                  2 = /dev/trace1       Tracing device for CPU 1
2637                    ...
2638
2639194 char        linVideoStreams (LINVS)
2640                  0 = /dev/mvideo/status0       Video compression status
2641                  1 = /dev/mvideo/stream0       Video stream
2642                  2 = /dev/mvideo/frame0        Single compressed frame
2643                  3 = /dev/mvideo/rawframe0     Raw uncompressed frame
2644                  4 = /dev/mvideo/codec0        Direct codec access
2645                  5 = /dev/mvideo/video4linux0  Video4Linux compatibility
2646
2647                 16 = /dev/mvideo/status1       Second device
2648                    ...
2649                 32 = /dev/mvideo/status2       Third device
2650                    ...
2651                    ...
2652                240 = /dev/mvideo/status15      16th device
2653                    ...
2654
2655195 char        Nvidia graphics devices
2656                  0 = /dev/nvidia0              First Nvidia card
2657                  1 = /dev/nvidia1              Second Nvidia card
2658                    ...
2659                255 = /dev/nvidiactl            Nvidia card control device
2660
2661196 char        Tormenta T1 card
2662                  0 = /dev/tor/0                Master control channel for all cards
2663                  1 = /dev/tor/1                First DS0
2664                  2 = /dev/tor/2                Second DS0
2665                    ...
2666                 48 = /dev/tor/48               48th DS0
2667                 49 = /dev/tor/49               First pseudo-channel
2668                 50 = /dev/tor/50               Second pseudo-channel
2669                    ...
2670
2671197 char        OpenTNF tracing facility
2672                  0 = /dev/tnf/t0               Trace 0 data extraction
2673                  1 = /dev/tnf/t1               Trace 1 data extraction
2674                    ...
2675                128 = /dev/tnf/status           Tracing facility status
2676                130 = /dev/tnf/trace            Tracing device
2677
2678198 char        Total Impact TPMP2 quad coprocessor PCI card
2679                  0 = /dev/tpmp2/0              First card
2680                  1 = /dev/tpmp2/1              Second card
2681                    ...
2682
2683199 char        Veritas volume manager (VxVM) volumes
2684                  0 = /dev/vx/rdsk/*/*          First volume
2685                  1 = /dev/vx/rdsk/*/*          Second volume
2686                    ...
2687
2688199 block       Veritas volume manager (VxVM) volumes
2689                  0 = /dev/vx/dsk/*/*           First volume
2690                  1 = /dev/vx/dsk/*/*           Second volume
2691                    ...
2692
2693                The namespace in these directories is maintained by
2694                the user space VxVM software.
2695
2696200 char        Veritas VxVM configuration interface
2697                  0 = /dev/vx/config            Configuration access node
2698                  1 = /dev/vx/trace             Volume i/o trace access node
2699                  2 = /dev/vx/iod               Volume i/o daemon access node
2700                  3 = /dev/vx/info              Volume information access node
2701                  4 = /dev/vx/task              Volume tasks access node
2702                  5 = /dev/vx/taskmon           Volume tasks monitor daemon
2703
2704201 char        Veritas VxVM dynamic multipathing driver
2705                  0 = /dev/vx/rdmp/*            First multipath device
2706                  1 = /dev/vx/rdmp/*            Second multipath device
2707                    ...
2708201 block       Veritas VxVM dynamic multipathing driver
2709                  0 = /dev/vx/dmp/*             First multipath device
2710                  1 = /dev/vx/dmp/*             Second multipath device
2711                    ...
2712
2713                The namespace in these directories is maintained by
2714                the user space VxVM software.
2715
2716202 char        CPU model-specific registers
2717                  0 = /dev/cpu/0/msr            MSRs on CPU 0
2718                  1 = /dev/cpu/1/msr            MSRs on CPU 1
2719                    ...
2720
2721202 block       Xen Virtual Block Device
2722                  0 = /dev/xvda       First Xen VBD whole disk
2723                  16 = /dev/xvdb      Second Xen VBD whole disk
2724                  32 = /dev/xvdc      Third Xen VBD whole disk
2725                    ...
2726                  240 = /dev/xvdp     Sixteenth Xen VBD whole disk
2727
2728                Partitions are handled in the same way as for IDE
2729                disks (see major number 3) except that the limit on
2730                partitions is 15.
2731
2732203 char        CPU CPUID information
2733                  0 = /dev/cpu/0/cpuid          CPUID on CPU 0
2734                  1 = /dev/cpu/1/cpuid          CPUID on CPU 1
2735                    ...
