linux/README
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   1        Linux kernel release 3.x <http://kernel.org/>
   2
   3These are the release notes for Linux version 3.  Read them carefully,
   4as they tell you what this is all about, explain how to install the
   5kernel, and what to do if something goes wrong. 
   6
   7WHAT IS LINUX?
   8
   9  Linux is a clone of the operating system Unix, written from scratch by
  10  Linus Torvalds with assistance from a loosely-knit team of hackers across
  11  the Net. It aims towards POSIX and Single UNIX Specification compliance.
  12
  13  It has all the features you would expect in a modern fully-fledged Unix,
  14  including true multitasking, virtual memory, shared libraries, demand
  15  loading, shared copy-on-write executables, proper memory management,
  16  and multistack networking including IPv4 and IPv6.
  17
  18  It is distributed under the GNU General Public License - see the
  19  accompanying COPYING file for more details. 
  20
  21ON WHAT HARDWARE DOES IT RUN?
  22
  23  Although originally developed first for 32-bit x86-based PCs (386 or higher),
  24  today Linux also runs on (at least) the Compaq Alpha AXP, Sun SPARC and
  25  UltraSPARC, Motorola 68000, PowerPC, PowerPC64, ARM, Hitachi SuperH, Cell,
  26  IBM S/390, MIPS, HP PA-RISC, Intel IA-64, DEC VAX, AMD x86-64, AXIS CRIS,
  27  Xtensa, Tilera TILE, AVR32 and Renesas M32R architectures.
  28
  29  Linux is easily portable to most general-purpose 32- or 64-bit architectures
  30  as long as they have a paged memory management unit (PMMU) and a port of the
  31  GNU C compiler (gcc) (part of The GNU Compiler Collection, GCC). Linux has
  32  also been ported to a number of architectures without a PMMU, although
  33  functionality is then obviously somewhat limited.
  34  Linux has also been ported to itself. You can now run the kernel as a
  35  userspace application - this is called UserMode Linux (UML).
  36
  37DOCUMENTATION:
  38
  39 - There is a lot of documentation available both in electronic form on
  40   the Internet and in books, both Linux-specific and pertaining to
  41   general UNIX questions.  I'd recommend looking into the documentation
  42   subdirectories on any Linux FTP site for the LDP (Linux Documentation
  43   Project) books.  This README is not meant to be documentation on the
  44   system: there are much better sources available.
  45
  46 - There are various README files in the Documentation/ subdirectory:
  47   these typically contain kernel-specific installation notes for some 
  48   drivers for example. See Documentation/00-INDEX for a list of what
  49   is contained in each file.  Please read the Changes file, as it
  50   contains information about the problems, which may result by upgrading
  51   your kernel.
  52
  53 - The Documentation/DocBook/ subdirectory contains several guides for
  54   kernel developers and users.  These guides can be rendered in a
  55   number of formats:  PostScript (.ps), PDF, HTML, & man-pages, among others.
  56   After installation, "make psdocs", "make pdfdocs", "make htmldocs",
  57   or "make mandocs" will render the documentation in the requested format.
  58
  59INSTALLING the kernel source:
  60
  61 - If you install the full sources, put the kernel tarball in a
  62   directory where you have permissions (eg. your home directory) and
  63   unpack it:
  64
  65                gzip -cd linux-3.X.tar.gz | tar xvf -
  66
  67   or
  68                bzip2 -dc linux-3.X.tar.bz2 | tar xvf -
  69
  70
  71   Replace "XX" with the version number of the latest kernel.
  72
  73   Do NOT use the /usr/src/linux area! This area has a (usually
  74   incomplete) set of kernel headers that are used by the library header
  75   files.  They should match the library, and not get messed up by
  76   whatever the kernel-du-jour happens to be.
  77
  78 - You can also upgrade between 3.x releases by patching.  Patches are
  79   distributed in the traditional gzip and the newer bzip2 format.  To
  80   install by patching, get all the newer patch files, enter the
  81   top level directory of the kernel source (linux-3.x) and execute:
  82
  83                gzip -cd ../patch-3.x.gz | patch -p1
  84
  85   or
  86                bzip2 -dc ../patch-3.x.bz2 | patch -p1
  87
  88   (repeat xx for all versions bigger than the version of your current
  89   source tree, _in_order_) and you should be ok.  You may want to remove
  90   the backup files (xxx~ or xxx.orig), and make sure that there are no
  91   failed patches (xxx# or xxx.rej). If there are, either you or me has
  92   made a mistake.
  93
  94   Unlike patches for the 3.x kernels, patches for the 3.x.y kernels
  95   (also known as the -stable kernels) are not incremental but instead apply
  96   directly to the base 3.x kernel.  Please read
  97   Documentation/applying-patches.txt for more information.
  98
  99   Alternatively, the script patch-kernel can be used to automate this
 100   process.  It determines the current kernel version and applies any
 101   patches found.
 102
 103                linux/scripts/patch-kernel linux
 104
 105   The first argument in the command above is the location of the
 106   kernel source.  Patches are applied from the current directory, but
 107   an alternative directory can be specified as the second argument.
 108
 109 - If you are upgrading between releases using the stable series patches
 110   (for example, patch-3.x.y), note that these "dot-releases" are
 111   not incremental and must be applied to the 3.x base tree. For
 112   example, if your base kernel is 3.0 and you want to apply the
 113   3.0.3 patch, you do not and indeed must not first apply the
 114   3.0.1 and 3.0.2 patches. Similarly, if you are running kernel
 115   version 3.0.2 and want to jump to 3.0.3, you must first
 116   reverse the 3.0.2 patch (that is, patch -R) _before_ applying
 117   the 3.0.3 patch.
 118   You can read more on this in Documentation/applying-patches.txt
 119
 120 - Make sure you have no stale .o files and dependencies lying around:
 121
 122                cd linux
 123                make mrproper
 124
 125   You should now have the sources correctly installed.
 126
 127SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS
 128
 129   Compiling and running the 3.x kernels requires up-to-date
 130   versions of various software packages.  Consult
 131   Documentation/Changes for the minimum version numbers required
 132   and how to get updates for these packages.  Beware that using
 133   excessively old versions of these packages can cause indirect
 134   errors that are very difficult to track down, so don't assume that
 135   you can just update packages when obvious problems arise during
 136   build or operation.
 137
 138BUILD directory for the kernel:
 139
 140   When compiling the kernel all output files will per default be
 141   stored together with the kernel source code.
 142   Using the option "make O=output/dir" allow you to specify an alternate
 143   place for the output files (including .config).
 144   Example:
 145     kernel source code:        /usr/src/linux-3.N
 146     build directory:           /home/name/build/kernel
 147
 148   To configure and build the kernel use:
 149   cd /usr/src/linux-3.N
 150   make O=/home/name/build/kernel menuconfig
 151   make O=/home/name/build/kernel
 152   sudo make O=/home/name/build/kernel modules_install install
 153
 154   Please note: If the 'O=output/dir' option is used then it must be
 155   used for all invocations of make.
 156
 157CONFIGURING the kernel:
 158
 159   Do not skip this step even if you are only upgrading one minor
 160   version.  New configuration options are added in each release, and
 161   odd problems will turn up if the configuration files are not set up
 162   as expected.  If you want to carry your existing configuration to a
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