1                Kernel Memory Layout on ARM Linux
   3                Russell King <>
   4                     November 17, 2005 (2.6.15)
   6This document describes the virtual memory layout which the Linux
   7kernel uses for ARM processors.  It indicates which regions are
   8free for platforms to use, and which are used by generic code.
  10The ARM CPU is capable of addressing a maximum of 4GB virtual memory
  11space, and this must be shared between user space processes, the
  12kernel, and hardware devices.
  14As the ARM architecture matures, it becomes necessary to reserve
  15certain regions of VM space for use for new facilities; therefore
  16this document may reserve more VM space over time.
  18Start           End             Use
  20ffff8000        ffffffff        copy_user_page / clear_user_page use.
  21                                For SA11xx and Xscale, this is used to
  22                                setup a minicache mapping.
  24ffff4000        ffffffff        cache aliasing on ARMv6 and later CPUs.
  26ffff1000        ffff7fff        Reserved.
  27                                Platforms must not use this address range.
  29ffff0000        ffff0fff        CPU vector page.
  30                                The CPU vectors are mapped here if the
  31                                CPU supports vector relocation (control
  32                                register V bit.)
  34fffe0000        fffeffff        XScale cache flush area.  This is used
  35                                in proc-xscale.S to flush the whole data
  36                                cache. (XScale does not have TCM.)
  38fffe8000        fffeffff        DTCM mapping area for platforms with
  39                                DTCM mounted inside the CPU.
  41fffe0000        fffe7fff        ITCM mapping area for platforms with
  42                                ITCM mounted inside the CPU.
  44fff00000        fffdffff        Fixmap mapping region.  Addresses provided
  45                                by fix_to_virt() will be located here.
  47ffc00000        ffefffff        DMA memory mapping region.  Memory returned
  48                                by the dma_alloc_xxx functions will be
  49                                dynamically mapped here.
  51ff000000        ffbfffff        Reserved for future expansion of DMA
  52                                mapping region.
  54VMALLOC_END     feffffff        Free for platform use, recommended.
  55                                VMALLOC_END must be aligned to a 2MB
  56                                boundary.
  58VMALLOC_START   VMALLOC_END-1   vmalloc() / ioremap() space.
  59                                Memory returned by vmalloc/ioremap will
  60                                be dynamically placed in this region.
  61                                VMALLOC_START may be based upon the value
  62                                of the high_memory variable.
  64PAGE_OFFSET     high_memory-1   Kernel direct-mapped RAM region.
  65                                This maps the platforms RAM, and typically
  66                                maps all platform RAM in a 1:1 relationship.
  68PKMAP_BASE      PAGE_OFFSET-1   Permanent kernel mappings
  69                                One way of mapping HIGHMEM pages into kernel
  70                                space.
  72MODULES_VADDR   MODULES_END-1   Kernel module space
  73                                Kernel modules inserted via insmod are
  74                                placed here using dynamic mappings.
  7600001000        TASK_SIZE-1     User space mappings
  77                                Per-thread mappings are placed here via
  78                                the mmap() system call.
  8000000000        00000fff        CPU vector page / null pointer trap
  81                                CPUs which do not support vector remapping
  82                                place their vector page here.  NULL pointer
  83                                dereferences by both the kernel and user
  84                                space are also caught via this mapping.
  86Please note that mappings which collide with the above areas may result
  87in a non-bootable kernel, or may cause the kernel to (eventually) panic
  88at run time.
  90Since future CPUs may impact the kernel mapping layout, user programs
  91must not access any memory which is not mapped inside their 0x0001000
  92to TASK_SIZE address range.  If they wish to access these areas, they
  93must set up their own mappings using open() and mmap().
  94 kindly hosted by Redpill Linpro AS, provider of Linux consulting and operations services since 1995.