linux/Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt
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   1------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   2                       T H E  /proc   F I L E S Y S T E M
   3------------------------------------------------------------------------------
   4/proc/sys         Terrehon Bowden <terrehon@pacbell.net>        October 7 1999
   5                  Bodo Bauer <bb@ricochet.net>
   6
   72.4.x update      Jorge Nerin <comandante@zaralinux.com>      November 14 2000
   8move /proc/sys    Shen Feng <shen@cn.fujitsu.com>                 April 1 2009
   9------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  10Version 1.3                                              Kernel version 2.2.12
  11                                              Kernel version 2.4.0-test11-pre4
  12------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  13fixes/update part 1.1  Stefani Seibold <stefani@seibold.net>       June 9 2009
  14
  15Table of Contents
  16-----------------
  17
  18  0     Preface
  19  0.1   Introduction/Credits
  20  0.2   Legal Stuff
  21
  22  1     Collecting System Information
  23  1.1   Process-Specific Subdirectories
  24  1.2   Kernel data
  25  1.3   IDE devices in /proc/ide
  26  1.4   Networking info in /proc/net
  27  1.5   SCSI info
  28  1.6   Parallel port info in /proc/parport
  29  1.7   TTY info in /proc/tty
  30  1.8   Miscellaneous kernel statistics in /proc/stat
  31  1.9 Ext4 file system parameters
  32
  33  2     Modifying System Parameters
  34
  35  3     Per-Process Parameters
  36  3.1   /proc/<pid>/oom_adj & /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj - Adjust the oom-killer
  37                                                                score
  38  3.2   /proc/<pid>/oom_score - Display current oom-killer score
  39  3.3   /proc/<pid>/io - Display the IO accounting fields
  40  3.4   /proc/<pid>/coredump_filter - Core dump filtering settings
  41  3.5   /proc/<pid>/mountinfo - Information about mounts
  42  3.6   /proc/<pid>/comm  & /proc/<pid>/task/<tid>/comm
  43  3.7   /proc/<pid>/task/<tid>/children - Information about task children
  44  3.8   /proc/<pid>/fdinfo/<fd> - Information about opened file
  45
  46  4     Configuring procfs
  47  4.1   Mount options
  48
  49------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  50Preface
  51------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  52
  530.1 Introduction/Credits
  54------------------------
  55
  56This documentation is  part of a soon (or  so we hope) to be  released book on
  57the SuSE  Linux distribution. As  there is  no complete documentation  for the
  58/proc file system and we've used  many freely available sources to write these
  59chapters, it  seems only fair  to give the work  back to the  Linux community.
  60This work is  based on the 2.2.*  kernel version and the  upcoming 2.4.*. I'm
  61afraid it's still far from complete, but we  hope it will be useful. As far as
  62we know, it is the first 'all-in-one' document about the /proc file system. It
  63is focused  on the Intel  x86 hardware,  so if you  are looking for  PPC, ARM,
  64SPARC, AXP, etc., features, you probably  won't find what you are looking for.
  65It also only covers IPv4 networking, not IPv6 nor other protocols - sorry. But
  66additions and patches  are welcome and will  be added to this  document if you
  67mail them to Bodo.
  68
  69We'd like  to  thank Alan Cox, Rik van Riel, and Alexey Kuznetsov and a lot of
  70other people for help compiling this documentation. We'd also like to extend a
  71special thank  you to Andi Kleen for documentation, which we relied on heavily
  72to create  this  document,  as well as the additional information he provided.
  73Thanks to  everybody  else  who contributed source or docs to the Linux kernel
  74and helped create a great piece of software... :)
  75
  76If you  have  any comments, corrections or additions, please don't hesitate to
  77contact Bodo  Bauer  at  bb@ricochet.net.  We'll  be happy to add them to this
  78document.
  79
  80The   latest   version    of   this   document   is    available   online   at
  81http://tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Filesystem-Hierarchy/html/proc.html
  82
  83If  the above  direction does  not works  for you,  you could  try the  kernel
  84mailing  list  at  linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org  and/or try  to  reach  me  at
  85comandante@zaralinux.com.
  86
  870.2 Legal Stuff
  88---------------
  89
  90We don't  guarantee  the  correctness  of this document, and if you come to us
  91complaining about  how  you  screwed  up  your  system  because  of  incorrect
  92documentation, we won't feel responsible...
  93
  94------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  95CHAPTER 1: COLLECTING SYSTEM INFORMATION
  96------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  97
  98------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  99In This Chapter
 100------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 101* Investigating  the  properties  of  the  pseudo  file  system  /proc and its
 102  ability to provide information on the running Linux system
 103* Examining /proc's structure
 104* Uncovering  various  information  about the kernel and the processes running
 105  on the system
 106------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 107
 108
 109The proc  file  system acts as an interface to internal data structures in the
 110kernel. It  can  be  used to obtain information about the system and to change
 111certain kernel parameters at runtime (sysctl).
 112
 113First, we'll  take  a  look  at the read-only parts of /proc. In Chapter 2, we
 114show you how you can use /proc/sys to change settings.
 115
 1161.1 Process-Specific Subdirectories
 117-----------------------------------
 118
 119The directory  /proc  contains  (among other things) one subdirectory for each
 120process running on the system, which is named after the process ID (PID).
 121
 122The link  self  points  to  the  process reading the file system. Each process
 123subdirectory has the entries listed in Table 1-1.
 124
 125
 126Table 1-1: Process specific entries in /proc
 127..............................................................................
 128 File           Content
 129 clear_refs     Clears page referenced bits shown in smaps output
 130 cmdline        Command line arguments
 131 cpu            Current and last cpu in which it was executed   (2.4)(smp)
 132 cwd            Link to the current working directory
 133 environ        Values of environment variables
 134 exe            Link to the executable of this process
 135 fd             Directory, which contains all file descriptors
 136 maps           Memory maps to executables and library files    (2.4)
 137 mem            Memory held by this process
 138 root           Link to the root directory of this process
 139 stat           Process status
 140 statm          Process memory status information
 141 status         Process status in human readable form
 142 wchan          If CONFIG_KALLSYMS is set, a pre-decoded wchan
 143 pagemap        Page table
 144 stack          Report full stack trace, enable via CONFIG_STACKTRACE
 145 smaps          a extension based on maps, showing the memory consumption of
 146                each mapping and flags associated with it
 147..............................................................................
 148
 149For example, to get the status information of a process, all you have to do is
 150read the file /proc/PID/status:
 151
 152  >cat /proc/self/status
 153  Name:   cat
 154  State:  R (running)
 155  Tgid:   5452
 156  Pid:    5452
 157  PPid:   743
 158  TracerPid:      0                                             (2.4)
 159  Uid:    501     501     501     501
 160  Gid:    100     100     100     100
 161  FDSize: 256
 162  Groups: 100 14 16
 163  VmPeak:     5004 kB
 164  VmSize:     5004 kB
 165  VmLck:         0 kB
 166  VmHWM:       476 kB
 167  VmRSS:       476 kB
 168  VmData:      156 kB
 169  VmStk:        88 kB
 170  VmExe:        68 kB
 171  VmLib:      1412 kB
 172  VmPTE:        20 kb
 173  VmSwap:        0 kB
 174  Threads:        1
 175  SigQ:   0/28578
 176  SigPnd: 0000000000000000
 177  ShdPnd: 0000000000000000
 178  SigBlk: 0000000000000000
 179  SigIgn: 0000000000000000
 180  SigCgt: 0000000000000000
 181  CapInh: 00000000fffffeff
 182  CapPrm: 0000000000000000
 183  CapEff: 0000000000000000
 184  CapBnd: ffffffffffffffff
 185  Seccomp:        0
 186  voluntary_ctxt_switches:        0
 187  nonvoluntary_ctxt_switches:     1
 188
 189This shows you nearly the same information you would get if you viewed it with
 190the ps  command.  In  fact,  ps  uses  the  proc  file  system  to  obtain its
 191information.  But you get a more detailed  view of the  process by reading the
 192file /proc/PID/status. It fields are described in table 1-2.
 193
 194The  statm  file  contains  more  detailed  information about the process
 195memory usage. Its seven fields are explained in Table 1-3.  The stat file
 196contains details information about the process itself.  Its fields are
 197explained in Table 1-4.
 198
 199(for SMP CONFIG users)
 200For making accounting scalable, RSS related information are handled in
 201asynchronous manner and the vaule may not be very precise. To see a precise
 202snapshot of a moment, you can see /proc/<pid>/smaps file and scan page table.
 203It's slow but very precise.
 204
 205Table 1-2: Contents of the status files (as of 2.6.30-rc7)
 206..............................................................................
 207 Field                       Content
 208 Name                        filename of the executable
 209 State                       state (R is running, S is sleeping, D is sleeping
 210                             in an uninterruptible wait, Z is zombie,
 211                             T is traced or stopped)
 212 Tgid                        thread group ID
 213 Pid                         process id
 214 PPid                        process id of the parent process
 215 TracerPid                   PID of process tracing this process (0 if not)
 216 Uid                         Real, effective, saved set, and  file system UIDs
 217 Gid                         Real, effective, saved set, and  file system GIDs
 218 FDSize                      number of file descriptor slots currently allocated
 219 Groups                      supplementary group list
 220 VmPeak                      peak virtual memory size
 221 VmSize                      total program size
 222 VmLck                       locked memory size
 223 VmHWM                       peak resident set size ("high water mark")
 224 VmRSS                       size of memory portions
 225 VmData                      size of data, stack, and text segments
 226 VmStk                       size of data, stack, and text segments
 227 VmExe                       size of text segment
 228 VmLib                       size of shared library code
 229 VmPTE                       size of page table entries
 230 VmSwap                      size of swap usage (the number of referred swapents)
 231 Threads                     number of threads
 232 SigQ                        number of signals queued/max. number for queue
 233 SigPnd                      bitmap of pending signals for the thread
 234 ShdPnd                      bitmap of shared pending signals for the process
 235 SigBlk                      bitmap of blocked signals
 236 SigIgn                      bitmap of ignored signals
 237 SigCgt                      bitmap of catched signals
 238 CapInh                      bitmap of inheritable capabilities
 239 CapPrm                      bitmap of permitted capabilities
 240 CapEff                      bitmap of effective capabilities
 241 CapBnd                      bitmap of capabilities bounding set
 242 Seccomp                     seccomp mode, like prctl(PR_GET_SECCOMP, ...)
 243 Cpus_allowed                mask of CPUs on which this process may run
 244 Cpus_allowed_list           Same as previous, but in "list format"
 245 Mems_allowed                mask of memory nodes allowed to this process
 246 Mems_allowed_list           Same as previous, but in "list format"
 247 voluntary_ctxt_switches     number of voluntary context switches
 248 nonvoluntary_ctxt_switches  number of non voluntary context switches
 249..............................................................................