2736
2737204 char        Low-density serial ports
2738                  0 = /dev/ttyLU0               LinkUp Systems L72xx UART - port 0
2739                  1 = /dev/ttyLU1               LinkUp Systems L72xx UART - port 1
2740                  2 = /dev/ttyLU2               LinkUp Systems L72xx UART - port 2
2741                  3 = /dev/ttyLU3               LinkUp Systems L72xx UART - port 3
2742                  4 = /dev/ttyFB0               Intel Footbridge (ARM)
2743                  5 = /dev/ttySA0               StrongARM builtin serial port 0
2744                  6 = /dev/ttySA1               StrongARM builtin serial port 1
2745                  7 = /dev/ttySA2               StrongARM builtin serial port 2
2746                  8 = /dev/ttySC0               SCI serial port (SuperH) - port 0
2747                  9 = /dev/ttySC1               SCI serial port (SuperH) - port 1
2748                 10 = /dev/ttySC2               SCI serial port (SuperH) - port 2
2749                 11 = /dev/ttySC3               SCI serial port (SuperH) - port 3
2750                 12 = /dev/ttyFW0               Firmware console - port 0
2751                 13 = /dev/ttyFW1               Firmware console - port 1
2752                 14 = /dev/ttyFW2               Firmware console - port 2
2753                 15 = /dev/ttyFW3               Firmware console - port 3
2754                 16 = /dev/ttyAM0               ARM "AMBA" serial port 0
2755                    ...
2756                 31 = /dev/ttyAM15              ARM "AMBA" serial port 15
2757                 32 = /dev/ttyDB0               DataBooster serial port 0
2758                    ...
2759                 39 = /dev/ttyDB7               DataBooster serial port 7
2760                 40 = /dev/ttySG0               SGI Altix console port
2761                 41 = /dev/ttySMX0              Motorola i.MX - port 0
2762                 42 = /dev/ttySMX1              Motorola i.MX - port 1
2763                 43 = /dev/ttySMX2              Motorola i.MX - port 2
2764                 44 = /dev/ttyMM0               Marvell MPSC - port 0
2765                 45 = /dev/ttyMM1               Marvell MPSC - port 1
2766                 46 = /dev/ttyCPM0              PPC CPM (SCC or SMC) - port 0
2767                    ...
2768                 47 = /dev/ttyCPM5              PPC CPM (SCC or SMC) - port 5
2769                 50 = /dev/ttyIOC0              Altix serial card
2770                    ...
2771                 81 = /dev/ttyIOC31             Altix serial card
2772                 82 = /dev/ttyVR0               NEC VR4100 series SIU
2773                 83 = /dev/ttyVR1               NEC VR4100 series DSIU
2774                 84 = /dev/ttyIOC84             Altix ioc4 serial card
2775                    ...
2776                 115 = /dev/ttyIOC115           Altix ioc4 serial card
2777                 116 = /dev/ttySIOC0            Altix ioc3 serial card
2778                    ...
2779                 147 = /dev/ttySIOC31           Altix ioc3 serial card
2780                 148 = /dev/ttyPSC0             PPC PSC - port 0
2781                    ...
2782                 153 = /dev/ttyPSC5             PPC PSC - port 5
2783                 154 = /dev/ttyAT0              ATMEL serial port 0
2784                    ...
2785                 169 = /dev/ttyAT15             ATMEL serial port 15
2786                 170 = /dev/ttyNX0              Hilscher netX serial port 0
2787                    ...
2788                 185 = /dev/ttyNX15             Hilscher netX serial port 15
2789                 186 = /dev/ttyJ0               JTAG1 DCC protocol based serial port emulation
2790                 187 = /dev/ttyUL0              Xilinx uartlite - port 0
2791                    ...
2792                 190 = /dev/ttyUL3              Xilinx uartlite - port 3
2793                 191 = /dev/xvc0                Xen virtual console - port 0
2794                 192 = /dev/ttyPZ0              pmac_zilog - port 0
2795                    ...
2796                 195 = /dev/ttyPZ3              pmac_zilog - port 3
2797                 196 = /dev/ttyTX0              TX39/49 serial port 0
2798                    ...
