linux/Documentation/Changes
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   1Intro
   2=====
   3
   4This document is designed to provide a list of the minimum levels of
   5software necessary to run the 2.6 kernels, as well as provide brief
   6instructions regarding any other "Gotchas" users may encounter when
   7trying life on the Bleeding Edge.  If upgrading from a pre-2.4.x
   8kernel, please consult the Changes file included with 2.4.x kernels for
   9additional information; most of that information will not be repeated
  10here.  Basically, this document assumes that your system is already
  11functional and running at least 2.4.x kernels.
  12
  13This document is originally based on my "Changes" file for 2.0.x kernels
  14and therefore owes credit to the same people as that file (Jared Mauch,
  15Axel Boldt, Alessandro Sigala, and countless other users all over the
  16'net).
  17
  18Current Minimal Requirements
  19============================
  20
  21Upgrade to at *least* these software revisions before thinking you've
  22encountered a bug!  If you're unsure what version you're currently
  23running, the suggested command should tell you.
  24
  25Again, keep in mind that this list assumes you are already
  26functionally running a Linux 2.4 kernel.  Also, not all tools are
  27necessary on all systems; obviously, if you don't have any ISDN
  28hardware, for example, you probably needn't concern yourself with
  29isdn4k-utils.
  30
  31o  Gnu C                  3.2                     # gcc --version
  32o  Gnu make               3.79.1                  # make --version
  33o  binutils               2.12                    # ld -v
  34o  util-linux             2.10o                   # fdformat --version
  35o  module-init-tools      0.9.10                  # depmod -V
  36o  e2fsprogs              1.41.4                  # e2fsck -V
  37o  jfsutils               1.1.3                   # fsck.jfs -V
  38o  reiserfsprogs          3.6.3                   # reiserfsck -V 2>&1|grep reiserfsprogs
  39o  xfsprogs               2.6.0                   # xfs_db -V
  40o  squashfs-tools         4.0                     # mksquashfs -version
  41o  btrfs-progs            0.18                    # btrfsck
  42o  pcmciautils            004                     # pccardctl -V
  43o  quota-tools            3.09                    # quota -V
  44o  PPP                    2.4.0                   # pppd --version
  45o  isdn4k-utils           3.1pre1                 # isdnctrl 2>&1|grep version
  46o  nfs-utils              1.0.5                   # showmount --version
  47o  procps                 3.2.0                   # ps --version
  48o  oprofile               0.9                     # oprofiled --version
  49o  udev                   081                     # udevinfo -V
  50o  grub                   0.93                    # grub --version
  51
  52Kernel compilation
  53==================
  54
  55GCC
  56---
  57
  58The gcc version requirements may vary depending on the type of CPU in your
  59computer.
  60
  61Make
  62----
  63
  64You will need Gnu make 3.79.1 or later to build the kernel.
  65
  66Binutils
  67--------
  68
  69Linux on IA-32 has recently switched from using as86 to using gas for
  70assembling the 16-bit boot code, removing the need for as86 to compile
  71your kernel.  This change does, however, mean that you need a recent
  72release of binutils.
  73
  74System utilities
  75================
  76
  77Architectural changes
  78---------------------
  79
  80DevFS has been obsoleted in favour of udev
  81(http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug/)
  82
  8332-bit UID support is now in place.  Have fun!
  84
  85Linux documentation for functions is transitioning to inline
  86documentation via specially-formatted comments near their
  87definitions in the source.  These comments can be combined with the
  88SGML templates in the Documentation/DocBook directory to make DocBook
  89files, which can then be converted by DocBook stylesheets to PostScript,
  90HTML, PDF files, and several other formats.  In order to convert from
  91DocBook format to a format of your choice, you'll need to install Jade as
  92well as the desired DocBook stylesheets.
  93
  94Util-linux
  95----------
  96
  97New versions of util-linux provide *fdisk support for larger disks,
  98support new options to mount, recognize more supported partition
  99types, have a fdformat which works with 2.4 kernels, and similar goodies.
 100You'll probably want to upgrade.
 101
 102Ksymoops
 103--------
 104
 105If the unthinkable happens and your kernel oopses, you may need the
 106ksymoops tool to decode it, but in most cases you don't.
 107In the 2.6 kernel it is generally preferred to build the kernel with
 108CONFIG_KALLSYMS so that it produces readable dumps that can be used as-is
 109(this also produces better output than ksymoops).