 250
 251Table 1-3: Contents of the statm files (as of 2.6.8-rc3)
 252..............................................................................
 253 Field    Content
 254 size     total program size (pages)            (same as VmSize in status)
 255 resident size of memory portions (pages)       (same as VmRSS in status)
 256 shared   number of pages that are shared       (i.e. backed by a file)
 257 trs      number of pages that are 'code'       (not including libs; broken,
 258                                                        includes data segment)
 259 lrs      number of pages of library            (always 0 on 2.6)
 260 drs      number of pages of data/stack         (including libs; broken,
 261                                                        includes library text)
 262 dt       number of dirty pages                 (always 0 on 2.6)
 263..............................................................................
 264
 265
 266Table 1-4: Contents of the stat files (as of 2.6.30-rc7)
 267..............................................................................
 268 Field          Content
 269  pid           process id
 270  tcomm         filename of the executable
 271  state         state (R is running, S is sleeping, D is sleeping in an
 272                uninterruptible wait, Z is zombie, T is traced or stopped)
 273  ppid          process id of the parent process
 274  pgrp          pgrp of the process
 275  sid           session id
 276  tty_nr        tty the process uses
 277  tty_pgrp      pgrp of the tty
 278  flags         task flags
 279  min_flt       number of minor faults
 280  cmin_flt      number of minor faults with child's
 281  maj_flt       number of major faults
 282  cmaj_flt      number of major faults with child's
 283  utime         user mode jiffies
 284  stime         kernel mode jiffies
 285  cutime        user mode jiffies with child's
 286  cstime        kernel mode jiffies with child's
 287  priority      priority level
 288  nice          nice level
 289  num_threads   number of threads
 290  it_real_value (obsolete, always 0)
 291  start_time    time the process started after system boot
 292  vsize         virtual memory size
 293  rss           resident set memory size
 294  rsslim        current limit in bytes on the rss
 295  start_code    address above which program text can run
 296  end_code      address below which program text can run
 297  start_stack   address of the start of the main process stack
 298  esp           current value of ESP
 299  eip           current value of EIP
 300  pending       bitmap of pending signals
 301  blocked       bitmap of blocked signals
 302  sigign        bitmap of ignored signals
 303  sigcatch      bitmap of catched signals
 304  wchan         address where process went to sleep
 305  0             (place holder)
 306  0             (place holder)
 307  exit_signal   signal to send to parent thread on exit
 308  task_cpu      which CPU the task is scheduled on
 309  rt_priority   realtime priority
 310  policy        scheduling policy (man sched_setscheduler)
 311  blkio_ticks   time spent waiting for block IO
 312  gtime         guest time of the task in jiffies
 313  cgtime        guest time of the task children in jiffies
 314  start_data    address above which program data+bss is placed
 315  end_data      address below which program data+bss is placed
 316  start_brk     address above which program heap can be expanded with brk()
 317  arg_start     address above which program command line is placed
 318  arg_end       address below which program command line is placed
 319  env_start     address above which program environment is placed
 320  env_end       address below which program environment is placed
 321  exit_code     the thread's exit_code in the form reported by the waitpid system call
 322..............................................................................
 323
 324The /proc/PID/maps file containing the currently mapped memory regions and
 325their access permissions.
 326
 327The format is:
 328
 329address           perms offset  dev   inode      pathname
 330
 33108048000-08049000 r-xp 00000000 03:00 8312       /opt/test
 33208049000-0804a000 rw-p 00001000 03:00 8312       /opt/test
 3330804a000-0806b000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0          [heap]
 334a7cb1000-a7cb2000 ---p 00000000 00:00 0
 335a7cb2000-a7eb2000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
 336a7eb2000-a7eb3000 ---p 00000000 00:00 0
 337a7eb3000-a7ed5000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0          [stack:1001]
 338a7ed5000-a8008000 r-xp 00000000 03:00 4222       /lib/libc.so.6
 339a8008000-a800a000 r--p 00133000 03:00 4222       /lib/libc.so.6
 340a800a000-a800b000 rw-p 00135000 03:00 4222       /lib/libc.so.6
 341a800b000-a800e000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
 342a800e000-a8022000 r-xp 00000000 03:00 14462      /lib/libpthread.so.0
 343a8022000-a8023000 r--p 00013000 03:00 14462      /lib/libpthread.so.0
 344a8023000-a8024000 rw-p 00014000 03:00 14462      /lib/libpthread.so.0
 345a8024000-a8027000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
 346a8027000-a8043000 r-xp 00000000 03:00 8317       /lib/ld-linux.so.2
 347a8043000-a8044000 r--p 0001b000 03:00 8317       /lib/ld-linux.so.2
 348a8044000-a8045000 rw-p 0001c000 03:00 8317       /lib/ld-linux.so.2
 349aff35000-aff4a000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0          [stack]
 350ffffe000-fffff000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0          [vdso]
 351
 352where "address" is the address space in the process that it occupies, "perms"
 353is a set of permissions:
 354
 355 r = read
 356 w = write
 357 x = execute
 358 s = shared
 359 p = private (copy on write)
 360
 361"offset" is the offset into the mapping, "dev" is the device (major:minor), and
 362"inode" is the inode  on that device.  0 indicates that  no inode is associated
 363with the memory region, as the case would be with BSS (uninitialized data).
 364The "pathname" shows the name associated file for this mapping.  If the mapping
 365is not associated with a file:
 366
 367 [heap]                   = the heap of the program
 368 [stack]                  = the stack of the main process
 369 [stack:1001]             = the stack of the thread with tid 1001
 370 [vdso]                   = the "virtual dynamic shared object",
 371                            the kernel system call handler
 372
 373 or if empty, the mapping is anonymous.
 374
 375The /proc/PID/task/TID/maps is a view of the virtual memory from the viewpoint
 376of the individual tasks of a process. In this file you will see a mapping marked
 377as [stack] if that task sees it as a stack. This is a key difference from the
 378content of /proc/PID/maps, where you will see all mappings that are being used
 379as stack by all of those tasks. Hence, for the example above, the task-level
 380map, i.e. /proc/PID/task/TID/maps for thread 1001 will look like this:
 381
 38208048000-08049000 r-xp 00000000 03:00 8312       /opt/test
 38308049000-0804a000 rw-p 00001000 03:00 8312       /opt/test
 3840804a000-0806b000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0          [heap]
 385a7cb1000-a7cb2000 ---p 00000000 00:00 0
 386a7cb2000-a7eb2000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
 387a7eb2000-a7eb3000 ---p 00000000 00:00 0
 388a7eb3000-a7ed5000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0          [stack]
 389a7ed5000-a8008000 r-xp 00000000 03:00 4222       /lib/libc.so.6
 390a8008000-a800a000 r--p 00133000 03:00 4222       /lib/libc.so.6
 391a800a000-a800b000 rw-p 00135000 03:00 4222       /lib/libc.so.6
 392a800b000-a800e000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
 393a800e000-a8022000 r-xp 00000000 03:00 14462      /lib/libpthread.so.0
 394a8022000-a8023000 r--p 00013000 03:00 14462      /lib/libpthread.so.0
 395a8023000-a8024000 rw-p 00014000 03:00 14462      /lib/libpthread.so.0
 396a8024000-a8027000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
 397a8027000-a8043000 r-xp 00000000 03:00 8317       /lib/ld-linux.so.2
 398a8043000-a8044000 r--p 0001b000 03:00 8317       /lib/ld-linux.so.2
 399a8044000-a8045000 rw-p 0001c000 03:00 8317       /lib/ld-linux.so.2
 400aff35000-aff4a000 rw-p 00000000 00:00 0
 401ffffe000-fffff000 r-xp 00000000 00:00 0          [vdso]
 402
 403The /proc/PID/smaps is an extension based on maps, showing the memory
 404consumption for each of the process's mappings. For each of mappings there
 405is a series of lines such as the following:
 406
 40708048000-080bc000 r-xp 00000000 03:02 13130      /bin/bash
 408Size:               1084 kB
 409Rss:                 892 kB
 410Pss:                 374 kB
 411Shared_Clean:        892 kB
 412Shared_Dirty:          0 kB
 413Private_Clean:         0 kB
 414Private_Dirty:         0 kB
 415Referenced:          892 kB
 416Anonymous:             0 kB
 417Swap:                  0 kB
 418KernelPageSize:        4 kB
 419MMUPageSize:           4 kB
 420Locked:              374 kB
 421VmFlags: rd ex mr mw me de
 422
 423the first of these lines shows the same information as is displayed for the
 424mapping in /proc/PID/maps.  The remaining lines show the size of the mapping
 425(size), the amount of the mapping that is currently resident in RAM (RSS), the
 426process' proportional share of this mapping (PSS), the number of clean and
 427dirty private pages in the mapping.  Note that even a page which is part of a
 428MAP_SHARED mapping, but has only a single pte mapped, i.e.  is currently used
 429by only one process, is accounted as private and not as shared.  "Referenced"
 430indicates the amount of memory currently marked as referenced or accessed.