2799                 204 = /dev/ttyTX7              TX39/49 serial port 7
2800                 205 = /dev/ttySC0              SC26xx serial port 0
2801                 206 = /dev/ttySC1              SC26xx serial port 1
2802                 207 = /dev/ttySC2              SC26xx serial port 2
2803                 208 = /dev/ttySC3              SC26xx serial port 3
2804                 209 = /dev/ttyMAX0             MAX3100 serial port 0
2805                 210 = /dev/ttyMAX1             MAX3100 serial port 1
2806                 211 = /dev/ttyMAX2             MAX3100 serial port 2
2807                 212 = /dev/ttyMAX3             MAX3100 serial port 3
2808
2809205 char        Low-density serial ports (alternate device)
2810                  0 = /dev/culu0                Callout device for ttyLU0
2811                  1 = /dev/culu1                Callout device for ttyLU1
2812                  2 = /dev/culu2                Callout device for ttyLU2
2813                  3 = /dev/culu3                Callout device for ttyLU3
2814                  4 = /dev/cufb0                Callout device for ttyFB0
2815                  5 = /dev/cusa0                Callout device for ttySA0
2816                  6 = /dev/cusa1                Callout device for ttySA1
2817                  7 = /dev/cusa2                Callout device for ttySA2
2818                  8 = /dev/cusc0                Callout device for ttySC0
2819                  9 = /dev/cusc1                Callout device for ttySC1
2820                 10 = /dev/cusc2                Callout device for ttySC2
2821                 11 = /dev/cusc3                Callout device for ttySC3
2822                 12 = /dev/cufw0                Callout device for ttyFW0
2823                 13 = /dev/cufw1                Callout device for ttyFW1
2824                 14 = /dev/cufw2                Callout device for ttyFW2
2825                 15 = /dev/cufw3                Callout device for ttyFW3
2826                 16 = /dev/cuam0                Callout device for ttyAM0
2827                    ...
2828                 31 = /dev/cuam15               Callout device for ttyAM15
2829                 32 = /dev/cudb0                Callout device for ttyDB0
2830                    ...
2831                 39 = /dev/cudb7                Callout device for ttyDB7
2832                 40 = /dev/cusg0                Callout device for ttySG0
2833                 41 = /dev/ttycusmx0            Callout device for ttySMX0
2834                 42 = /dev/ttycusmx1            Callout device for ttySMX1
2835                 43 = /dev/ttycusmx2            Callout device for ttySMX2
2836                 46 = /dev/cucpm0               Callout device for ttyCPM0
2837                    ...
2838                 49 = /dev/cucpm5               Callout device for ttyCPM5
2839                 50 = /dev/cuioc40              Callout device for ttyIOC40
2840                    ...
2841                 81 = /dev/cuioc431             Callout device for ttyIOC431
2842                 82 = /dev/cuvr0                Callout device for ttyVR0
2843                 83 = /dev/cuvr1                Callout device for ttyVR1
2844
2845206 char        OnStream SC-x0 tape devices
2846                  0 = /dev/osst0                First OnStream SCSI tape, mode 0
2847                  1 = /dev/osst1                Second OnStream SCSI tape, mode 0
2848                    ...
2849                 32 = /dev/osst0l               First OnStream SCSI tape, mode 1
2850                 33 = /dev/osst1l               Second OnStream SCSI tape, mode 1
2851                    ...
2852                 64 = /dev/osst0m               First OnStream SCSI tape, mode 2
2853                 65 = /dev/osst1m               Second OnStream SCSI tape, mode 2
2854                    ...
2855                 96 = /dev/osst0a               First OnStream SCSI tape, mode 3
2856                 97 = /dev/osst1a               Second OnStream SCSI tape, mode 3
2857                    ...
2858                128 = /dev/nosst0               No rewind version of /dev/osst0
2859                129 = /dev/nosst1               No rewind version of /dev/osst1
2860                    ...
2861                160 = /dev/nosst0l              No rewind version of /dev/osst0l
2862                161 = /dev/nosst1l              No rewind version of /dev/osst1l
2863                    ...
2864                192 = /dev/nosst0m              No rewind version of /dev/osst0m
2865                193 = /dev/nosst1m              No rewind version of /dev/osst1m
2866                    ...
2867                224 = /dev/nosst0a              No rewind version of /dev/osst0a
2868                225 = /dev/nosst1a              No rewind version of /dev/osst1a
2869                    ...
2870
2871                The OnStream SC-x0 SCSI tapes do not support the
2872                standard SCSI SASD command set and therefore need
2873                their own driver "osst". Note that the IDE, USB (and
2874                maybe ParPort) versions may be driven via ide-scsi or
2875                usb-storage SCSI emulation and this osst device and
2876                driver as well.  The ADR-x0 drives are QIC-157
2877                compliant and don't need osst.