 110If for some reason your kernel is not build with CONFIG_KALLSYMS and
 111you have no way to rebuild and reproduce the Oops with that option, then
 112you can still decode that Oops with ksymoops.
 113
 114Module-Init-Tools
 115-----------------
 116
 117A new module loader is now in the kernel that requires module-init-tools
 118to use.  It is backward compatible with the 2.4.x series kernels.
 119
 120Mkinitrd
 121--------
 122
 123These changes to the /lib/modules file tree layout also require that
 124mkinitrd be upgraded.
 125
 126E2fsprogs
 127---------
 128
 129The latest version of e2fsprogs fixes several bugs in fsck and
 130debugfs.  Obviously, it's a good idea to upgrade.
 131
 132JFSutils
 133--------
 134
 135The jfsutils package contains the utilities for the file system.
 136The following utilities are available:
 137o fsck.jfs - initiate replay of the transaction log, and check
 138  and repair a JFS formatted partition.
 139o mkfs.jfs - create a JFS formatted partition.
 140o other file system utilities are also available in this package.
 141
 142Reiserfsprogs
 143-------------
 144
 145The reiserfsprogs package should be used for reiserfs-3.6.x
 146(Linux kernels 2.4.x). It is a combined package and contains working
 147versions of mkreiserfs, resize_reiserfs, debugreiserfs and
 148reiserfsck. These utils work on both i386 and alpha platforms.
 149
 150Xfsprogs
 151--------
 152
 153The latest version of xfsprogs contains mkfs.xfs, xfs_db, and the
 154xfs_repair utilities, among others, for the XFS filesystem.  It is
 155architecture independent and any version from 2.0.0 onward should
 156work correctly with this version of the XFS kernel code (2.6.0 or
 157later is recommended, due to some significant improvements).
 158
 159PCMCIAutils
 160-----------
 161
 162PCMCIAutils replaces pcmcia-cs (see below). It properly sets up
 163PCMCIA sockets at system startup and loads the appropriate modules
 164for 16-bit PCMCIA devices if the kernel is modularized and the hotplug
 165subsystem is used.
 166
 167Pcmcia-cs
 168---------
 169
 170PCMCIA (PC Card) support is now partially implemented in the main
 171kernel source. The "pcmciautils" package (see above) replaces pcmcia-cs
 172for newest kernels.
 173
 174Quota-tools
 175-----------
 176
 177Support for 32 bit uid's and gid's is required if you want to use
 178the newer version 2 quota format.  Quota-tools version 3.07 and
 179newer has this support.  Use the recommended version or newer
 180from the table above.
 181
 182Intel IA32 microcode
 183--------------------
 184
 185A driver has been added to allow updating of Intel IA32 microcode,
 186accessible as a normal (misc) character device.  If you are not using
 187udev you may need to:
 188
 189mkdir /dev/cpu
 190mknod /dev/cpu/microcode c 10 184
 191chmod 0644 /dev/cpu/microcode
 192
 193as root before you can use this.  You'll probably also want to
 194get the user-space microcode_ctl utility to use with this.
 195
 196Powertweak
 197----------
 198
 199If you are running v0.1.17 or earlier, you should upgrade to
 200version v0.99.0 or higher. Running old versions may cause problems
 201with programs using shared memory.
 202
 203udev
 204----
 205udev is a userspace application for populating /dev dynamically with
 206only entries for devices actually present.  udev replaces the basic
 207functionality of devfs, while allowing persistent device naming for
 208devices.
 209
 210FUSE
 211----
 212
 213Needs libfuse 2.4.0 or later.  Absolute minimum is 2.3.0 but mount
 214options 'direct_io' and 'kernel_cache' won't work.
 215
 216Networking
 217==========
 218
 219General changes
 220---------------
 221
 222If you have advanced network configuration needs, you should probably
 223consider using the network tools from ip-route2.
 224
 225Packet Filter / NAT
 226-------------------
 227The packet filtering and NAT code uses the same tools like the previous 2.4.x
 228kernel series (iptables).  It still includes backwards-compatibility modules
 229for 2.2.x-style ipchains and 2.0.x-style ipfwadm.
 230
 231PPP
 232---
 233
 234The PPP driver has been restructured to support multilink and to
 235enable it to operate over diverse media layers.  If you use PPP,
 236upgrade pppd to at least 2.4.0.
 237
 238If you are not using udev, you must have the device file /dev/ppp
 239which can be made by:
 240
 241mknod /dev/ppp c 108 0
 242
 243as root.