 431"Anonymous" shows the amount of memory that does not belong to any file.  Even
 432a mapping associated with a file may contain anonymous pages: when MAP_PRIVATE
 433and a page is modified, the file page is replaced by a private anonymous copy.
 434"Swap" shows how much would-be-anonymous memory is also used, but out on
 435swap.
 436
 437"VmFlags" field deserves a separate description. This member represents the kernel
 438flags associated with the particular virtual memory area in two letter encoded
 439manner. The codes are the following:
 440    rd  - readable
 441    wr  - writeable
 442    ex  - executable
 443    sh  - shared
 444    mr  - may read
 445    mw  - may write
 446    me  - may execute
 447    ms  - may share
 448    gd  - stack segment growns down
 449    pf  - pure PFN range
 450    dw  - disabled write to the mapped file
 451    lo  - pages are locked in memory
 452    io  - memory mapped I/O area
 453    sr  - sequential read advise provided
 454    rr  - random read advise provided
 455    dc  - do not copy area on fork
 456    de  - do not expand area on remapping
 457    ac  - area is accountable
 458    nr  - swap space is not reserved for the area
 459    ht  - area uses huge tlb pages
 460    nl  - non-linear mapping
 461    ar  - architecture specific flag
 462    dd  - do not include area into core dump
 463    sd  - soft-dirty flag
 464    mm  - mixed map area
 465    hg  - huge page advise flag
 466    nh  - no-huge page advise flag
 467    mg  - mergable advise flag
 468
 469Note that there is no guarantee that every flag and associated mnemonic will
 470be present in all further kernel releases. Things get changed, the flags may
 471be vanished or the reverse -- new added.
 472
 473This file is only present if the CONFIG_MMU kernel configuration option is
 474enabled.
 475
 476The /proc/PID/clear_refs is used to reset the PG_Referenced and ACCESSED/YOUNG
 477bits on both physical and virtual pages associated with a process, and the
 478soft-dirty bit on pte (see Documentation/vm/soft-dirty.txt for details).
 479To clear the bits for all the pages associated with the process
 480    > echo 1 > /proc/PID/clear_refs
 481
 482To clear the bits for the anonymous pages associated with the process
 483    > echo 2 > /proc/PID/clear_refs
 484
 485To clear the bits for the file mapped pages associated with the process
 486    > echo 3 > /proc/PID/clear_refs
 487
 488To clear the soft-dirty bit
 489    > echo 4 > /proc/PID/clear_refs
 490
 491Any other value written to /proc/PID/clear_refs will have no effect.
 492
 493The /proc/pid/pagemap gives the PFN, which can be used to find the pageflags
 494using /proc/kpageflags and number of times a page is mapped using
 495/proc/kpagecount. For detailed explanation, see Documentation/vm/pagemap.txt.
 496
 4971.2 Kernel data
 498---------------
 499
 500Similar to  the  process entries, the kernel data files give information about
 501the running kernel. The files used to obtain this information are contained in
 502/proc and  are  listed  in Table 1-5. Not all of these will be present in your
 503system. It  depends  on the kernel configuration and the loaded modules, which
 504files are there, and which are missing.
 505
 506Table 1-5: Kernel info in /proc
 507..............................................................................
 508 File        Content                                           
 509 apm         Advanced power management info                    
 510 buddyinfo   Kernel memory allocator information (see text)     (2.5)
 511 bus         Directory containing bus specific information     
 512 cmdline     Kernel command line                               
 513 cpuinfo     Info about the CPU                                
 514 devices     Available devices (block and character)           
 515 dma         Used DMS channels                                 
 516 filesystems Supported filesystems                             
 517 driver      Various drivers grouped here, currently rtc (2.4)
 518 execdomains Execdomains, related to security                   (2.4)
 519 fb          Frame Buffer devices                               (2.4)
 520 fs          File system parameters, currently nfs/exports      (2.4)
 521 ide         Directory containing info about the IDE subsystem 
 522 interrupts  Interrupt usage                                   
 523 iomem       Memory map                                         (2.4)
 524 ioports     I/O port usage                                    
 525 irq         Masks for irq to cpu affinity                      (2.4)(smp?)
 526 isapnp      ISA PnP (Plug&Play) Info                           (2.4)
 527 kcore       Kernel core image (can be ELF or A.OUT(deprecated in 2.4))   
 528 kmsg        Kernel messages                                   
 529 ksyms       Kernel symbol table                               
 530 loadavg     Load average of last 1, 5 & 15 minutes                
 531 locks       Kernel locks                                      
 532 meminfo     Memory info                                       
 533 misc        Miscellaneous                                     
 534 modules     List of loaded modules                            
 535 mounts      Mounted filesystems                               
 536 net         Networking info (see text)                        
 537 pagetypeinfo Additional page allocator information (see text)  (2.5)
 538 partitions  Table of partitions known to the system           
 539 pci         Deprecated info of PCI bus (new way -> /proc/bus/pci/,
 540             decoupled by lspci                                 (2.4)
 541 rtc         Real time clock                                   
 542 scsi        SCSI info (see text)                              
 543 slabinfo    Slab pool info                                    
 544 softirqs    softirq usage
 545 stat        Overall statistics                                
 546 swaps       Swap space utilization                            
 547 sys         See chapter 2                                     
 548 sysvipc     Info of SysVIPC Resources (msg, sem, shm)          (2.4)
 549 tty         Info of tty drivers
 550 uptime      Wall clock since boot, combined idle time of all cpus
 551 version     Kernel version                                    
 552 video       bttv info of video resources                       (2.4)
 553 vmallocinfo Show vmalloced areas
 554..............................................................................
 555
 556You can,  for  example,  check  which interrupts are currently in use and what
 557they are used for by looking in the file /proc/interrupts:
 558
 559  > cat /proc/interrupts 
 560             CPU0        
 561    0:    8728810          XT-PIC  timer 
 562    1:        895          XT-PIC  keyboard 
 563    2:          0          XT-PIC  cascade 
 564    3:     531695          XT-PIC  aha152x 
 565    4:    2014133          XT-PIC  serial 
 566    5:      44401          XT-PIC  pcnet_cs 
 567    8:          2          XT-PIC  rtc 
 568   11:          8          XT-PIC  i82365 
 569   12:     182918          XT-PIC  PS/2 Mouse 
 570   13:          1          XT-PIC  fpu 
 571   14:    1232265          XT-PIC  ide0 
 572   15:          7          XT-PIC  ide1 
 573  NMI:          0 
 574
 575In 2.4.* a couple of lines where added to this file LOC & ERR (this time is the
 576output of a SMP machine):
 577
 578  > cat /proc/interrupts 
 579
 580             CPU0       CPU1       
 581    0:    1243498    1214548    IO-APIC-edge  timer
 582    1:       8949       8958    IO-APIC-edge  keyboard
 583    2:          0          0          XT-PIC  cascade
 584    5:      11286      10161    IO-APIC-edge  soundblaster
 585    8:          1          0    IO-APIC-edge  rtc
 586    9:      27422      27407    IO-APIC-edge  3c503
 587   12:     113645     113873    IO-APIC-edge  PS/2 Mouse
 588   13:          0          0          XT-PIC  fpu
 589   14:      22491      24012    IO-APIC-edge  ide0
 590   15:       2183       2415    IO-APIC-edge  ide1
 591   17:      30564      30414   IO-APIC-level  eth0
 592   18:        177        164   IO-APIC-level  bttv
 593  NMI:    2457961    2457959 
 594  LOC:    2457882    2457881 
 595  ERR:       2155
 596
 597NMI is incremented in this case because every timer interrupt generates a NMI
 598(Non Maskable Interrupt) which is used by the NMI Watchdog to detect lockups.
 599
 600LOC is the local interrupt counter of the internal APIC of every CPU.
 601
 602ERR is incremented in the case of errors in the IO-APIC bus (the bus that
 603connects the CPUs in a SMP system. This means that an error has been detected,
 604the IO-APIC automatically retry the transmission, so it should not be a big
 605problem, but you should read the SMP-FAQ.
 606
 607In 2.6.2* /proc/interrupts was expanded again.  This time the goal was for
 608/proc/interrupts to display every IRQ vector in use by the system, not
 609just those considered 'most important'.  The new vectors are:
 610
 611  THR -- interrupt raised when a machine check threshold counter
 612  (typically counting ECC corrected errors of memory or cache) exceeds
 613  a configurable threshold.  Only available on some systems.
 614
 615  TRM -- a thermal event interrupt occurs when a temperature threshold
 616  has been exceeded for the CPU.  This interrupt may also be generated
 617  when the temperature drops back to normal.
 618
 619  SPU -- a spurious interrupt is some interrupt that was raised then lowered
 620  by some IO device before it could be fully processed by the APIC.  Hence
 621  the APIC sees the interrupt but does not know what device it came from.
 622  For this case the APIC will generate the interrupt with a IRQ vector
 623  of 0xff. This might also be generated by chipset bugs.
 624
 625  RES, CAL, TLB -- rescheduling, call and TLB flush interrupts are
 626  sent from one CPU to another per the needs of the OS.  Typically,
 627  their statistics are used by kernel developers and interested users to
 628  determine the occurrence of interrupts of the given type.
 629
 630The above IRQ vectors are displayed only when relevant.  For example,
 631the threshold vector does not exist on x86_64 platforms.  Others are
 632suppressed when the system is a uniprocessor.  As of this writing, only
 633i386 and x86_64 platforms support the new IRQ vector displays.
 634
 635Of some interest is the introduction of the /proc/irq directory to 2.4.
 636It could be used to set IRQ to CPU affinity, this means that you can "hook" an
 637IRQ to only one CPU, or to exclude a CPU of handling IRQs. The contents of the
 638irq subdir is one subdir for each IRQ, and two files; default_smp_affinity and
 639prof_cpu_mask.