2878
2879207 char        Compaq ProLiant health feature indicate
2880                  0 = /dev/cpqhealth/cpqw       Redirector interface
2881                  1 = /dev/cpqhealth/crom       EISA CROM
2882                  2 = /dev/cpqhealth/cdt        Data Table
2883                  3 = /dev/cpqhealth/cevt       Event Log
2884                  4 = /dev/cpqhealth/casr       Automatic Server Recovery
2885                  5 = /dev/cpqhealth/cecc       ECC Memory
2886                  6 = /dev/cpqhealth/cmca       Machine Check Architecture
2887                  7 = /dev/cpqhealth/ccsm       Deprecated CDT
2888                  8 = /dev/cpqhealth/cnmi       NMI Handling
2889                  9 = /dev/cpqhealth/css        Sideshow Management
2890                 10 = /dev/cpqhealth/cram       CMOS interface
2891                 11 = /dev/cpqhealth/cpci       PCI IRQ interface
2892
2893208 char        User space serial ports
2894                  0 = /dev/ttyU0                First user space serial port
2895                  1 = /dev/ttyU1                Second user space serial port
2896                    ...
2897
2898209 char        User space serial ports (alternate devices)
2899                  0 = /dev/cuu0                 Callout device for ttyU0
2900                  1 = /dev/cuu1                 Callout device for ttyU1
2901                    ...
2902
2903210 char        SBE, Inc. sync/async serial card
2904                  0 = /dev/sbei/wxcfg0          Configuration device for board 0
2905                  1 = /dev/sbei/dld0            Download device for board 0
2906                  2 = /dev/sbei/wan00           WAN device, port 0, board 0
2907                  3 = /dev/sbei/wan01           WAN device, port 1, board 0
2908                  4 = /dev/sbei/wan02           WAN device, port 2, board 0
2909                  5 = /dev/sbei/wan03           WAN device, port 3, board 0
2910                  6 = /dev/sbei/wanc00          WAN clone device, port 0, board 0
2911                  7 = /dev/sbei/wanc01          WAN clone device, port 1, board 0
2912                  8 = /dev/sbei/wanc02          WAN clone device, port 2, board 0
2913                  9 = /dev/sbei/wanc03          WAN clone device, port 3, board 0
2914                 10 = /dev/sbei/wxcfg1          Configuration device for board 1
2915                 11 = /dev/sbei/dld1            Download device for board 1
2916                 12 = /dev/sbei/wan10           WAN device, port 0, board 1
2917                 13 = /dev/sbei/wan11           WAN device, port 1, board 1
2918                 14 = /dev/sbei/wan12           WAN device, port 2, board 1
2919                 15 = /dev/sbei/wan13           WAN device, port 3, board 1
2920                 16 = /dev/sbei/wanc10          WAN clone device, port 0, board 1
2921                 17 = /dev/sbei/wanc11          WAN clone device, port 1, board 1
2922                 18 = /dev/sbei/wanc12          WAN clone device, port 2, board 1
2923                 19 = /dev/sbei/wanc13          WAN clone device, port 3, board 1
2924                    ...
2925
2926                Yes, each board is really spaced 10 (decimal) apart.
2927
2928211 char        Addinum CPCI1500 digital I/O card
2929                  0 = /dev/addinum/cpci1500/0   First CPCI1500 card
2930                  1 = /dev/addinum/cpci1500/1   Second CPCI1500 card
2931                    ...
2932
2933212 char        LinuxTV.org DVB driver subsystem
2934                  0 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/video0    first video decoder of first card
2935                  1 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/audio0    first audio decoder of first card
2936                  2 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/sec0      (obsolete/unused)
2937                  3 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/frontend0 first frontend device of first card
2938                  4 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/demux0    first demux device of first card
2939                  5 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/dvr0      first digital video recoder device of first card
2940                  6 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/ca0       first common access port of first card
2941                  7 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/net0      first network device of first card
2942                  8 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/osd0      first on-screen-display device of first card
2943                  9 = /dev/dvb/adapter0/video1    second video decoder of first card
2944                    ...
2945                 64 = /dev/dvb/adapter1/video0    first video decoder of second card
2946                    ...
2947                128 = /dev/dvb/adapter2/video0    first video decoder of third card
2948                    ...
2949                196 = /dev/dvb/adapter3/video0    first video decoder of fourth card
2950
2951216 char        Bluetooth RFCOMM TTY devices
2952                  0 = /dev/rfcomm0              First Bluetooth RFCOMM TTY device
2953                  1 = /dev/rfcomm1              Second Bluetooth RFCOMM TTY device
2954                    ...
2955
2956217 char        Bluetooth RFCOMM TTY devices (alternate devices)
2957                  0 = /dev/curf0                Callout device for rfcomm0
2958                  1 = /dev/curf1                Callout device for rfcomm1
2959                    ...
2960
2961218 char        The Logical Company bus Unibus/Qbus adapters
2962                  0 = /dev/logicalco/bci/0      First bus adapter
2963                  1 = /dev/logicalco/bci/1      First bus adapter
2964                    ...