 244
 245Isdn4k-utils
 246------------
 247
 248Due to changes in the length of the phone number field, isdn4k-utils
 249needs to be recompiled or (preferably) upgraded.
 250
 251NFS-utils
 252---------
 253
 254In 2.4 and earlier kernels, the nfs server needed to know about any
 255client that expected to be able to access files via NFS.  This
 256information would be given to the kernel by "mountd" when the client
 257mounted the filesystem, or by "exportfs" at system startup.  exportfs
 258would take information about active clients from /var/lib/nfs/rmtab.
 259
 260This approach is quite fragile as it depends on rmtab being correct
 261which is not always easy, particularly when trying to implement
 262fail-over.  Even when the system is working well, rmtab suffers from
 263getting lots of old entries that never get removed.
 264
 265With 2.6 we have the option of having the kernel tell mountd when it
 266gets a request from an unknown host, and mountd can give appropriate
 267export information to the kernel.  This removes the dependency on
 268rmtab and means that the kernel only needs to know about currently
 269active clients.
 270
 271To enable this new functionality, you need to:
 272
 273  mount -t nfsd nfsd /proc/fs/nfsd
 274
 275before running exportfs or mountd.  It is recommended that all NFS
 276services be protected from the internet-at-large by a firewall where
 277that is possible.
 278
 279Getting updated software
 280========================
 281
 282Kernel compilation
 283******************
 284
 285gcc
 286---
 287o  <ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/gcc/>
 288
 289Make
 290----
 291o  <ftp://ftp.gnu.org/gnu/make/>
 292
 293Binutils
 294--------
 295o  <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/devel/binutils/>
 296
 297System utilities
 298****************
 299
 300Util-linux
 301----------
 302o  <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/util-linux/>
 303
 304Ksymoops
 305--------
 306o  <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/ksymoops/v2.4/>
 307
 308Module-Init-Tools
 309-----------------
 310o  <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/rusty/modules/>
 311
 312Mkinitrd
 313--------
 314o  <ftp://rawhide.redhat.com/pub/rawhide/SRPMS/SRPMS/>
 315
 316E2fsprogs
 317---------
 318o  <http://prdownloads.sourceforge.net/e2fsprogs/e2fsprogs-1.29.tar.gz>
 319
 320JFSutils
 321--------
 322o  <http://jfs.sourceforge.net/>
 323
 324Reiserfsprogs
 325-------------
 326o  <http://www.namesys.com/pub/reiserfsprogs/reiserfsprogs-3.6.3.tar.gz>
 327
 328Xfsprogs
 329--------
 330o  <ftp://oss.sgi.com/projects/xfs/download/>
 331
 332Pcmciautils
 333-----------
 334o  <ftp://ftp.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/pcmcia/>
 335
 336Pcmcia-cs
 337---------
 338o  <http://pcmcia-cs.sourceforge.net/>
 339
 340Quota-tools
 341----------
 342o  <http://sourceforge.net/projects/linuxquota/>
 343
 344DocBook Stylesheets
 345-------------------
 346o  <http://nwalsh.com/docbook/dsssl/>
 347
 348XMLTO XSLT Frontend
 349-------------------
 350o  <http://cyberelk.net/tim/xmlto/>
 351
 352Intel P6 microcode
 353------------------
 354o  <http://www.urbanmyth.org/microcode/>
 355
 356Powertweak
 357----------
 358o  <http://powertweak.sourceforge.net/>
 359
 360udev
 361----
 362o <http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/hotplug/udev.html>
 363
 364FUSE
 365----
 366o <http://sourceforge.net/projects/fuse>
 367
 368Networking
 369**********
 370
 371PPP
 372---
 373o  <ftp://ftp.samba.org/pub/ppp/ppp-2.4.0.tar.gz>
 374
 375Isdn4k-utils
 376------------
 377o  <ftp://ftp.isdn4linux.de/pub/isdn4linux/utils/isdn4k-utils.v3.1pre1.tar.gz>
 378
 379NFS-utils
 380---------
 381o  <http://sourceforge.net/project/showfiles.php?group_id=14>
 382
 383Iptables
 384--------
 385o  <http://www.iptables.org/downloads.html>
 386
 387Ip-route2
 388---------
 389o  <ftp://ftp.tux.org/pub/net/ip-routing/iproute2-2.2.4-now-ss991023.tar.gz>
 390
 391OProfile
 392--------
 393o  <http://oprofile.sf.net/download/>
 394
 395NFS-Utils
 396---------
 397o  <http://nfs.sourceforge.net/>
 398
 399
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