 640
 641For example 
 642  > ls /proc/irq/
 643  0  10  12  14  16  18  2  4  6  8  prof_cpu_mask
 644  1  11  13  15  17  19  3  5  7  9  default_smp_affinity
 645  > ls /proc/irq/0/
 646  smp_affinity
 647
 648smp_affinity is a bitmask, in which you can specify which CPUs can handle the
 649IRQ, you can set it by doing:
 650
 651  > echo 1 > /proc/irq/10/smp_affinity
 652
 653This means that only the first CPU will handle the IRQ, but you can also echo
 6545 which means that only the first and fourth CPU can handle the IRQ.
 655
 656The contents of each smp_affinity file is the same by default:
 657
 658  > cat /proc/irq/0/smp_affinity
 659  ffffffff
 660
 661There is an alternate interface, smp_affinity_list which allows specifying
 662a cpu range instead of a bitmask:
 663
 664  > cat /proc/irq/0/smp_affinity_list
 665  1024-1031
 666
 667The default_smp_affinity mask applies to all non-active IRQs, which are the
 668IRQs which have not yet been allocated/activated, and hence which lack a
 669/proc/irq/[0-9]* directory.
 670
 671The node file on an SMP system shows the node to which the device using the IRQ
 672reports itself as being attached. This hardware locality information does not
 673include information about any possible driver locality preference.
 674
 675prof_cpu_mask specifies which CPUs are to be profiled by the system wide
 676profiler. Default value is ffffffff (all cpus if there are only 32 of them).
 677
 678The way IRQs are routed is handled by the IO-APIC, and it's Round Robin
 679between all the CPUs which are allowed to handle it. As usual the kernel has
 680more info than you and does a better job than you, so the defaults are the
 681best choice for almost everyone.  [Note this applies only to those IO-APIC's
 682that support "Round Robin" interrupt distribution.]
 683
 684There are  three  more  important subdirectories in /proc: net, scsi, and sys.
 685The general  rule  is  that  the  contents,  or  even  the  existence of these
 686directories, depend  on your kernel configuration. If SCSI is not enabled, the
 687directory scsi  may  not  exist. The same is true with the net, which is there
 688only when networking support is present in the running kernel.
 689
 690The slabinfo  file  gives  information  about  memory usage at the slab level.
 691Linux uses  slab  pools for memory management above page level in version 2.2.
 692Commonly used  objects  have  their  own  slab  pool (such as network buffers,
 693directory cache, and so on).
 694
 695..............................................................................
 696
 697> cat /proc/buddyinfo
 698
 699Node 0, zone      DMA      0      4      5      4      4      3 ...
 700Node 0, zone   Normal      1      0      0      1    101      8 ...
 701Node 0, zone  HighMem      2      0      0      1      1      0 ...
 702
 703External fragmentation is a problem under some workloads, and buddyinfo is a
 704useful tool for helping diagnose these problems.  Buddyinfo will give you a 
 705clue as to how big an area you can safely allocate, or why a previous
 706allocation failed.
 707
 708Each column represents the number of pages of a certain order which are 
 709available.  In this case, there are 0 chunks of 2^0*PAGE_SIZE available in 
 710ZONE_DMA, 4 chunks of 2^1*PAGE_SIZE in ZONE_DMA, 101 chunks of 2^4*PAGE_SIZE 
 711available in ZONE_NORMAL, etc... 
 712
 713More information relevant to external fragmentation can be found in
 714pagetypeinfo.
 715
 716> cat /proc/pagetypeinfo
 717Page block order: 9
 718Pages per block:  512
 719
 720Free pages count per migrate type at order       0      1      2      3      4      5      6      7      8      9     10
 721Node    0, zone      DMA, type    Unmovable      0      0      0      1      1      1      1      1      1      1      0
 722Node    0, zone      DMA, type  Reclaimable      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0
 723Node    0, zone      DMA, type      Movable      1      1      2      1      2      1      1      0      1      0      2
 724Node    0, zone      DMA, type      Reserve      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      1      0
 725Node    0, zone      DMA, type      Isolate      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0
 726Node    0, zone    DMA32, type    Unmovable    103     54     77      1      1      1     11      8      7      1      9
 727Node    0, zone    DMA32, type  Reclaimable      0      0      2      1      0      0      0      0      1      0      0
 728Node    0, zone    DMA32, type      Movable    169    152    113     91     77     54     39     13      6      1    452
 729Node    0, zone    DMA32, type      Reserve      1      2      2      2      2      0      1      1      1      1      0
 730Node    0, zone    DMA32, type      Isolate      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0
 731
 732Number of blocks type     Unmovable  Reclaimable      Movable      Reserve      Isolate
 733Node 0, zone      DMA            2            0            5            1            0
 734Node 0, zone    DMA32           41            6          967            2            0
 735
 736Fragmentation avoidance in the kernel works by grouping pages of different
 737migrate types into the same contiguous regions of memory called page blocks.
 738A page block is typically the size of the default hugepage size e.g. 2MB on
 739X86-64. By keeping pages grouped based on their ability to move, the kernel
 740can reclaim pages within a page block to satisfy a high-order allocation.
 741
 742The pagetypinfo begins with information on the size of a page block. It
 743then gives the same type of information as buddyinfo except broken down
 744by migrate-type and finishes with details on how many page blocks of each
 745type exist.
 746
 747If min_free_kbytes has been tuned correctly (recommendations made by hugeadm
 748from libhugetlbfs http://sourceforge.net/projects/libhugetlbfs/), one can
 749make an estimate of the likely number of huge pages that can be allocated
 750at a given point in time. All the "Movable" blocks should be allocatable
 751unless memory has been mlock()'d. Some of the Reclaimable blocks should
 752also be allocatable although a lot of filesystem metadata may have to be
 753reclaimed to achieve this.
 754
 755..............................................................................
 756
 757meminfo:
 758
 759Provides information about distribution and utilization of memory.  This
 760varies by architecture and compile options.  The following is from a
 76116GB PIII, which has highmem enabled.  You may not have all of these fields.
 762
 763> cat /proc/meminfo
 764
 765The "Locked" indicates whether the mapping is locked in memory or not.
 766
 767
 768MemTotal:     16344972 kB
 769MemFree:      13634064 kB
 770MemAvailable: 14836172 kB
 771Buffers:          3656 kB
 772Cached:        1195708 kB
 773SwapCached:          0 kB
 774Active:         891636 kB
 775Inactive:      1077224 kB
 776HighTotal:    15597528 kB
 777HighFree:     13629632 kB
 778LowTotal:       747444 kB
 779LowFree:          4432 kB
 780SwapTotal:           0 kB
 781SwapFree:            0 kB
 782Dirty:             968 kB
 783Writeback:           0 kB
 784AnonPages:      861800 kB
 785Mapped:         280372 kB
 786Slab:           284364 kB
 787SReclaimable:   159856 kB
 788SUnreclaim:     124508 kB
 789PageTables:      24448 kB
 790NFS_Unstable:        0 kB
 791Bounce:              0 kB
 792WritebackTmp:        0 kB
 793CommitLimit:   7669796 kB
 794Committed_AS:   100056 kB
 795VmallocTotal:   112216 kB
 796VmallocUsed:       428 kB
 797VmallocChunk:   111088 kB
 798AnonHugePages:   49152 kB
 799
 800    MemTotal: Total usable ram (i.e. physical ram minus a few reserved
 801              bits and the kernel binary code)
 802     MemFree: The sum of LowFree+HighFree
 803MemAvailable: An estimate of how much memory is available for starting new
 804              applications, without swapping. Calculated from MemFree,
 805              SReclaimable, the size of the file LRU lists, and the low
 806              watermarks in each zone.
 807              The estimate takes into account that the system needs some
 808              page cache to function well, and that not all reclaimable
 809              slab will be reclaimable, due to items being in use. The
 810              impact of those factors will vary from system to system.
 811     Buffers: Relatively temporary storage for raw disk blocks
 812              shouldn't get tremendously large (20MB or so)
 813      Cached: in-memory cache for files read from the disk (the
 814              pagecache).  Doesn't include SwapCached
 815  SwapCached: Memory that once was swapped out, is swapped back in but
 816              still also is in the swapfile (if memory is needed it
 817              doesn't need to be swapped out AGAIN because it is already
 818              in the swapfile. This saves I/O)
 819      Active: Memory that has been used more recently and usually not
 820              reclaimed unless absolutely necessary.
 821    Inactive: Memory which has been less recently used.  It is more
 822              eligible to be reclaimed for other purposes
 823   HighTotal:
 824    HighFree: Highmem is all memory above ~860MB of physical memory
 825              Highmem areas are for use by userspace programs, or
 826              for the pagecache.  The kernel must use tricks to access
 827              this memory, making it slower to access than lowmem.
 828    LowTotal:
 829     LowFree: Lowmem is memory which can be used for everything that
 830              highmem can be used for, but it is also available for the
 831              kernel's use for its own data structures.  Among many
 832              other things, it is where everything from the Slab is
 833              allocated.  Bad things happen when you're out of lowmem.
 834   SwapTotal: total amount of swap space available
 835    SwapFree: Memory which has been evicted from RAM, and is temporarily
 836              on the disk
 837       Dirty: Memory which is waiting to get written back to the disk
 838   Writeback: Memory which is actively being written back to the disk
 839   AnonPages: Non-file backed pages mapped into userspace page tables
 840AnonHugePages: Non-file backed huge pages mapped into userspace page tables
 841      Mapped: files which have been mmaped, such as libraries
 842        Slab: in-kernel data structures cache
 843SReclaimable: Part of Slab, that might be reclaimed, such as caches
 844  SUnreclaim: Part of Slab, that cannot be reclaimed on memory pressure
 845  PageTables: amount of memory dedicated to the lowest level of page
 846              tables.