2965
2966219 char        The Logical Company DCI-1300 digital I/O card
2967                  0 = /dev/logicalco/dci1300/0  First DCI-1300 card
2968                  1 = /dev/logicalco/dci1300/1  Second DCI-1300 card
2969                    ...
2970
2971220 char        Myricom Myrinet "GM" board
2972                  0 = /dev/myricom/gm0          First Myrinet GM board
2973                  1 = /dev/myricom/gmp0         First board "root access"
2974                  2 = /dev/myricom/gm1          Second Myrinet GM board
2975                  3 = /dev/myricom/gmp1         Second board "root access"
2976                    ...
2977
2978221 char        VME bus
2979                  0 = /dev/bus/vme/m0           First master image
2980                  1 = /dev/bus/vme/m1           Second master image
2981                  2 = /dev/bus/vme/m2           Third master image
2982                  3 = /dev/bus/vme/m3           Fourth master image
2983                  4 = /dev/bus/vme/s0           First slave image
2984                  5 = /dev/bus/vme/s1           Second slave image
2985                  6 = /dev/bus/vme/s2           Third slave image
2986                  7 = /dev/bus/vme/s3           Fourth slave image
2987                  8 = /dev/bus/vme/ctl          Control
2988
2989                It is expected that all VME bus drivers will use the
2990                same interface.  For interface documentation see
2991                http://www.vmelinux.org/.
2992
2993224 char        A2232 serial card
2994                  0 = /dev/ttyY0                First A2232 port
2995                  1 = /dev/ttyY1                Second A2232 port
2996                    ...
2997
2998225 char        A2232 serial card (alternate devices)
2999                  0 = /dev/cuy0                 Callout device for ttyY0
3000                  1 = /dev/cuy1                 Callout device for ttyY1
3001                    ...
3002
3003226 char        Direct Rendering Infrastructure (DRI)
3004                  0 = /dev/dri/card0            First graphics card
3005                  1 = /dev/dri/card1            Second graphics card
3006                    ...
3007
3008227 char        IBM 3270 terminal Unix tty access
3009                  1 = /dev/3270/tty1            First 3270 terminal
3010                  2 = /dev/3270/tty2            Seconds 3270 terminal
3011                    ...
3012
3013228 char        IBM 3270 terminal block-mode access
3014                  0 = /dev/3270/tub             Controlling interface
3015                  1 = /dev/3270/tub1            First 3270 terminal
3016                  2 = /dev/3270/tub2            Second 3270 terminal
3017                    ...
3018
3019229 char        IBM iSeries/pSeries virtual console
3020                  0 = /dev/hvc0                 First console port
3021                  1 = /dev/hvc1                 Second console port
3022                    ...
3023
3024230 char        IBM iSeries virtual tape
3025                  0 = /dev/iseries/vt0          First virtual tape, mode 0
3026                  1 = /dev/iseries/vt1          Second virtual tape, mode 0
3027                    ...
3028                 32 = /dev/iseries/vt0l         First virtual tape, mode 1
3029                 33 = /dev/iseries/vt1l         Second virtual tape, mode 1
3030                    ...
3031                 64 = /dev/iseries/vt0m         First virtual tape, mode 2
3032                 65 = /dev/iseries/vt1m         Second virtual tape, mode 2
3033                    ...
3034                 96 = /dev/iseries/vt0a         First virtual tape, mode 3
3035                 97 = /dev/iseries/vt1a         Second virtual tape, mode 3
3036                      ...
3037                128 = /dev/iseries/nvt0         First virtual tape, mode 0, no rewind
3038                129 = /dev/iseries/nvt1         Second virtual tape, mode 0, no rewind
3039                    ...
3040                160 = /dev/iseries/nvt0l        First virtual tape, mode 1, no rewind
3041                161 = /dev/iseries/nvt1l        Second virtual tape, mode 1, no rewind
3042                    ...
3043                192 = /dev/iseries/nvt0m        First virtual tape, mode 2, no rewind
3044                193 = /dev/iseries/nvt1m        Second virtual tape, mode 2, no rewind
3045                    ...
3046                224 = /dev/iseries/nvt0a        First virtual tape, mode 3, no rewind
3047                225 = /dev/iseries/nvt1a        Second virtual tape, mode 3, no rewind
3048                    ...
3049
3050                "No rewind" refers to the omission of the default
3051                automatic rewind on device close.  The MTREW or MTOFFL
3052                ioctl()'s can be used to rewind the tape regardless of
3053                the device used to access it.