 847NFS_Unstable: NFS pages sent to the server, but not yet committed to stable
 848              storage
 849      Bounce: Memory used for block device "bounce buffers"
 850WritebackTmp: Memory used by FUSE for temporary writeback buffers
 851 CommitLimit: Based on the overcommit ratio ('vm.overcommit_ratio'),
 852              this is the total amount of  memory currently available to
 853              be allocated on the system. This limit is only adhered to
 854              if strict overcommit accounting is enabled (mode 2 in
 855              'vm.overcommit_memory').
 856              The CommitLimit is calculated with the following formula:
 857              CommitLimit = ('vm.overcommit_ratio' * Physical RAM) + Swap
 858              For example, on a system with 1G of physical RAM and 7G
 859              of swap with a `vm.overcommit_ratio` of 30 it would
 860              yield a CommitLimit of 7.3G.
 861              For more details, see the memory overcommit documentation
 862              in vm/overcommit-accounting.
 863Committed_AS: The amount of memory presently allocated on the system.
 864              The committed memory is a sum of all of the memory which
 865              has been allocated by processes, even if it has not been
 866              "used" by them as of yet. A process which malloc()'s 1G
 867              of memory, but only touches 300M of it will show up as
 868              using 1G. This 1G is memory which has been "committed" to
 869              by the VM and can be used at any time by the allocating
 870              application. With strict overcommit enabled on the system
 871              (mode 2 in 'vm.overcommit_memory'),allocations which would
 872              exceed the CommitLimit (detailed above) will not be permitted.
 873              This is useful if one needs to guarantee that processes will
 874              not fail due to lack of memory once that memory has been
 875              successfully allocated.
 876VmallocTotal: total size of vmalloc memory area
 877 VmallocUsed: amount of vmalloc area which is used
 878VmallocChunk: largest contiguous block of vmalloc area which is free
 879
 880..............................................................................
 881
 882vmallocinfo:
 883
 884Provides information about vmalloced/vmaped areas. One line per area,
 885containing the virtual address range of the area, size in bytes,
 886caller information of the creator, and optional information depending
 887on the kind of area :
 888
 889 pages=nr    number of pages
 890 phys=addr   if a physical address was specified
 891 ioremap     I/O mapping (ioremap() and friends)
 892 vmalloc     vmalloc() area
 893 vmap        vmap()ed pages
 894 user        VM_USERMAP area
 895 vpages      buffer for pages pointers was vmalloced (huge area)
 896 N<node>=nr  (Only on NUMA kernels)
 897             Number of pages allocated on memory node <node>
 898
 899> cat /proc/vmallocinfo
 9000xffffc20000000000-0xffffc20000201000 2101248 alloc_large_system_hash+0x204 ...
 901  /0x2c0 pages=512 vmalloc N0=128 N1=128 N2=128 N3=128
 9020xffffc20000201000-0xffffc20000302000 1052672 alloc_large_system_hash+0x204 ...
 903  /0x2c0 pages=256 vmalloc N0=64 N1=64 N2=64 N3=64
 9040xffffc20000302000-0xffffc20000304000    8192 acpi_tb_verify_table+0x21/0x4f...
 905  phys=7fee8000 ioremap
 9060xffffc20000304000-0xffffc20000307000   12288 acpi_tb_verify_table+0x21/0x4f...
 907  phys=7fee7000 ioremap
 9080xffffc2000031d000-0xffffc2000031f000    8192 init_vdso_vars+0x112/0x210
 9090xffffc2000031f000-0xffffc2000032b000   49152 cramfs_uncompress_init+0x2e ...
 910  /0x80 pages=11 vmalloc N0=3 N1=3 N2=2 N3=3
 9110xffffc2000033a000-0xffffc2000033d000   12288 sys_swapon+0x640/0xac0      ...
 912  pages=2 vmalloc N1=2
 9130xffffc20000347000-0xffffc2000034c000   20480 xt_alloc_table_info+0xfe ...
 914  /0x130 [x_tables] pages=4 vmalloc N0=4
 9150xffffffffa0000000-0xffffffffa000f000   61440 sys_init_module+0xc27/0x1d00 ...
 916   pages=14 vmalloc N2=14
 9170xffffffffa000f000-0xffffffffa0014000   20480 sys_init_module+0xc27/0x1d00 ...
 918   pages=4 vmalloc N1=4
 9190xffffffffa0014000-0xffffffffa0017000   12288 sys_init_module+0xc27/0x1d00 ...
 920   pages=2 vmalloc N1=2
 9210xffffffffa0017000-0xffffffffa0022000   45056 sys_init_module+0xc27/0x1d00 ...
 922   pages=10 vmalloc N0=10
 923
 924..............................................................................
 925
 926softirqs:
 927
 928Provides counts of softirq handlers serviced since boot time, for each cpu.
 929
 930> cat /proc/softirqs
 931                CPU0       CPU1       CPU2       CPU3
 932      HI:          0          0          0          0
 933   TIMER:      27166      27120      27097      27034
 934  NET_TX:          0          0          0         17
 935  NET_RX:         42          0          0         39
 936   BLOCK:          0          0        107       1121
 937 TASKLET:          0          0          0        290
 938   SCHED:      27035      26983      26971      26746
 939 HRTIMER:          0          0          0          0
 940     RCU:       1678       1769       2178       2250
 941
 942
 9431.3 IDE devices in /proc/ide
 944----------------------------
 945
 946The subdirectory /proc/ide contains information about all IDE devices of which
 947the kernel  is  aware.  There is one subdirectory for each IDE controller, the
 948file drivers  and a link for each IDE device, pointing to the device directory
 949in the controller specific subtree.
 950
 951The file  drivers  contains general information about the drivers used for the
 952IDE devices:
 953
 954  > cat /proc/ide/drivers
 955  ide-cdrom version 4.53
 956  ide-disk version 1.08
 957
 958More detailed  information  can  be  found  in  the  controller  specific
 959subdirectories. These  are  named  ide0,  ide1  and  so  on.  Each  of  these
 960directories contains the files shown in table 1-6.
 961
 962
 963Table 1-6: IDE controller info in  /proc/ide/ide?
 964..............................................................................
 965 File    Content                                 
 966 channel IDE channel (0 or 1)                    
 967 config  Configuration (only for PCI/IDE bridge) 
 968 mate    Mate name                               
 969 model   Type/Chipset of IDE controller          
 970..............................................................................
 971
 972Each device  connected  to  a  controller  has  a separate subdirectory in the
 973controllers directory.  The  files  listed in table 1-7 are contained in these
 974directories.
 975
 976
 977Table 1-7: IDE device information
 978..............................................................................
 979 File             Content                                    
 980 cache            The cache                                  
 981 capacity         Capacity of the medium (in 512Byte blocks) 
 982 driver           driver and version                         
 983 geometry         physical and logical geometry              
 984 identify         device identify block                      
 985 media            media type                                 
 986 model            device identifier                          
 987 settings         device setup                               
 988 smart_thresholds IDE disk management thresholds             
 989 smart_values     IDE disk management values                 
 990..............................................................................
 991
 992The most  interesting  file is settings. This file contains a nice overview of
 993the drive parameters:
 994
 995  # cat /proc/ide/ide0/hda/settings 
 996  name                    value           min             max             mode 
 997  ----                    -----           ---             ---             ---- 
 998  bios_cyl                526             0               65535           rw 
 999  bios_head               255             0               255             rw 
1000  bios_sect               63              0               63              rw 
1001  breada_readahead        4               0               127             rw 
1002  bswap                   0               0               1               r 
1003  file_readahead          72              0               2097151         rw 
1004  io_32bit                0               0               3               rw 
1005  keepsettings            0               0               1               rw 
1006  max_kb_per_request      122             1               127             rw 
1007  multcount               0               0               8               rw 
1008  nice1                   1               0               1               rw 
1009  nowerr                  0               0               1               rw 
1010  pio_mode                write-only      0               255             w 
1011  slow                    0               0               1               rw 
1012  unmaskirq               0               0               1               rw 
1013  using_dma               0               0               1               rw 
1014
1015
10161.4 Networking info in /proc/net
1017--------------------------------
1018
1019The subdirectory  /proc/net  follows  the  usual  pattern. Table 1-8 shows the
1020additional values  you  get  for  IP  version 6 if you configure the kernel to
1021support this. Table 1-9 lists the files and their meaning.
1022
1023
1024Table 1-8: IPv6 info in /proc/net
1025..............................................................................
1026 File       Content                                               
1027 udp6       UDP sockets (IPv6)                                    
1028 tcp6       TCP sockets (IPv6)                                    
1029 raw6       Raw device statistics (IPv6)                          
1030 igmp6      IP multicast addresses, which this host joined (IPv6) 
1031 if_inet6   List of IPv6 interface addresses                      
1032 ipv6_route Kernel routing table for IPv6                         
1033 rt6_stats  Global IPv6 routing tables statistics                 
1034 sockstat6  Socket statistics (IPv6)                              
1035 snmp6      Snmp data (IPv6)                                      
1036..............................................................................
1037
1038
1039Table 1-9: Network info in /proc/net
1040..............................................................................
1041 File          Content                                                         
1042 arp           Kernel  ARP table                                               
1043 dev           network devices with statistics                                 
1044 dev_mcast     the Layer2 multicast groups a device is listening too
1045               (interface index, label, number of references, number of bound
1046               addresses). 
1047 dev_stat      network device status                                           
1048 ip_fwchains   Firewall chain linkage                                          
1049 ip_fwnames    Firewall chain names                                            
1050 ip_masq       Directory containing the masquerading tables                    
1051 ip_masquerade Major masquerading table                                        
1052 netstat       Network statistics                                              
1053 raw           raw device statistics                                           
1054 route         Kernel routing table                                            
1055 rpc           Directory containing rpc info                                   
1056 rt_cache      Routing cache                                                   
1057 snmp          SNMP data                                                       
1058 sockstat      Socket statistics                                               
1059 tcp           TCP  sockets                                                    
1060 udp           UDP sockets                                                     
1061 unix          UNIX domain sockets                                             
1062 wireless      Wireless interface data (Wavelan etc)                           
1063 igmp          IP multicast addresses, which this host joined                  
1064 psched        Global packet scheduler parameters.                             
1065 netlink       List of PF_NETLINK sockets                                      
1066 ip_mr_vifs    List of multicast virtual interfaces                            
1067 ip_mr_cache   List of multicast routing cache                                 
1068..............................................................................
1069
1070You can  use  this  information  to see which network devices are available in
1071your system and how much traffic was routed over those devices:
1072
1073  > cat /proc/net/dev 
1074  Inter-|Receive                                                   |[... 
1075   face |bytes    packets errs drop fifo frame compressed multicast|[... 
1076      lo:  908188   5596     0    0    0     0          0         0 [...         
1077    ppp0:15475140  20721   410    0    0   410          0         0 [...  
1078    eth0:  614530   7085     0    0    0     0          0         1 [... 
1079   
1080  ...] Transmit 
1081  ...] bytes    packets errs drop fifo colls carrier compressed 
1082  ...]  908188     5596    0    0    0     0       0          0 
1083  ...] 1375103    17405    0    0    0     0       0          0 
1084  ...] 1703981     5535    0    0    0     3       0          0 
1085
1086In addition, each Channel Bond interface has its own directory.  For
1087example, the bond0 device will have a directory called /proc/net/bond0/.
1088It will contain information that is specific to that bond, such as the
1089current slaves of the bond, the link status of the slaves, and how
1090many times the slaves link has failed.
1091
10921.5 SCSI info
1093-------------
1094
1095If you  have  a  SCSI  host adapter in your system, you'll find a subdirectory
1096named after  the driver for this adapter in /proc/scsi. You'll also see a list
1097of all recognized SCSI devices in /proc/scsi:
1098
1099  >cat /proc/scsi/scsi 
1100  Attached devices: 
1101  Host: scsi0 Channel: 00 Id: 00 Lun: 00 
1102    Vendor: IBM      Model: DGHS09U          Rev: 03E0 
1103    Type:   Direct-Access                    ANSI SCSI revision: 03 
1104  Host: scsi0 Channel: 00 Id: 06 Lun: 00 
1105    Vendor: PIONEER  Model: CD-ROM DR-U06S   Rev: 1.04 
1106    Type:   CD-ROM                           ANSI SCSI revision: 02 
1107
1108
1109The directory  named  after  the driver has one file for each adapter found in
1110the system.  These  files  contain information about the controller, including
1111the used  IRQ  and  the  IO  address range. The amount of information shown is
1112dependent on  the adapter you use. The example shows the output for an Adaptec
1113AHA-2940 SCSI adapter:
1114
1115  > cat /proc/scsi/aic7xxx/0 
1116   
1117  Adaptec AIC7xxx driver version: 5.1.19/3.2.4 
1118  Compile Options: 
1119    TCQ Enabled By Default : Disabled 
1120    AIC7XXX_PROC_STATS     : Disabled 
1121    AIC7XXX_RESET_DELAY    : 5 
1122  Adapter Configuration: 
1123             SCSI Adapter: Adaptec AHA-294X Ultra SCSI host adapter 
1124                             Ultra Wide Controller 
1125      PCI MMAPed I/O Base: 0xeb001000 
1126   Adapter SEEPROM Config: SEEPROM found and used. 
1127        Adaptec SCSI BIOS: Enabled 
1128                      IRQ: 10 
1129                     SCBs: Active 0, Max Active 2, 
1130                           Allocated 15, HW 16, Page 255 
1131               Interrupts: 160328 
1132        BIOS Control Word: 0x18b6 
1133     Adapter Control Word: 0x005b 
1134     Extended Translation: Enabled 
1135  Disconnect Enable Flags: 0xffff 
1136       Ultra Enable Flags: 0x0001 
1137   Tag Queue Enable Flags: 0x0000 
1138  Ordered Queue Tag Flags: 0x0000 
1139  Default Tag Queue Depth: 8 
1140      Tagged Queue By Device array for aic7xxx host instance 0: 
1141        {255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255,255} 
1142      Actual queue depth per device for aic7xxx host instance 0: 
1143        {1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1} 
1144  Statistics: 
1145  (scsi0:0:0:0) 
1146    Device using Wide/Sync transfers at 40.0 MByte/sec, offset 8 
1147    Transinfo settings: current(12/8/1/0), goal(12/8/1/0), user(12/15/1/0) 
1148    Total transfers 160151 (74577 reads and 85574 writes) 
1149  (scsi0:0:6:0) 
1150    Device using Narrow/Sync transfers at 5.0 MByte/sec, offset 15 
1151    Transinfo settings: current(50/15/0/0), goal(50/15/0/0), user(50/15/0/0) 
1152    Total transfers 0 (0 reads and 0 writes) 
1153
1154
11551.6 Parallel port info in /proc/parport
1156---------------------------------------
1157
1158The directory  /proc/parport  contains information about the parallel ports of
1159your system.  It  has  one  subdirectory  for  each port, named after the port
1160number (0,1,2,...).
1161
1162These directories contain the four files shown in Table 1-10.
1163
1164
1165Table 1-10: Files in /proc/parport
1166..............................................................................
1167 File      Content                                                             
1168 autoprobe Any IEEE-1284 device ID information that has been acquired.         
1169 devices   list of the device drivers using that port. A + will appear by the
1170           name of the device currently using the port (it might not appear
1171           against any). 
1172 hardware  Parallel port's base address, IRQ line and DMA channel.             
1173 irq       IRQ that parport is using for that port. This is in a separate
1174           file to allow you to alter it by writing a new value in (IRQ
1175           number or none). 
1176..............................................................................
1177
11781.7 TTY info in /proc/tty
1179-------------------------
1180
1181Information about  the  available  and actually used tty's can be found in the
1182directory /proc/tty.You'll  find  entries  for drivers and line disciplines in
1183this directory, as shown in Table 1-11.
1184
1185
1186Table 1-11: Files in /proc/tty
1187..............................................................................
1188 File          Content                                        
1189 drivers       list of drivers and their usage                
1190 ldiscs        registered line disciplines                    
1191 driver/serial usage statistic and status of single tty lines 
1192..............................................................................
1193
1194To see  which  tty's  are  currently in use, you can simply look into the file
1195/proc/tty/drivers:
1196
1197  > cat /proc/tty/drivers 
1198  pty_slave            /dev/pts      136   0-255 pty:slave 
1199  pty_master           /dev/ptm      128   0-255 pty:master 
1200  pty_slave            /dev/ttyp       3   0-255 pty:slave 
1201  pty_master           /dev/pty        2   0-255 pty:master 
1202  serial               /dev/cua        5   64-67 serial:callout 
1203  serial               /dev/ttyS       4   64-67 serial 
1204  /dev/tty0            /dev/tty0       4       0 system:vtmaster 
1205  /dev/ptmx            /dev/ptmx       5       2 system 
1206  /dev/console         /dev/console    5       1 system:console 
1207  /dev/tty             /dev/tty        5       0 system:/dev/tty 
1208  unknown              /dev/tty        4    1-63 console 
1209
1210
12111.8 Miscellaneous kernel statistics in /proc/stat
1212-------------------------------------------------
1213
1214Various pieces   of  information about  kernel activity  are  available in the
1215/proc/stat file.  All  of  the numbers reported  in  this file are  aggregates
1216since the system first booted.  For a quick look, simply cat the file:
1217
1218  > cat /proc/stat
1219  cpu  2255 34 2290 22625563 6290 127 456 0 0
1220  cpu0 1132 34 1441 11311718 3675 127 438 0 0
1221  cpu1 1123 0 849 11313845 2614 0 18 0 0
1222  intr 114930548 113199788 3 0 5 263 0 4 [... lots more numbers ...]
1223  ctxt 1990473
1224  btime 1062191376
1225  processes 2915
1226  procs_running 1
1227  procs_blocked 0
1228  softirq 183433 0 21755 12 39 1137 231 21459 2263
1229
1230The very first  "cpu" line aggregates the  numbers in all  of the other "cpuN"
1231lines.  These numbers identify the amount of time the CPU has spent performing
1232different kinds of work.  Time units are in USER_HZ (typically hundredths of a
1233second).  The meanings of the columns are as follows, from left to right:
1234
1235- user: normal processes executing in user mode
1236- nice: niced processes executing in user mode
1237- system: processes executing in kernel mode
1238- idle: twiddling thumbs
1239- iowait: waiting for I/O to complete
1240- irq: servicing interrupts
1241- softirq: servicing softirqs
1242- steal: involuntary wait
1243- guest: running a normal guest
1244- guest_nice: running a niced guest
1245
1246The "intr" line gives counts of interrupts  serviced since boot time, for each
1247of the  possible system interrupts.   The first  column  is the  total of  all
1248interrupts serviced; each  subsequent column is the  total for that particular
1249interrupt.
1250
1251The "ctxt" line gives the total number of context switches across all CPUs.
1252
1253The "btime" line gives  the time at which the  system booted, in seconds since
1254the Unix epoch.
1255
1256The "processes" line gives the number  of processes and threads created, which
1257includes (but  is not limited  to) those  created by  calls to the  fork() and
1258clone() system calls.
1259
1260The "procs_running" line gives the total number of threads that are
1261running or ready to run (i.e., the total number of runnable threads).
1262
1263The   "procs_blocked" line gives  the  number of  processes currently blocked,
1264waiting for I/O to complete.
1265
1266The "softirq" line gives counts of softirqs serviced since boot time, for each
1267of the possible system softirqs. The first column is the total of all
1268softirqs serviced; each subsequent column is the total for that particular
1269softirq.