3054
3055231 char        InfiniBand
3056                0 = /dev/infiniband/umad0
3057                1 = /dev/infiniband/umad1
3058                  ...
3059                63 = /dev/infiniband/umad63    63rd InfiniBandMad device
3060                64 = /dev/infiniband/issm0     First InfiniBand IsSM device
3061                65 = /dev/infiniband/issm1     Second InfiniBand IsSM device
3062                  ...
3063                127 = /dev/infiniband/issm63    63rd InfiniBand IsSM device
3064                128 = /dev/infiniband/uverbs0   First InfiniBand verbs device
3065                129 = /dev/infiniband/uverbs1   Second InfiniBand verbs device
3066                  ...
3067                159 = /dev/infiniband/uverbs31  31st InfiniBand verbs device
3068
3069232 char        Biometric Devices
3070                0 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/fingerprint  first fingerprint sensor on first device
3071                1 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/iris         first iris sensor on first device
3072                2 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/retina       first retina sensor on first device
3073                3 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/voiceprint   first voiceprint sensor on first device
3074                4 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/facial       first facial sensor on first device
3075                5 = /dev/biometric/sensor0/hand         first hand sensor on first device
3076                  ...
3077                10 = /dev/biometric/sensor1/fingerprint first fingerprint sensor on second device
3078                  ...
3079                20 = /dev/biometric/sensor2/fingerprint first fingerprint sensor on third device
3080                  ...
3081
3082233 char        PathScale InfiniPath interconnect
3083                0 = /dev/ipath        Primary device for programs (any unit)
3084                1 = /dev/ipath0       Access specifically to unit 0
3085                2 = /dev/ipath1       Access specifically to unit 1
3086                  ...
3087                4 = /dev/ipath3       Access specifically to unit 3
3088                129 = /dev/ipath_sma    Device used by Subnet Management Agent
3089                130 = /dev/ipath_diag   Device used by diagnostics programs
3090
3091234-239         UNASSIGNED
3092
3093240-254 char    LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
3094
3095240-254 block   LOCAL/EXPERIMENTAL USE
3096                Allocated for local/experimental use.  For devices not
3097                assigned official numbers, these ranges should be
3098                used in order to avoid conflicting with future assignments.
3099
3100255 char        RESERVED
3101
3102255 block       RESERVED
3103
3104                This major is reserved to assist the expansion to a
3105                larger number space.  No device nodes with this major
3106                should ever be created on the filesystem.
3107                (This is probably not true anymore, but I'll leave it
3108                for now /Torben)
3109
3110---LARGE MAJORS!!!!!---
3111
3112256 char        Equinox SST multi-port serial boards
3113                   0 = /dev/ttyEQ0      First serial port on first Equinox SST board
3114                 127 = /dev/ttyEQ127    Last serial port on first Equinox SST board
3115                 128 = /dev/ttyEQ128    First serial port on second Equinox SST board
3116                  ...
3117                1027 = /dev/ttyEQ1027   Last serial port on eighth Equinox SST board
3118
3119256 block       Resident Flash Disk Flash Translation Layer
3120                  0 = /dev/rfda         First RFD FTL layer
3121                 16 = /dev/rfdb         Second RFD FTL layer
3122                  ...
3123                240 = /dev/rfdp         16th RFD FTL layer
3124
3125257 char        Phoenix Technologies Cryptographic Services Driver
3126                  0 = /dev/ptlsec       Crypto Services Driver
3127
3128257 block       SSFDC Flash Translation Layer filesystem
3129                  0 = /dev/ssfdca       First SSFDC layer
3130                  8 = /dev/ssfdcb       Second SSFDC layer
3131                 16 = /dev/ssfdcc       Third SSFDC layer
3132                 24 = /dev/ssfdcd       4th SSFDC layer
3133                 32 = /dev/ssfdce       5th SSFDC layer
3134                 40 = /dev/ssfdcf       6th SSFDC layer
3135                 48 = /dev/ssfdcg       7th SSFDC layer
3136                 56 = /dev/ssfdch       8th SSFDC layer
3137
3138258 block       ROM/Flash read-only translation layer
3139                  0 = /dev/blockrom0    First ROM card's translation layer interface
3140                  1 = /dev/blockrom1    Second ROM card's translation layer interface
3141                  ...
3142
3143259 block       Block Extended Major
3144                  Used dynamically to hold additional partition minor
3145                  numbers and allow large numbers of partitions per device
3146
3147259 char        FPGA configuration interfaces
3148                  0 = /dev/icap0        First Xilinx internal configuration
3149                  1 = /dev/icap1        Second Xilinx internal configuration
3150
3151260 char        OSD (Object-based-device) SCSI Device
3152                  0 = /dev/osd0         First OSD Device
3153                  1 = /dev/osd1         Second OSD Device
3154                  ...