1270
1271
12721.9 Ext4 file system parameters
1273------------------------------
1274
1275Information about mounted ext4 file systems can be found in
1276/proc/fs/ext4.  Each mounted filesystem will have a directory in
1277/proc/fs/ext4 based on its device name (i.e., /proc/fs/ext4/hdc or
1278/proc/fs/ext4/dm-0).   The files in each per-device directory are shown
1279in Table 1-12, below.
1280
1281Table 1-12: Files in /proc/fs/ext4/<devname>
1282..............................................................................
1283 File            Content                                        
1284 mb_groups       details of multiblock allocator buddy cache of free blocks
1285..............................................................................
1286
12872.0 /proc/consoles
1288------------------
1289Shows registered system console lines.
1290
1291To see which character device lines are currently used for the system console
1292/dev/console, you may simply look into the file /proc/consoles:
1293
1294  > cat /proc/consoles
1295  tty0                 -WU (ECp)       4:7
1296  ttyS0                -W- (Ep)        4:64
1297
1298The columns are:
1299
1300  device               name of the device
1301  operations           R = can do read operations
1302                       W = can do write operations
1303                       U = can do unblank
1304  flags                E = it is enabled
1305                       C = it is preferred console
1306                       B = it is primary boot console
1307                       p = it is used for printk buffer
1308                       b = it is not a TTY but a Braille device
1309                       a = it is safe to use when cpu is offline
1310  major:minor          major and minor number of the device separated by a colon
1311
1312------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1313Summary
1314------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1315The /proc file system serves information about the running system. It not only
1316allows access to process data but also allows you to request the kernel status
1317by reading files in the hierarchy.
1318
1319The directory  structure  of /proc reflects the types of information and makes
1320it easy, if not obvious, where to look for specific data.
1321------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1322
1323------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1324CHAPTER 2: MODIFYING SYSTEM PARAMETERS
1325------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1326
1327------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1328In This Chapter
1329------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1330* Modifying kernel parameters by writing into files found in /proc/sys
1331* Exploring the files which modify certain parameters
1332* Review of the /proc/sys file tree
1333------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1334
1335
1336A very  interesting part of /proc is the directory /proc/sys. This is not only
1337a source  of  information,  it also allows you to change parameters within the
1338kernel. Be  very  careful  when attempting this. You can optimize your system,
1339but you  can  also  cause  it  to  crash.  Never  alter kernel parameters on a
1340production system.  Set  up  a  development machine and test to make sure that
1341everything works  the  way  you want it to. You may have no alternative but to
1342reboot the machine once an error has been made.
1343
1344To change  a  value,  simply  echo  the new value into the file. An example is
1345given below  in the section on the file system data. You need to be root to do
1346this. You  can  create  your  own  boot script to perform this every time your
1347system boots.
1348
1349The files  in /proc/sys can be used to fine tune and monitor miscellaneous and
1350general things  in  the operation of the Linux kernel. Since some of the files
1351can inadvertently  disrupt  your  system,  it  is  advisable  to  read  both
1352documentation and  source  before actually making adjustments. In any case, be
1353very careful  when  writing  to  any  of these files. The entries in /proc may
1354change slightly between the 2.1.* and the 2.2 kernel, so if there is any doubt
1355review the kernel documentation in the directory /usr/src/linux/Documentation.
1356This chapter  is  heavily  based  on the documentation included in the pre 2.2
1357kernels, and became part of it in version 2.2.1 of the Linux kernel.
1358
1359Please see: Documentation/sysctl/ directory for descriptions of these
1360entries.
1361
1362------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1363Summary
1364------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1365Certain aspects  of  kernel  behavior  can be modified at runtime, without the
1366need to  recompile  the kernel, or even to reboot the system. The files in the
1367/proc/sys tree  can  not only be read, but also modified. You can use the echo
1368command to write value into these files, thereby changing the default settings
1369of the kernel.
1370------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1371
1372------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1373CHAPTER 3: PER-PROCESS PARAMETERS
1374------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1375
13763.1 /proc/<pid>/oom_adj & /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj- Adjust the oom-killer score
1377--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1378
1379These file can be used to adjust the badness heuristic used to select which
1380process gets killed in out of memory conditions.
1381
1382The badness heuristic assigns a value to each candidate task ranging from 0
1383(never kill) to 1000 (always kill) to determine which process is targeted.  The
1384units are roughly a proportion along that range of allowed memory the process
1385may allocate from based on an estimation of its current memory and swap use.
1386For example, if a task is using all allowed memory, its badness score will be
13871000.  If it is using half of its allowed memory, its score will be 500.
1388
1389There is an additional factor included in the badness score: the current memory
1390and swap usage is discounted by 3% for root processes.
1391
1392The amount of "allowed" memory depends on the context in which the oom killer
1393was called.  If it is due to the memory assigned to the allocating task's cpuset
1394being exhausted, the allowed memory represents the set of mems assigned to that
1395cpuset.  If it is due to a mempolicy's node(s) being exhausted, the allowed
1396memory represents the set of mempolicy nodes.  If it is due to a memory
1397limit (or swap limit) being reached, the allowed memory is that configured
1398limit.  Finally, if it is due to the entire system being out of memory, the
1399allowed memory represents all allocatable resources.
1400
1401The value of /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj is added to the badness score before it
1402is used to determine which task to kill.  Acceptable values range from -1000
1403(OOM_SCORE_ADJ_MIN) to +1000 (OOM_SCORE_ADJ_MAX).  This allows userspace to
1404polarize the preference for oom killing either by always preferring a certain
1405task or completely disabling it.  The lowest possible value, -1000, is
1406equivalent to disabling oom killing entirely for that task since it will always
1407report a badness score of 0.
1408
1409Consequently, it is very simple for userspace to define the amount of memory to
1410consider for each task.  Setting a /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj value of +500, for
1411example, is roughly equivalent to allowing the remainder of tasks sharing the
1412same system, cpuset, mempolicy, or memory controller resources to use at least
141350% more memory.  A value of -500, on the other hand, would be roughly
1414equivalent to discounting 50% of the task's allowed memory from being considered
1415as scoring against the task.
1416
1417For backwards compatibility with previous kernels, /proc/<pid>/oom_adj may also
1418be used to tune the badness score.  Its acceptable values range from -16
1419(OOM_ADJUST_MIN) to +15 (OOM_ADJUST_MAX) and a special value of -17
1420(OOM_DISABLE) to disable oom killing entirely for that task.  Its value is
1421scaled linearly with /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj.
1422
1423The value of /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj may be reduced no lower than the last
1424value set by a CAP_SYS_RESOURCE process. To reduce the value any lower
1425requires CAP_SYS_RESOURCE.
1426
1427Caveat: when a parent task is selected, the oom killer will sacrifice any first
1428generation children with separate address spaces instead, if possible.  This
1429avoids servers and important system daemons from being killed and loses the
1430minimal amount of work.
1431
1432
14333.2 /proc/<pid>/oom_score - Display current oom-killer score
1434-------------------------------------------------------------
1435
1436This file can be used to check the current score used by the oom-killer is for
1437any given <pid>. Use it together with /proc/<pid>/oom_score_adj to tune which
1438process should be killed in an out-of-memory situation.
1439
1440
14413.3  /proc/<pid>/io - Display the IO accounting fields
1442-------------------------------------------------------
1443
1444This file contains IO statistics for each running process
1445
1446Example
1447-------
1448
1449test:/tmp # dd if=/dev/zero of=/tmp/test.dat &
1450[1] 3828
1451
1452test:/tmp # cat /proc/3828/io
1453rchar: 323934931
1454wchar: 323929600
1455syscr: 632687
1456syscw: 632675
1457read_bytes: 0
1458write_bytes: 323932160
1459cancelled_write_bytes: 0
1460
1461
1462Description
1463-----------
1464
1465rchar
1466-----
1467
1468I/O counter: chars read
1469The number of bytes which this task has caused to be read from storage. This
1470is simply the sum of bytes which this process passed to read() and pread().
1471It includes things like tty IO and it is unaffected by whether or not actual
1472physical disk IO was required (the read might have been satisfied from
1473pagecache)
1474
1475
1476wchar
1477-----
1478
1479I/O counter: chars written
1480The number of bytes which this task has caused, or shall cause to be written
1481to disk. Similar caveats apply here as with rchar.
1482
1483
1484syscr
1485-----
1486
1487I/O counter: read syscalls
1488Attempt to count the number of read I/O operations, i.e. syscalls like read()
1489and pread().
1490
1491
1492syscw
1493-----
1494
1495I/O counter: write syscalls
1496Attempt to count the number of write I/O operations, i.e. syscalls like
1497write() and pwrite().
1498
1499
1500read_bytes
1501----------
1502
1503I/O counter: bytes read
1504Attempt to count the number of bytes which this process really did cause to
1505be fetched from the storage layer. Done at the submit_bio() level, so it is
1506accurate for block-backed filesystems. <please add status regarding NFS and
1507CIFS at a later time>
1508
1509
1510write_bytes
1511-----------
1512
1513I/O counter: bytes written
1514Attempt to count the number of bytes which this process caused to be sent to
1515the storage layer. This is done at page-dirtying time.
1516
1517
1518cancelled_write_bytes
1519---------------------
1520
1521The big inaccuracy here is truncate. If a process writes 1MB to a file and
1522then deletes the file, it will in fact perform no writeout. But it will have
1523been accounted as having caused 1MB of write.
1524In other words: The number of bytes which this process caused to not happen,
1525by truncating pagecache. A task can cause "negative" IO too. If this task
1526truncates some dirty pagecache, some IO which another task has been accounted
1527for (in its write_bytes) will not be happening. We _could_ just subtract that
1528from the truncating task's write_bytes, but there is information loss in doing
1529that.
1530
1531
1532Note
1533----
1534
1535At its current implementation state, this is a bit racy on 32-bit machines: if
1536process A reads process B's /proc/pid/io while process B is updating one of
1537those 64-bit counters, process A could see an intermediate result.
1538
1539
1540More information about this can be found within the taskstats documentation in
1541Documentation/accounting.
1542
15433.4 /proc/<pid>/coredump_filter - Core dump filtering settings
1544---------------------------------------------------------------
1545When a process is dumped, all anonymous memory is written to a core file as
1546long as the size of the core file isn't limited. But sometimes we don't want
1547to dump some memory segments, for example, huge shared memory. Conversely,
1548sometimes we want to save file-backed memory segments into a core file, not
1549only the individual files.
1550
1551/proc/<pid>/coredump_filter allows you to customize which memory segments
1552will be dumped when the <pid> process is dumped. coredump_filter is a bitmask
1553of memory types. If a bit of the bitmask is set, memory segments of the
1554corresponding memory type are dumped, otherwise they are not dumped.
1555
1556The following 7 memory types are supported:
1557  - (bit 0) anonymous private memory
1558  - (bit 1) anonymous shared memory
1559  - (bit 2) file-backed private memory
1560  - (bit 3) file-backed shared memory
1561  - (bit 4) ELF header pages in file-backed private memory areas (it is
1562            effective only if the bit 2 is cleared)
1563  - (bit 5) hugetlb private memory
1564  - (bit 6) hugetlb shared memory
1565
1566  Note that MMIO pages such as frame buffer are never dumped and vDSO pages
1567  are always dumped regardless of the bitmask status.
1568
1569  Note bit 0-4 doesn't effect any hugetlb memory. hugetlb memory are only
1570  effected by bit 5-6.
1571
1572Default value of coredump_filter is 0x23; this means all anonymous memory
1573segments and hugetlb private memory are dumped.
1574
1575If you don't want to dump all shared memory segments attached to pid 1234,
1576write 0x21 to the process's proc file.
1577
1578  $ echo 0x21 > /proc/1234/coredump_filter
1579
1580When a new process is created, the process inherits the bitmask status from its
1581parent. It is useful to set up coredump_filter before the program runs.
1582For example:
1583
1584  $ echo 0x7 > /proc/self/coredump_filter
1585  $ ./some_program
1586
15873.5     /proc/<pid>/mountinfo - Information about mounts
1588--------------------------------------------------------
1589
1590This file contains lines of the form:
1591
159236 35 98:0 /mnt1 /mnt2 rw,noatime master:1 - ext3 /dev/root rw,errors=continue
1593(1)(2)(3)   (4)   (5)      (6)      (7)   (8) (9)   (10)         (11)
1594
1595(1) mount ID:  unique identifier of the mount (may be reused after umount)
1596(2) parent ID:  ID of parent (or of self for the top of the mount tree)
1597(3) major:minor:  value of st_dev for files on filesystem
1598(4) root:  root of the mount within the filesystem
1599(5) mount point:  mount point relative to the process's root
1600(6) mount options:  per mount options
1601(7) optional fields:  zero or more fields of the form "tag[:value]"
1602(8) separator:  marks the end of the optional fields
1603(9) filesystem type:  name of filesystem of the form "type[.subtype]"
1604(10) mount source:  filesystem specific information or "none"
1605(11) super options:  per super block options
1606
1607Parsers should ignore all unrecognised optional fields.  Currently the
1608possible optional fields are:
1609
1610shared:X  mount is shared in peer group X
1611master:X  mount is slave to peer group X
1612propagate_from:X  mount is slave and receives propagation from peer group X (*)
1613unbindable  mount is unbindable
1614
1615(*) X is the closest dominant peer group under the process's root.  If
1616X is the immediate master of the mount, or if there's no dominant peer
1617group under the same root, then only the "master:X" field is present
1618and not the "propagate_from:X" field.
1619
1620For more information on mount propagation see:
1621
1622  Documentation/filesystems/sharedsubtree.txt
1623
1624
16253.6     /proc/<pid>/comm  & /proc/<pid>/task/<tid>/comm
1626--------------------------------------------------------
1627These files provide a method to access a tasks comm value. It also allows for
1628a task to set its own or one of its thread siblings comm value. The comm value
1629is limited in size compared to the cmdline value, so writing anything longer
1630then the kernel's TASK_COMM_LEN (currently 16 chars) will result in a truncated
1631comm value.
1632
1633
16343.7     /proc/<pid>/task/<tid>/children - Information about task children
1635-------------------------------------------------------------------------
1636This file provides a fast way to retrieve first level children pids
1637of a task pointed by <pid>/<tid> pair. The format is a space separated
1638stream of pids.
1639
1640Note the "first level" here -- if a child has own children they will
1641not be listed here, one needs to read /proc/<children-pid>/task/<tid>/children
1642to obtain the descendants.
1643
1644Since this interface is intended to be fast and cheap it doesn't
1645guarantee to provide precise results and some children might be
1646skipped, especially if they've exited right after we printed their
1647pids, so one need to either stop or freeze processes being inspected
1648if precise results are needed.
1649
1650
16513.7     /proc/<pid>/fdinfo/<fd> - Information about opened file
1652---------------------------------------------------------------
1653This file provides information associated with an opened file. The regular
1654files have at least two fields -- 'pos' and 'flags'. The 'pos' represents
1655the current offset of the opened file in decimal form [see lseek(2) for
1656details] and 'flags' denotes the octal O_xxx mask the file has been
1657created with [see open(2) for details].
1658
1659A typical output is
1660
1661        pos:    0
1662        flags:  0100002
1663
1664The files such as eventfd, fsnotify, signalfd, epoll among the regular pos/flags
1665pair provide additional information particular to the objects they represent.
1666
1667        Eventfd files
1668        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1669        pos:    0
1670        flags:  04002
1671        eventfd-count:  5a
1672
1673        where 'eventfd-count' is hex value of a counter.
1674
1675        Signalfd files
1676        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1677        pos:    0
1678        flags:  04002
1679        sigmask:        0000000000000200
1680
1681        where 'sigmask' is hex value of the signal mask associated
1682        with a file.
1683
1684        Epoll files
1685        ~~~~~~~~~~~
1686        pos:    0
1687        flags:  02
1688        tfd:        5 events:       1d data: ffffffffffffffff
1689
1690        where 'tfd' is a target file descriptor number in decimal form,
1691        'events' is events mask being watched and the 'data' is data
1692        associated with a target [see epoll(7) for more details].
1693
1694        Fsnotify files
1695        ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
1696        For inotify files the format is the following
1697
1698        pos:    0
1699        flags:  02000000
1700        inotify wd:3 ino:9e7e sdev:800013 mask:800afce ignored_mask:0 fhandle-bytes:8 fhandle-type:1 f_handle:7e9e0000640d1b6d
1701
1702        where 'wd' is a watch descriptor in decimal form, ie a target file
1703        descriptor number, 'ino' and 'sdev' are inode and device where the
1704        target file resides and the 'mask' is the mask of events, all in hex
1705        form [see inotify(7) for more details].
1706
1707        If the kernel was built with exportfs support, the path to the target
1708        file is encoded as a file handle.  The file handle is provided by three
1709        fields 'fhandle-bytes', 'fhandle-type' and 'f_handle', all in hex
1710        format.
1711
1712        If the kernel is built without exportfs support the file handle won't be
1713        printed out.
1714
1715        If there is no inotify mark attached yet the 'inotify' line will be omitted.
1716
1717        For fanotify files the format is
1718
1719        pos:    0
1720        flags:  02
1721        fanotify flags:10 event-flags:0
1722        fanotify mnt_id:12 mflags:40 mask:38 ignored_mask:40000003
1723        fanotify ino:4f969 sdev:800013 mflags:0 mask:3b ignored_mask:40000000 fhandle-bytes:8 fhandle-type:1 f_handle:69f90400c275b5b4
1724
1725        where fanotify 'flags' and 'event-flags' are values used in fanotify_init
1726        call, 'mnt_id' is the mount point identifier, 'mflags' is the value of
1727        flags associated with mark which are tracked separately from events
1728        mask. 'ino', 'sdev' are target inode and device, 'mask' is the events
1729        mask and 'ignored_mask' is the mask of events which are to be ignored.
1730        All in hex format. Incorporation of 'mflags', 'mask' and 'ignored_mask'
1731        does provide information about flags and mask used in fanotify_mark
1732        call [see fsnotify manpage for details].
1733
1734        While the first three lines are mandatory and always printed, the rest is
1735        optional and may be omitted if no marks created yet.
1736
1737
1738------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1739Configuring procfs
1740------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1741
17424.1     Mount options
1743---------------------
1744
1745The following mount options are supported:
1746
1747        hidepid=        Set /proc/<pid>/ access mode.
1748        gid=            Set the group authorized to learn processes information.
1749
1750hidepid=0 means classic mode - everybody may access all /proc/<pid>/ directories
1751(default).
1752
1753hidepid=1 means users may not access any /proc/<pid>/ directories but their
1754own.  Sensitive files like cmdline, sched*, status are now protected against
1755other users.  This makes it impossible to learn whether any user runs
1756specific program (given the program doesn't reveal itself by its behaviour).
1757As an additional bonus, as /proc/<pid>/cmdline is unaccessible for other users,
1758poorly written programs passing sensitive information via program arguments are
1759now protected against local eavesdroppers.
1760
1761hidepid=2 means hidepid=1 plus all /proc/<pid>/ will be fully invisible to other
1762users.  It doesn't mean that it hides a fact whether a process with a specific
1763pid value exists (it can be learned by other means, e.g. by "kill -0 $PID"),
1764but it hides process' uid and gid, which may be learned by stat()'ing
1765/proc/<pid>/ otherwise.  It greatly complicates an intruder's task of gathering
1766information about running processes, whether some daemon runs with elevated
1767privileges, whether other user runs some sensitive program, whether other users
1768run any program at all, etc.
1769
1770gid= defines a group authorized to learn processes information otherwise
1771prohibited by hidepid=.  If you use some daemon like identd which needs to learn
1772information about processes information, just add identd to this group.
1773
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