3155                  255 = /dev/osd255     256th OSD Device
3156
3157 ****   ADDITIONAL /dev DIRECTORY ENTRIES
3158
3159This section details additional entries that should or may exist in
3160the /dev directory.  It is preferred that symbolic links use the same
3161form (absolute or relative) as is indicated here.  Links are
3162classified as "hard" or "symbolic" depending on the preferred type of
3163link; if possible, the indicated type of link should be used.
3164
3165
3166        Compulsory links
3167
3168These links should exist on all systems:
3169
3170/dev/fd         /proc/self/fd   symbolic        File descriptors
3171/dev/stdin      fd/0            symbolic        stdin file descriptor
3172/dev/stdout     fd/1            symbolic        stdout file descriptor
3173/dev/stderr     fd/2            symbolic        stderr file descriptor
3174/dev/nfsd       socksys         symbolic        Required by iBCS-2
3175/dev/X0R        null            symbolic        Required by iBCS-2
3176
3177Note: /dev/X0R is <letter X>-<digit 0>-<letter R>.
3178
3179        Recommended links
3180
3181It is recommended that these links exist on all systems:
3182
3183/dev/core       /proc/kcore     symbolic        Backward compatibility
3184/dev/ramdisk    ram0            symbolic        Backward compatibility
3185/dev/ftape      qft0            symbolic        Backward compatibility
3186/dev/bttv0      video0          symbolic        Backward compatibility
3187/dev/radio      radio0          symbolic        Backward compatibility
3188/dev/i2o*       /dev/i2o/*      symbolic        Backward compatibility
3189/dev/scd?       sr?             hard            Alternate SCSI CD-ROM name
3190
3191        Locally defined links
3192
3193The following links may be established locally to conform to the
3194configuration of the system.  This is merely a tabulation of existing
3195practice, and does not constitute a recommendation.  However, if they
3196exist, they should have the following uses.
3197
3198/dev/mouse      mouse port      symbolic        Current mouse device
3199/dev/tape       tape device     symbolic        Current tape device
3200/dev/cdrom      CD-ROM device   symbolic        Current CD-ROM device
3201/dev/cdwriter   CD-writer       symbolic        Current CD-writer device
3202/dev/scanner    scanner         symbolic        Current scanner device
3203/dev/modem      modem port      symbolic        Current dialout device
3204/dev/root       root device     symbolic        Current root filesystem
3205/dev/swap       swap device     symbolic        Current swap device
3206
3207/dev/modem should not be used for a modem which supports dialin as
3208well as dialout, as it tends to cause lock file problems.  If it
3209exists, /dev/modem should point to the appropriate primary TTY device
3210(the use of the alternate callout devices is deprecated).
3211
3212For SCSI devices, /dev/tape and /dev/cdrom should point to the
3213``cooked'' devices (/dev/st* and /dev/sr*, respectively), whereas
3214/dev/cdwriter and /dev/scanner should point to the appropriate generic
3215SCSI devices (/dev/sg*).
3216
3217/dev/mouse may point to a primary serial TTY device, a hardware mouse
3218device, or a socket for a mouse driver program (e.g. /dev/gpmdata).
3219
3220        Sockets and pipes
3221
3222Non-transient sockets and named pipes may exist in /dev.  Common entries are:
3223
3224/dev/printer    socket          lpd local socket
3225/dev/log        socket          syslog local socket
3226/dev/gpmdata    socket          gpm mouse multiplexer
3227
3228        Mount points
3229
3230The following names are reserved for mounting special filesystems
3231under /dev.  These special filesystems provide kernel interfaces that
3232cannot be provided with standard device nodes.
3233
3234/dev/pts        devpts          PTY slave filesystem
3235/dev/shm        tmpfs           POSIX shared memory maintenance access
3236
3237 ****   TERMINAL DEVICES
3238
3239Terminal, or TTY devices are a special class of character devices.  A
3240terminal device is any device that could act as a controlling terminal
3241for a session; this includes virtual consoles, serial ports, and
3242pseudoterminals (PTYs).
3243
3244All terminal devices share a common set of capabilities known as line
3245disciplines; these include the common terminal line discipline as well
3246as SLIP and PPP modes.
3247
3248All terminal devices are named similarly; this section explains the
3249naming and use of the various types of TTYs.  Note that the naming
3250conventions include several historical warts; some of these are
3251Linux-specific, some were inherited from other systems, and some
3252reflect Linux outgrowing a borrowed convention.
3253
3254A hash mark (#) in a device name is used here to indicate a decimal
3255number without leading zeroes.
3256
3257        Virtual consoles and the console device
3258
3259Virtual consoles are full-screen terminal displays on the system video
3260monitor.  Virtual consoles are named /dev/tty#, with numbering
3261starting at /dev/tty1; /dev/tty0 is the current virtual console.
3262/dev/tty0 is the device that should be used to access the system video
3263card on those architectures for which the frame buffer devices
3264(/dev/fb*) are not applicable.  Do not use /dev/console
3265for this purpose.
3266
3267The console device, /dev/console, is the device to which system
3268messages should be sent, and on which logins should be permitted in
3269single-user mode.  Starting with Linux 2.1.71, /dev/console is managed
3270by the kernel; for previous versions it should be a symbolic link to
3271either /dev/tty0, a specific virtual console such as /dev/tty1, or to
3272a serial port primary (tty*, not cu*) device, depending on the
3273configuration of the system.
3274
3275        Serial ports
3276
3277Serial ports are RS-232 serial ports and any device which simulates
3278one, either in hardware (such as internal modems) or in software (such
3279as the ISDN driver.)  Under Linux, each serial ports has two device
3280names, the primary or callin device and the alternate or callout one.
3281Each kind of device is indicated by a different letter.  For any
3282letter X, the names of the devices are /dev/ttyX# and /dev/cux#,
3283respectively; for historical reasons, /dev/ttyS# and /dev/ttyC#
3284correspond to /dev/cua# and /dev/cub#.  In the future, it should be
3285expected that multiple letters will be used; all letters will be upper
3286case for the "tty" device (e.g. /dev/ttyDP#) and lower case for the
3287"cu" device (e.g. /dev/cudp#).
3288
3289The names /dev/ttyQ# and /dev/cuq# are reserved for local use.
3290
3291The alternate devices provide for kernel-based exclusion and somewhat
3292different defaults than the primary devices.  Their main purpose is to
3293allow the use of serial ports with programs with no inherent or broken
3294support for serial ports.  Their use is deprecated, and they may be
3295removed from a future version of Linux.
3296
3297Arbitration of serial ports is provided by the use of lock files with
3298the names /var/lock/LCK..ttyX#.  The contents of the lock file should
3299be the PID of the locking process as an ASCII number.
3300
3301It is common practice to install links such as /dev/modem
3302which point to serial ports.  In order to ensure proper locking in the
3303presence of these links, it is recommended that software chase
3304symlinks and lock all possible names; additionally, it is recommended
3305that a lock file be installed with the corresponding alternate
3306device.  In order to avoid deadlocks, it is recommended that the locks
3307are acquired in the following order, and released in the reverse:
3308
3309        1. The symbolic link name, if any (/var/lock/LCK..modem)
3310        2. The "tty" name (/var/lock/LCK..ttyS2)
3311        3. The alternate device name (/var/lock/LCK..cua2)
3312
3313In the case of nested symbolic links, the lock files should be
3314installed in the order the symlinks are resolved.
3315
3316Under no circumstances should an application hold a lock while waiting
3317for another to be released.  In addition, applications which attempt
3318to create lock files for the corresponding alternate device names
3319should take into account the possibility of being used on a non-serial
3320port TTY, for which no alternate device would exist.
3321
3322        Pseudoterminals (PTYs)
3323
3324Pseudoterminals, or PTYs, are used to create login sessions or provide
3325other capabilities requiring a TTY line discipline (including SLIP or
3326PPP capability) to arbitrary data-generation processes.  Each PTY has
3327a master side, named /dev/pty[p-za-e][0-9a-f], and a slave side, named
3328/dev/tty[p-za-e][0-9a-f].  The kernel arbitrates the use of PTYs by
3329allowing each master side to be opened only once.
3330
3331Once the master side has been opened, the corresponding slave device
3332can be used in the same manner as any TTY device.  The master and
3333slave devices are connected by the kernel, generating the equivalent
3334of a bidirectional pipe with TTY capabilities.
3335
3336Recent versions of the Linux kernels and GNU libc contain support for
3337the System V/Unix98 naming scheme for PTYs, which assigns a common
3338device, /dev/ptmx, to all the masters (opening it will automatically
3339give you a previously unassigned PTY) and a subdirectory, /dev/pts,
3340for the slaves; the slaves are named with decimal integers (/dev/pts/#
3341in our notation).  This removes the problem of exhausting the
3342namespace and enables the kernel to automatically create the device
3343nodes for the slaves on demand using the "devpts" filesystem.
3344
3345
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